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INTRODUCTION. 



In presenting to the public the " Gazetteer and Business Directory " of 
Hampshire county, we desire to return our sincere thanks to all who have 
kindly aided in obtaining the information it contains, and rendered it possi- 
ble to present it in the brief space of time in which it is essential such works 
should be completed. Especially are our thanks due to the editors and man- 
agers of the county papers for the uniform kindness they have evinced in call- 
ing public attention to our efforts, and for essential aid in furnishing material 
for the work. We have also found valuable aid in the following : " History 
of Worthington, ' J. C. Rice, 1854 and 1874; "History of Ware," William 
Hyde, 1847; " History of Easthampton," Rev. Payson W. Lyman, i86'<, and 
" Historical Address" of 1876; " Doolittle's Sketches " of Belchertown, 1852; 
"History of Goshen," Hiram Barrus, 1881 ; "Hundredth Anniversary of 
Middlefield," 1883; "History of Huntington," Rev. J. H. Bisbee, -876; 
" History of Hadley," Sylvester Judd, 1863; "History of Western Massa- 
chusetts,"). G. Holland; "Gazetteer of Massachusetts," Elias Mason, .'874; 
"Gazetteer of Massachusetts," John Hayward, 1847; Barber's '^ Histi-rieal 
Collections;" " History of the Connecticut Valley," Lewis H. Everts, 1879; 
"Antiquities of Northampton," Rev. Solomon Clark, 1882; " Atlas of Hamp- 
shire Count}," F. B. Beers & Co., 1873; "Massachusetts in the Civil ^^'.u," 
William Shouler ; "Adjutant-General's Report," and other state and cc mty 
documents ; and in the various pamphlets and reports of a number of socie- 
ties, institutions, corporations and towns. Our thanks are also due t<; tlu.- 
clergy throughout the county, and to Rev. Payson W. Lyman, oi Belcher- 
town ; B. S. Johnson, of Haydenville; S. B. Quigley, of Southampton, for 
valuable assistance in compiling the sketches of that town and of Northamp- 
ton ; also Sardis Chapman, of Southampton; F. H. Judd, of Westhamptcn ; 
Rev. Joseph M. Rockwood, of Middlefield; Rt. Rev. Bishop Huntington, of 
Syracuse, N. Y.; Rev. Solomon Clark, of Plainfield ; Rev. Pliny S. Boy ', of 
Granby; Chandler T. Macomber, of Chesterfield; S. (r. Hubbard, of Mat- 
field; Miss Mary E. Dawes, oF Cummington ; Rev. G. H. Johnson, of Am- 
herst; J. R. TurnbuU, of Northampton, and to many others vy/io have: ren- 
dered valuable aid. 



INTRODUCTION. 



That errors have occurred in so great a number of names is probable, and 
that names have been omitted which should have been inserted is quite cer- 
tain. We can only say that we have exercised more than ordinary diligence 
and care in this difficult and complicated feature of book-making. Of such 
as feel aggrieved in consequence of errors or omissions, we beg pardon, and 
ask the indulgence of the reader in noting such as have been observed in the 
subsequent reading of the proofs and which are found corrected in the 
Errata. 

It was designed to give a brief account of all the church and other socie- 
ties in the county, but owing in some cases to the negligence of those who 
were able to give the necessary information, and in others to the inability of 
any one to do so, we have been obliged to omit special notices of a lew. 

We would suggest that our patrons observe and become familiar with the 
explanations at the commencement of the Directory on page 3, part second. 
The names it embraces, and the information connected therewith, were ob- 
tained by actual canvass, and are as correct and reliable as the judgment of 
those from whom they were soHcited renders possible. Each agent is fur- 
nished with a map of the town he is expected to canvass, and he is required 
to pass over every road and call at every dwelling and place of business in 
the town in order to obtain the facts from the individuals concerned whenever 
possible. 

The margins have been left broad to enable anyone to note changes oppo- 
site the names. 

The Advertisers we most cheerfully commend to the patronage of those 
under whose observation these pages may come. 

We take this occasion to express tne hope that the information found in 
the book will not prove devoid of interest and value, though we are fully con- 
scious that the brief description of the county the scope of the work enables 
us to give is by no means an exhaustive one, and can only hope that it may 
prove an aid to future historians, who will be the better able to do full justice 
to the subject. 

While thanking our patrons and friends generally for the cordiality with 
which our efforts have been seconded, we leave the work to secure that favor 
which earnest endeavor ever wins from a discriminating public, hoping they 
will bear in mind, should errors be noted, that " he who expects a perfect 
work to see, expects what ne'er was, is, nor yet shall be." 

W. B. GAY. 

M. F. ROBERTS. 



PART FIRST. 



GAZETTEER 



-OF 



Hampshire County, Mass., 
1 654-1 8^87. 



COMPILED AND EDITED BY 

W. B.^'GAY, 

AUTHOK OF SIMILAR WORKS FOR RUTLAND, ADDISON, CHITTENDEN, FRANKLIN, 

GRAND ISLE, LAMOILLE, ORLEANS, WINDSOR, ESSEX, CALEDONIA, 

AND WINDHAM COUNTIES, IN \'ERMONT, BERKSHIRE 

COUNTY', MASS., AND CHESHIRE AND GRAFTON 

COUNTIES, IN NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



PERMANENT OFFICE, - - - SYRACUSE, N. Y. 



" He thai hath much to do, will do something wrong, and of that wrong must suffer the consequences ; 
^nd if it were possible that he should always act rightly, yet when such numbers are to judge of his conduct, 
the bad will censure and obstruct him by malevolence, and the good sometimes by mistake." -S.vmuki. 

JOHNSO.N. 



PUBLISHED P.Y lOtJl) j 

W. B. Gay & Co.. <^.3„,>c,^?/' 

Syracuse, N. ^ . 






Syracuse Journal Company, 
Printers and Binders. 



GAZETTEER 




-< 



^ 



V 



OF 

J 



JITYJASS. 



CHAPTER I. 

" Thou who wouldst see the lovely and the wild 
Mingled in harmony on Nature's face, 
Ascend our rocky mountains. Let thy foot 
Fail not with weariness, for on their tops 
The beauty and the majesty of earth, 
Spread wide beneath, shall make thee to forget 
The steep and toilsome way."— Bryant. 

Mt. Holyoke and Mt. Tom Named — Mary Pynchon and Elizur 
HoLYOKE — The Old Bay Path — View from Mt. Holyoke — Scen- 
ery — The Pilgrims— Springfield Settled — Old Hampshire County 
Incorporated — Area Curtailed— County Divided — Present Area 
AND Boundaries. 



D 



Hi r^ O YOU see that blue mountain top at the north, just Hfting itself 
above the intervening forests?'" 
'"Yes."' 
" ' Let that be Mf. Holyoke for ever ! ' said Mary, stretching out her 

hand." 

'"Amen !' responded Holyoke, 'and I shall see that your authority in be- 
stowing the name is fully honored. But what shall be done with the lonely 
mountain westward of mine ? It would be unkind to leave that nameless.' " 

" ' Let it be named in honor of the poor pet that lies yonder,' said Mary, 
pointing to the grave of poor Tom.' " 

" ' Let it be Mt. Tom for ever ! ' said Holyoke.' " 

And "for ever," doubtless, will these twin mountains bear the names they 
then received, bestowed by these two as they imbibed the intoxicating 
draught made up of love, youth, and the surrounding unfading beauties of 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



nature in the "Old Bay Path" two hundred and fifty years ago — Mary 
Pynchon and Elizur Holyoke.* 

Let us ascend the " steep and toilsome " side of this mountain which 
perpetuates the pioneer's name and glance at the lovely territory of which it 
is the purpose of this work to treat. What a view of " mingled harmony on 
Nature's face " greets the eye ! The grand primeval solitudes of two hundred 
and fifty years since to be sure are not here ; but the works of man and the 
works of the Creator are most harmoniously blended, in a scene transcend- 
ing the powers of description or of imagination, f 

Mr. Ruskin has formulated the law that, " that country is always the most 
beautiful which is made up of the most curves." He then applies this law in his 
ideal description or characterization of the " picturesque blue country " of 
England; that is, a country having a blue distance of mountains. Let us 
see if this description will not fit the view from Mt. Holyoke : " Its first and 
most distinctive pecuHarity," he says, " is its grace ; it is all undulation 
and variety of Hne, one curve passing into another with the most exquisite 
softness, rolling away into faint and far outhnes of various depths and decis- 
ion, yet none hard or harsh ; and, in all probability, rounded off in the near 
ground into mossy forms of partially wooded hill, shaded downward into 
winding dingles or cHfify ravines, each form melting imperceptably into the 
next, without an edge or angle. * * * Every Hne is volupt- 

uous, floating and waving in its form ; deep, rich and exquisitely soft in its 
color ; drowsy in its effect, like slow, wild music ; letting the eye repose 
upon it, as on a wreath of cloud, without one feature of harshness to hurt, or 
of contrast to awaken." 

Surely, Mr. Ruskin might have said this of Hampshire county as seen from 
Holyoke or the Eyrie! Except for the green stretch of "meadows" that 
border the Connecticut, what a labyrinth of interlacing curves is presented. 
Not a harsh or ungraceful hne is to be seen. Even the Connecticut bends 
to Nature's sweet mood with broad, sweeping curves or lace-like loops, often 
"flowing several miles to travel one," till lost as a wavy, silver thread in the 
blue distance. Even the countless brooks which swell its tide forget not to 
assume the same luxurious, sinuous course. Upon either hand, the cultivated 

* This version, from Holland's Bay Path, may have emanated purely from the poet's 
brain, but unlike many traditions, equally unreliable, it has the merit of beauty ; for in his 
Histoiy of IVc'siern Massachusetts, he says : " The most probable account of the manner 
in which these mountains received their names is to the effect that, some five or six years 
after the settlement of Springfield, a company of the planters went northward to explore the 
country. One party, headed by Elizur Holyoke, went up the east side of the river, and 
another, headed by Rowland Thomas, went up on the west side. The parties arriving 
abreast, at the narrow place in the river below Hockanum, at what is now called Rock 
ferry, Holyoke and Thomas held a conversation with one another across the river, and 
each, then and there, gave his own name to the mountain at whose foot he stood. The 
name of Holyoke remains uncorrupted and without abbreviation, while Mt. Thomas has 
been curtailed to simple and homely .Mt. Tom." 

•|- fn the earlier editions of Webster's Dictionary the view from Mt. Holyoke is cited as a 
practical illustration in defining the word " picturesque." 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



knolls, wooded hills and grassy slopes have been carefully carved by the 
glacier hand. Even the shadows, the passing cloud-flecks and the dim, blue 
mountains in the distance reproduce again and again Hogarth's "line of 
beauty." Variety, the most marvelous, but without confusion, forbids the 
sense to tire. Colors, the richest, softest and most delicate, charm the eye, 
and vary with the ever-changing conditions of the atmosphere. Fertile farms 
and frequent villages imbue the scene with the warmth of generous life ; 
while over all hangs the subdued grandeur which may well have pervaded 
the souls of the great and good men who have made this territory their home 
since that bright day when Elizur Holyoke and Mary Pynchon talked of 
love beneath the shadows of the "Old Bay Path," two hundred and fifty 
years ago. 

But let us turn back over the " Old Bay Path," adown the vista of faded 
years, and hastily glance at the links in the strong chain that unites us with 
that little band whose bended knees devoutly pressed old Plymouth's frozen 
shore on that dreary December day in 1620 — that band who had braved per- 
secution and the rigors of a winter sea that they " might walk with God and 
with one another in the enjoyment of the ordinances of God, according to the 
Primitive fashion," and now, on this dreary 21st of December, be'gan their 
stern fight with the elements, with famine, and with a savage foe, to found 
one of the greatest nations upon which the sun has ever shone. A God- 
fearing, law-loving, fearless, industrious people were this Uttle Puritan band, 
the " noblest men that ever founded a nation." Of their many trials in those 
early days it is not necessary to speak — they are familiar to all. Accessions 
to the new settlement were soon made, other colonies were established, and it 
was not long before emigration began its steady march towards the West, a 
march that even now, though more than two and a half centuries have inter- 
vened, is not ended. Cotton Mather quaintly speaks of these times as 
follows : — 

"It was not long before the Massachusetts colony was become like an 
hive overstocked with bees, and many of the new inhabitants entertained 
thoughts of swarming into plantations extended further into the country. The 
colony might fetch its own descriptions from the dispensations of the great 
God unto his ancient Israel, and say : 'O God of hosts ! thou hast brought a 
vine out of England ; thou hast cast out the heathen and planted it; thoupre- 
parest room before it, and didst cause it to take deep root, and it filled the 
land ; the hills were covered with the shadow of it, and the boughs thereof 
were like the goodly cedars ; she sent out her boughs unto the sea.' But still 
there was one strand wanting for the complete accommodations of the descrip- 
tion, to wit : she sent forth her branches unto the river, and this, therefore, 
is to be next attained. The fame of Connecticut river, a long, fresh, rich 
river, had made a little nilus of it, in the expectation of the good people about 
the Massachusetts bay, whereupon many of the planters, belonging especially 
to the towniof Cambridge, Watertown and Roxbury, took uj) resolutions to 
travel an hundred miles westward from those towns, for a further settlement 
upon this famous river." 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



In 163 1 the Connecticut first became known to the colonists, and in 1636 
William Pynchon and his little band came down the "Old Bay Path" to found 
what is now the flourishing city of Springfield. With this event begins the 
a-uthentic history of Western Massachusetts. A little over a quarter of a cen- 
tury later old Hampshire county was incorporated, the settlements here hav- 
ing increased to such an extent that this act had become necessary. The 
act of incorporation reads as follows : — 

" Forasmuch as the inhabitants of this jurisdiction are much increased, so 
that now they are planted far into the country, upon Connecticut river, who 
by reason of their remoteness cannot conveniently be annexed to any of the 
counties already settled ; and that public aftairs may with more facility be 
transacted according to laws now established ; it is ordered by the court, and 
authority thereof, that henceforth Springfield, Northampton and Hadley shall 
be, and hereby are, constituted as a county, the bounds of limits on the south 
to be the south line of the patent, the extent of other bounds to be fully thirty 
miles distant from any or either of the aforesaid towns ; and what towns or 
villages soever shall hereafter be erected within the aforesaid limits to be and 
belong to the said county. And further, that the said county shall be called 
Hampshire, and shall have and enjoy the liberties and privileges of any other 
county ; that Springfield shall be the shire town there, and the courts be kept 
one time in Springfield and another time at Northampton ; the like order to 
be observed for their shire meetings, that is to say, one year at one town and 
the next year at the other town, from time to time. The deputies have passed 
this, with reference to the consent of the honored magistrates. 

" i6th day of 3d month, 1662. 

"WiLLix-^M ToRREY, Clericus." 

It will thus be seen that Hampshire county, as first erected, although con- 
taining within its limits only three towns, Springfield, Northamjfton and Had- 
ley, covered nearly half of the state that then belonged to the Colony of Massa- 
chusetts Bay. It included the western tier of towns of what is now Worcester 
county, and the whole of what are now the counties of Frankhn, Hampshire, 
Hampden and Berkshire. 

This large area was retained until July 10, 173 1, when the following act of 
the general court took effect, curtailing the territory as expressed therein : — 

" Be it enacted by His Excellency the Governor, Council, and Representa- 
tives, in General Court assembled, and by the authority of the same, that the 
towns and places hereinafter named and expressed, that is to say, Worcester, 
Lancaster, Rutland, and Lunenburgh, all in the county of Middlesex ; Mendon, 
Woodstock, Oxford, Sutton, including Hassanamisco, Uxbridge, and the land 
lately granted to several petitioners of Medfield, all in the county of Suffolk; 
Brookfield in the county of Hampshire, and the south town laid out for the 
Narragansett soldiers, and all other lands lying within the said townships, with 
the inhabitants thereon, shall from and after the tenth day of July, which will 
be in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and thirty-one, be 
and remain one entire and distinct county by the name of Worcester, of 
which Worcester to be the county or shire town, and the said county to have, 
use and enjoy all such powers, privileges, and immunities as I5y law other 
counties within this province have and do enjoy." 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



The second curtailment of the territory occurred June 30, 1761, when the 
following act went into effect : — 

" Be it therefore enacted by the Governor, Council, and House of Represent- 
atives, that the towns and plantations hereinafter mentioned, that is to say, 
Sheffield, Stockbridge, Egremont, New Marlborough, Poontoosack, New Fram- 
ingham, West Hoosack, number one, number three and number four, and all 
other lands included in the following limits, viz.: Beginning at the western 
line of Granvil, where it touches the Connecticut line, to run northerly as 
far as said west line of Granvil runs, thence easterly to the southwest corner 
of Blandford, and to run by the west line of the same town to the northeast 
corner thereof, from thence northerly in a direct line to the southeast corner 
of number four, and so running by the easterly line of said number four to 
the northeast corner thereof, and thence in a direct course to the southeast 
corner of Charlemont, and so northerly in the corner of the west line of the 
same town till it conies to the north bound of the province, and northerly on 
the line between this province and the province of New Hampshire, southerly 
on the Connecticut line, and on the west by the utmost limits of this province, 
shall from and after the thirtieth day of June, one thousand seven hundred 
and sixty-one, be and remain one entire and distinct county by the name of 
Berkshire, of which Sheffield for the present to be the county or the shire 
town ; and the said county to have, use and enjoy all such powers, privileges 
and immunities as by lav/ other counties in this province have and do enjoy." 

After Berkshire was severed, no changes in area were made for half a cen- 
tury. In the meantime, the county had increased its number of towns to six- 
ty-three. On June 24, 181 1, twenty-four of these towns were set off towards 
forming the county of Franklin ; and during the following year, February 20, 
18 1 2, eighteen towns more were taken to form with other townships the 
county of Hampden. Since then two other towns have been added, Enfield 
and Prescott, and one township, Northampton, has advanced to the dignity 
of an incorporated city. 

The county now-has an area of about 524 square miles, bounded north by 
Franklin county; east by Worcester county ; south by Hampden county; and 
west by Berkshire county. It has twenty-two towns and one city, incorporated 
as follows: Amherst, February 13, 1759; Belchertown, June 30, 1761 ; Ches- 
terfield, June II, 1762; Cummington, June 23, 1779; Easthampton, June 17, 
1785; Enfield, February 16, 1816; Goshen, May 14, 1784; Granby, June 11, 
1768; Greenwich, April 20, 1754; Hadley, May 20, 1661 ; Hatfield, May 
31, 1670; Huntington, June 29, 1773; Middlefield, March 11, 1783; Pel- 
ham, January 15, 1742; Plainfield, March 16, 1785; Prescott, January 28, 
1822 ; South Hadley, April 12, 1753; Southampton, January 5. 1753; W^are, 
November 25, 1761 ; Westhampton, September 29, 1778; Williamsburg, 
April 24, 1771 ; Worthington, June 30, 1761 ; and the City of Northampton, 
organized as a township October 18, 1654, and as a city January 7, 1884. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



*CHAPTER II. 

Topography — Geological Features — Crystalline Rocks — Gneiss — 
Feldspathic Mica Schist — Hornblende Schist — Hydro-Mica 
Schist — Calciferous Mica Schist — Fibrolite Gneiss and Schist — 
Eruptive Rocks of the Older Series — Granite — Syenite — Min- 
eral Veins — The Trias — Glacial Period — Flood Period — The 
Connecticut Lake. 

THE topography of so limited an area as the one under discussion can 
hardly be fruitfully exanfiined without some reference to the larger 
region of which it forms a part. The salient points in the topography 
of Hampshire county are : — 

{a.) The broad Connecticut valley, extending through its middle. 

(d.) The high grounds bordering this valley on the east, which may be 
looked upon as the western border of the plateau of Worcester county, but 
deeply notched by several valleys running north and south parallel to the 
main valley. 

(c.) The western highland border of the valley, which is the eastern exten- 
sion of the Berkshire hills, and which, in contrast with the eastern half of the 
county, is a more continuous body of high land, rising gradually to the western 
border of the county and beyond, of very irregular surface, but not notched 
by any north-south valleys extending, like those on the east, far beyond the 
borders of the county. 

(i/.) The " L" shaped Holyoke-Mt. Tom range, which blocks up the cen- 
tral valley, and vvhich the geologist almost unconsciously expects his hearer 
to look upon as much younger than the valley it adorns. 

From the high ground of Worcester county, on the east, there is a very 
rapid descent to the peculiar flat-bottomed valley which runs down through 
Greenwich, Enfield, and the west of Ware. On the east of this valley, in the 
eastern half of the town of Ware, is the only portion of the county which, in 
strictness, belongs topographically to the high plateau of Worcester county. 
West of this first valley and very near it, so near indeed that they unite for a 
little way just west of the village of Enfield, is the deep, narrow valley of the 
west branch of Swift river, continued south of the point where the two val- 
leys unite by the channel-way of the Swift river proper. Next west, Jabish 
brook, rising in Pelham, becomes important, as it flows across Belchertown, 
Going west over the high ground of Belchertown and Pelham, we come on 
the broad valley of the Connecticut, which extends from the west line of 

* Prepared by Prof. Ben K. Emerson, of Amherst College. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



these towns across to a line drawn diagonally from the northeast to the south- 
west corner of Northampton, and continued north across Hatfield, and south 
across Southampton. In this broad valley Mt, Warner rises as a native, Mt. 
Holyoke as an immigrant of early date, while all the hills around Amherst and 
Northampton are comparatively late arrivals. 

Farther west, a branch of the Westfield river passes as a pleasant brook 
across Cummington, runs in a deep canon to West Chesterfield, and thence 
in a narrow valfey south across Huntington to join the mam stream, whose 
aeep valley borders the county only for a short distance along the south hne 
of Huntington and Middlefield. It is a peculiarity of this portion of the 
state that the main drainage trunks into the Connecticut valley he m two 
pairs opposite each other, one pair to the north and one to the south ot this 
county— Miller's and Deerfield rivers on the north, Chicopee and Westfield 
rivers on the south. As the valleys of the county all run north and south, so 
all the drainage of the county goes north or south to these streams in order 
to reach the Connecticut. The exceptions are Fort river in Amherst, and 
Mill river and Manhan river in Northampton and Easthampton. These are 
small streams, heading back in only the first range of hills. 

As a result of its topography, the county's western highlands have not been 
penetrated by railroads, while each of the deeper valleys on the east is occu- 
pied by a separate road. 

This brief resume of the topography of the county may serve as an intro- 
duction to a description of its geology, and the latter must in its turn explain 
the main topographic features. 



GEOLOGICAL FEATURES. 



If we could sweep the loose material— clay, sand, gravel and hardpan- 
from the surface of the county, we should find the eastem and western 
highlands httle changed. Within the limits set above to the Connecticut val- 
ley however, the changes would be greater. Many of the hills around the 
towns of Amherst, Northampton and Easthampton-the College hill, and 
Castor and Pollux in Amherst, and Round and Hospital hills in Northamp- 
ton for instance— would be removed to their bases, while across the Hadley 
and Northampton meadows, as far north as the Northampton bridge, the clay 
would be removed more than a hundred feet down, that is, to below the level 
of the sea. If we were to examine the rocky surface thus exposed, we should 
find the boundaries of the valley set above, viz.: a diagonal line across Hat- 
field Northampton and Easthampton, on the west, and the west hne of Pel- 
ham' and Belchertown, on the east, to be still topographical and geological 
lines of primary importance. First, as bounding a valley somewhat deeper 
than before ; and second, as hmiting approximately the area covered by coarse 
red and buff sandstones, out of which the great ridges of black trap (the Hol- 
yoke and Mt. Tom ranges) would still rise unchanged, except that their north- 
ern and western faces would be higher and steeper even than now. 



12 HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



If now we were further to imagine the sandstones and traps removed, we 
should look from the high ground of Westhampton or Pelham upon a deep, 
broad valley ; in places, and perhaps everywhere, more than a half-mile deeper 
than the present valley, and thus more than a half-mile below the present sea 
level. The Holyoke and Mt. Tom ranges would be gone, and we should look 
across a valley fifteen miles wide and detect no marked elevation except Mt. 
Warner and the rocky ridge on which Amherst is built. The same ancient 
crystalline rocks which make the eastern and western highlands would then 
form also the bottom of the deeper valley. 

These considerations mark out the threefold division natural to our subject, 
viz.: — 

I. (a.) The character and origin of the ancient crystalline rocks which 
underlie everything else in the valley, and form the high lands on 
either side. 
(d.) The changes of folding and erosion by which the deep valley and 
the bordering highlands were made. 
II. (a.) The character and origin of the sandstones and traps. 

{^.) The erosion by which they were planed down to their present 
surface, 
III. (a.) The character and origin of the hardpan, gravels and clays. 

{^.) The erosions by which they have been affected, down to the 
present time. 
The rocks of the first series were deposited probably as marine sediments, 
with intercalated eruptive rocks, in that earliest period of the earth's history, 
from which no certain vestiges of life have come down to us (Azoic, Eozoic or 
Archaean), and their formation continued through an unknown portion of 
the second great period (Paleozoic). The remainder of this period was taken 
up with the completion of the folding, and with the erosion of much of that 
which had been brought together in the first portion. 

The rocks of the second series (the sandstones) were laid down in the 
deep valley formed by the erosion of the latter portion of the second period, 
this valley becoming for a time a fjord which stretched north across Con- 
necticut to the north hne of Massachusetts, at the beginning of the third 
great era of the earth's history (the Mesozoic), and during the remainder of 
this period and the early portion of the next and last of these great ages (the 
Cenozoic) an erosion of enormous duration swept out of the valley the major 
portion of the sandstone which had been gathered in it, and left the trap 
beds like the ribs of a great skeleton stretched across the valley. 

The rocks of the third series, the hardpan, gravel, sand, and clay, were 
deposited when the county was again submerged, this time beneath the 
frozen waters of the great glacier, and when, on the recession thereof, all its 
valleys were filled with the superabundant waters from the melting of the ice, 
which waters as they sank towards the dimensions of the present rivers, 
changed gradually from filling up to eroding agents, carving out the terraces 
along the river sides, which form the last charm of the valley scenery. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



13 



The history of the area has been thus, in brief: first, a huge submergence, 
perhaps not uninterrupted, during which the oldest and the main body of its 
rocks (new crystalline) were deposited ; second, a huge dry-land period of 
erosion, when the main contours of the region were blocked out ; third, a 
second fjord period of submergence, for the valley alone, when the sand- 
stones were laid down, and a transcient series of volcanoes diversified the 
scenery ; fourth, a second erosion, which formed down the broad valley the 
narrow channel-way of the pre-glacial Connecticut river; fifth, a third sub- 
mergence beneath the ice and succeeding floods of the glacial and post-glacial 
ages, which spread the loose material over the surface; sixth, by the terrace- 
making period, of which the " meadows " are the most valuable contributions. 

THE CRYSTALLINE ROCKS. 

The time-honored comparison of the folded rocks which make the earth's 
crust, to a pile of strips of cloth of various colors which have been laid upon 
a fiat surface and then crumpled into close parallel folds by horizontal pres- 
sure, is quite adequate to make clear the present position of the oldest rocks 
in the county, if we suppose that the crumpling force worked from west to 
east, and that erosion has cut the whole down to the present upper surface of 
these rocks. The result of this is that the rocks cross the county in bands, 
from north to south, and dip, for the most part, steeply to east or west. The 
important members which make up this series are as follows, in the order of 
their age, the newest above: — 

The calciferous mica schist. 

The hydromica schist. 

The hornblende schist. 

The feldspathic mica schist. 

The gneiss. 

The Gneiss. — This is the well-known and excellent quarry stone of Becket, 
Pelham and Monson. It is made up of quartz, feldspar and mica. The 
feldspar is largely plagioclose, and is marked by delicate striation of the cleav- 
age faces. It is in fresh, colorless, transparent grains, often difficultly distin- 
guishable from the quartz, the two minerals together making a colorless gran- 
ular mass in which the fresh black scales of the biotite, or the jet-black grains 
of the hornblende are strongly contrasted, and blend to form the clear gray 
of the rock. Much of the rock is sub-porphyritic in three ways. It is 
blotched by large grains or rounded aggregations of orthoclase, by distant 
aggregations of biotite, or by quite large, squarish crystals of hornblende. 
Very often it is "stretched," that is, on the surface of the broad slabs into 
which it splits naturally, the black mica flakes or the feldspar blotches are 
seen to be strewed along in parallel lines and long narrow streaks across the 
surface as if the whole had been stretched when in a plastic condition. Py- 
roxene, titanite and garnet are occasionally found, the second quite commonly. 
Zircon, rutile and apatite are common microscopic constituents. 



14 HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



The western band of the rock occupies the western portion of the county, 
west of a north and south line drawn through the village of Middlefield, and 
contains the important quarries of this town and Becket. A pijrtion of this 
gneiss, in the extreme northwestern corner of the town, lies unconformably 
below the rest, and is apparently considerably the older. It is a coarser, 
more compact, flesh-colored or grey gneiss, which contains, in the neighbor- 
ing town of Hinsdale, a bed of coarse crystalline limestone, with chondrodite, 
discovered by Prof. J. D. Dana. This mineral occurs apparently only in the 
oldest rocks. It is true, however, that a band of limestone, occurring where 
the railroad crosses Cole's brook in the upper portion of the gneiss, also con- 
tains chondrodite, in part changed to serpentine. 

The second band of the gneiss crosses Shutesbury and Pelham, and ends 
just south of the village of Belchertown, against a great block of an eruptive 
rock which occupies the whole southern portion of the town. The gneisses 
of this band are characterized by a nearly horizontal foliation, and they are 
thinner bedded and more uniformly "stretched" than those of the other 
bands. A thick bed of an actinolitic quartzite can be traced in a curiously 
complex course across the band, dividing it into an upper and an under 
portion. 

At the " Asbestus mine" in Pelham and in tlie middle of Shutesbury, 
occur two lenticular beds of an olivine-enstatite rock, associated with massive 
anorthite and tourmaline, with biotite containing hornblende and corundum^ 
and with many products of the decomposition of these minerals, ending with 
asbestus, vermiculite and serpentine. 

The third band runs down through the Prescott — Greenwich — Enfield — 
Ware valley, and in its southward continuation are the celebrated quarries of 
Monson. It is in the portion extending across the county more contorted 
and complexly twisted in its foliation than the other bands. It is distin- 
guished from the other bands by its position at the bottom of a valley, and by 
the absence of the accessory beds described as occurring in them. I am 
inchned to explain this lower position by assuming the gneiss to have been 
faulted down into its present position, rather than entirely by the more rapid 
disintegration and removal of the gneiss. 

The assumption that these three bands are parts of one and the same sheet, 
is in a degree hypothetical, as they are not seen in contact. I have, how- 
ever, little doubt that they are continuous beneath the newer rocks ; that like 
a letter " w " the band in the west of the county goes beneath the newer rocks, 
comes up in the Pelham band, and again rises in the Enfield band. In these 
two folds the later beds are included like nests of boxes of very unequal 
widths, and of very unequal degrees of complexity, for the one extends from 
Middlefield across to Pelham, and the newer beds have several subordinate 
folds, while the other band extends north and south in a narrow strip through 
the towns of Ware, Enfield and Greenwich. 

The Feldspathic Mica Schist. — This appears in a band running east of the 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 1 5 



village of Middlefield, and along the west line of Worthington, and it reappears 
apparently in greatly altered form along the western foot-hills of Pelham and 
Belchertown, and in Amherst. It is a coarse schist, mainly composed of 
quartz and muscovite, the latter often hydrated, carrying considerable feldspar, 
and characterized by large garnets often changed to chlorite. 

It is represented in the eastern band by a bed of an arenaceous muscovite- 
biotite gneiss, which lies between the biotite gneiss below, and the hornblende 
schist above, on each side of the band. 

The Hornblende Schist. — Next inward is the hornblende schist, which, in 
the western band, enters the county just where the road between Chester and 
Middlefield enters the latter town. It is in Chester a broad band, making the 
whole of West mountain above the town, and having the famous emery bed 
on its eastern border. Where it enters Middlefield it is almost wholly replaced 
by a great bed of serpentine, which runs, with a width of above a hundred 
rods and a length of above a mile, up nearly to the middle of the town, and 
in its further course it is accompanied by several other similar beds of serpen- 
tine, which seems in each case within the limits of the county to be derived 
from the hornblende schist itself. Other beds associated with the schist 
beyond the limits of the county are derived from pyroxene and enstatite 
rocks. 

The hornblende schist is a heavy, black rock, generally thin fissile, with the 
fine black needles of hornblende having mostly a common direction. It is 
very constantly epidotic, quartzose, and non feldspathic. 

On the easlern border, the band of this rock is not exposed continuously 
across the county. I have found it just south of North Amherst station, 
and traced it thence to Belchertown, where it folds over the gneiss and is 
continuous with the western strip of the same rock bordering the eastern band 
on its western side. This junction of the two rocks takes place through the 
village of Belchertown, and the further southward extension of both bands is 
cut off by the intrusion of the Belchertown syenite, whose contact influence 
upon this and the surrounding beds will be described later. The schist is 
lithologically identical in the two bands. 

The Hydromica Schist. — This is the "chlorite schist" of earlier writings. 
It extends in a north-south band across the county, occupying the eastern 
part of Middletown and the western part of Worthington, Cummington and 
Plainfield. 

It is a gray schist, generally quartzose, and splitting into flat flags which 
have a soft feel from the altered muscovite, and very often carry large gar- 
nets, which are in twenty-four sided forms and are often changed more or less 
into a green chlorite, and other small patches of the same green chlorite occur 
commonly in the rock. 

As a result of a subordinate fold, it crops out just west of the village of 
Goshen, and comes up on the eastern border of the basin in Williamsburg, 
where it is, in a limited way, associated with hornblende schist, but where it 
is for the most part replaced by granite. 



1 6 HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



In the eastern band two strips run across the county with some loops and 
minor irregularities. In Quabin Mt., south of Enfield, it is represented by a 
fine fire stone, the muscovite being silvery white and scanty, while farther 
north, across Enfield and Prescott, some biotite is associated with the mus- 
covite, making a " two mica quartzite," which, at times, graduates into a gneiss. 
Toward the south it graduates into a rock not distinguishable from the type 
described above for the western band, as may be seen a little beyond the 
limit of the county, in the high hill southwest of Palmer depot. 

The Calciferous Mica Schist. — From a line drawn through the middle of 
Plainfield, Cummington and Worthington, the whole region east to the bor- 
der of the valley is occupied by the rocks of this series, crumpled into several 
subordinate folds, except where, in Goshen and Williamsburg, the older rocks 
protrude, and where, in the towns last mentioned and in North — West — and 
Southampton, great areas are occupied by granite. 

It is a muscovite schist, generally dark colored from an admixture of 
finely divided carbon, barren in its lower portions, but in the upper full of 
garnet, staurotite, kyanite, and small biotite crystals, set transversely to the 
bedding. It splits into thin flags and is used for paving. Subordinate beds 
of a fine-grained arenaceous biotite schist (whetstone schist) afford the finest 
scythe stones. 

Other beds of a fine-grained granitoid gneiss occur, and beds of a black 
biotitic hornblendic limestone, bounded above and below by a thin layer of 
hornblende schist, so that when blocks of the limestone have been exposed to 
long weathering, the limestone wears away more rapidly than the cappings of 
schist, and the curious anvils and tables found now and then are produced. 
On the east side of the basin, much of the schist of Mt. Warner and under- 
lying Amherst is of this or the preceding type, but so changed by impreg- 
nation with granite that the two cannot be separated. This closes the series 
in the western basin. In the eastern, only the lower barren mica schist 
separates in a narrow strip the two bands of the last described rock ; but a 
little north and south of the county the strip becomes wider and is then the 
same dark biotitespangled ganetiferous mica schist as in the western area. 
It contains everywhere fibrolite, generally in small amount. 

The Fibrolite Gneiss and Schist. — I have thus described two synclinals, or 
downward folds of a series of rocks into the gneiss. Just on the eastern bor- 
der of the county, in Ware and just entering Greenwich, is a third repetition 
of the same series in the same order; two mica gneisses, hornblende schists, 
mica schists, but all become abundantly fibrolitic. I have mentioned above 
that, in the eastern of the two series there described, fibroUte occurs com- 
monly in the mica schists, and I have traced these two bands northwesterly 
beyond the limits of the county, to where, in the north of Orange, they bend 
round the gneiss and unite, so that the fibroUte band is only a somewhat 
more altered form of the same series we have already described. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 17 



THE ERUPTIVE ROCKS OF THE OLDER SERIES. 

Granite. — The rock we have described as gneiss is very commonly called 
granite, and, indeed, much of it, especially the fine quarry stone of the west- 
ern band is, in the largest blocks, so entirely free from any parallel arrangement 
of its constituents that it quite exactly matches the more technical definition 
of granite. In the quarry, however, these blocks are seen to be exceptional 
and to graduate into the banded gneiss, which is interbedded with limestone 
and other rocks in such a way as to forbid us to assign to the whole a purely 
eruptive origin. We sometimes call such rocks bedded granites, or granite- 
gneisses, to distinguish them from those granites which are distinctly intrud- 
ed at a later time, and in a plastic state, among the strata where they are 
found. The infelicity of the nomenclature matches pretty exactly the com- 
plexity of the subject. 

Across Goshen, Williamsburg and Westhampton, a great portion of the sur- 
face is taken up by desolate areas of a coarse granite, consisting uniformly 
of quartz, orthoclase and muscovite, with rarely a little tourmahne. 

In some smaller and yet massive dykes of the same rock, further west, in 
Chesterfield, Goshen and Huntington, are subordinate portions of abnormal 
constitution chemically, and, as a result, also mineralogically. These contain 
albite, var cleavelandite, tourmaline, vars indicolite, and rubeUite, spodumene, 
columbite, cassiterite, zircon, microlite, beryl, tryphyUite and uranite, a most 
interesting association of rare minerals, which have for many years made 
" Clark's Ledge," the •' Barras farm " and Norwich Hill places well known to 
mineralogists everywhere. 

The Syenite. — Occupying the southwestern quarter of Belchertown is a 
great rounded mass of a dark eruptive rock, called syenite by President 
Hitchcock, which was originally a diallage granite that has now by the change 
of the diallage into hornblende and on into biotite come to be largely a horn- 
blende biotite granite. It is a rather coarse, granular, dark-grey, or at times 
slightly amethystine rock. Under the microscope the change of the diallage 
to hornblende and biotite can be very clearly traced. Its contact phenom- 
ena — the changes it has wrought in the surrounding rocks with which it came 
in contact — are of the most interesting description. 

The mica schist, the newest rock of the series described above, contains 
everywhere a small amount of fibrolite of the exceeding fine fibrous variety, 
but as it comes in contact with the syenite and sends a projection far out 
into the eruptive rock — from which large fragments are wholly separated and 
float in the once molten mass — it becomes a coarsely crystalline fibrolite 
schist, abounding in large crystals of garnet and fibrolite. The fire stone be- 
low is changed into a compact quartzite, the hornblende schist into a coarse 
pyroxenite, and in one case, where a large mass of the schist is wholly en- 
closed in the syenite, into a very coarse biotite-pyroxene rock. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



On the west side of the valley, bordering the lake terrace, from Elizabeth 
rock in Northampton north through Hatfield, where it is called " The Rocks," 
is a broad, barren ridge of the same rocks, which, in the next tovvn to the 
north, has greatly altered the argiUite, a rock which is newer than any in the 
crystalline series we have described. This shows that the syenite is newer 
than the crystalline series. 

These two great outcrops of eruptive rock stretch, one along the eastern 
and one along the western border of the broad Connecticut valley, and along 
the rest of these borders extend lines, or rather narrow bands, of crooked and 
faulted rocks impregnated with silica and hematite, which seem to mark two 
lines of fault within which the crystalline rocks sank down to form the deep 
valley. 

MINERAL VEINS. 

At Loudville and in Hatfield are interesting veins of quartz and barite, 
carrying galena, zinc blende, copper and iron pyrites. The gangue was at 
first largely fluor and calcite, especially at Loudville, but the fissure seems to 
have been opened a second time, and to have been a channel for the passage 
of heated waters, by which this earlier gangue was removed and replaced by 
quartz, often in pseudomorphs, after calcite and fluor, which are now scarcely 
found in the vein. At Loudville, as products of surface change in a third 
period, many rare minerals occur, as cerusite, pyromorphite, wulfenite, stolzite 
and cotunnite. 

The middle period of chemical activity in the vein mentioned above may 
have occurred during the period of volcanic activity, in the Triassic period, 
or when the final tilting of the sandstone took place, as similar mineral veins 
occur in the sandstone at Turner's Falls. 

THE TRIAS. 

If one will picture the broad valley from Pelham across to Westhampton as 
a half-mile deeper than the present river and imagine the rocky surface of 
the uplands as a half-mile higher than now, with the canal-like channel filled 
by the fjord waters to a height above the level of Mt. Holyoke, while the 
bordering streams swept sand and gravel into the basin and strong currents 
spread the material over its bottom, he will have a rude outline of Triassic 
times in the valley. A long list of animals now extinct and often extremely 
large ; reptiles, amphibians, fishes, crustaceans and insects left their tracks upon 
the forming sand flats, and these, hardened in the stone, have been recovered 
and described in a volume which, with the great collections of the remains 
themselves, is one of the many monuments to the labor and genius of Presi- 
dent Hitchcock. 

Coarse sands from the granites of the west and the gneisses of the east were 
for a long time swept into the basin, filling it to a thickness of above half a mile 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



19 



certainly, and how much more I do not know. The Belden artesian well, at 
Northampton, is sunk wholly in these lower sandstones to a depth of over 
3,000 feet. Then came the eruption of an enormous sheet of lava, which I 
imagine came from a fissure parallel to and about a mile southeast of the 
crest of the Holyoke-Tom range. It is the eroded edge of this sheet which, 
canted up a little by a subsequent disturbance, makes the crest of the above 
range. 

The deposition of the coarse granitic sands continued for a time after this 
overflow, and covered the great bed; and then came a second period of 
more explosive volcanic activity, which spread a great quantity of volcanic 
ashes and bombs across the bottom of the basin, followed by additional de- 
positio.i of sand, now finer, and of deep red color from the abundant iron 
derived from the volcanic dust. These ashes made what we call a volcanic 
ash or tufa bed, and being tipped up a little with the trap or lava bed of the 
Holyoke range and much eroded, its outcrop now makes a band along the 
southeast foot of the mountain, about a mile from its crest, extending from 
Belchertown to Holyoke. 

There followed a third period of volcanic activity, by which a row of small 
craters opened along the earlier fissure and formed a line of small volcanoes 
approximately coincident with the present outcrop of the tufa bed given 
above. Only the roots of these volcanoes are now preserved, as rounded 
plugs of lava in the sandstone, two in Belchertown, one far southeast of the 
east end of the Holyoke range, three in Granby, two in South Hadley, of 
which the westernmost is of exceptional size and its uncovered portion seems 
to have expanded beneath the superincumbent sandstones as a true laccolite, 
and one, finally, across the river in Northampton, north of Smith's Ferry. 

The deposition of sand continued, and a series of travertine depositing 
springs marked the close of the volcanic activity, and formed a quite con- 
tinuous stratum of limestone in the later sandstones. 

The lava, called diabase, dolerite and basalt by different authors with 
different opinions, we may still conveniently call trap. It is a basic lava, 
made up of plagioclose, augite and magnetite, a Httle olivene and glass, and 
uniformly containing a green chloritic mineral (delessite) as a result of decompo- 
sition. Percolating waters have taken up the results of decomposition and 
deposited them in fine crystals in cavities and fissures in the rock, and when 
fresh exposures occur, as at the railroad excavations at Cheapside, in Deer- 
field, many rare and beautiful minerals (zeolites) are found. The great bed 
of lava of the Holyoke range is compact and fine-grained below, and has 
baked the sandstones on which it rests, and is porous from escaping gases 
above, while the volcanic plugs are compact in every part and bake the sand- 
stones everywhere at their contact. 

The percolating waters cemented the sands to sandstones, while on the 
recession of the waters of the fjord the streams from either side ran out over 
the abandoned bottom of the bay and gathered in a main trunk, which ran 



20 HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



down the middle of the basin to the south and commenced to lower the sur- 
face of the sandstones by erosion. This surface was then above the level of 
the Holyoke range, and the trap bed was wholly concealed beneath. The 
course of the ancient Connecticut being thus determined by the contour of 
the fjord bottom, it cut lower and lower, and in time exposed and cut down 
through the trap sheet, forming the notch through which the present Connecti- 
cut flows, while the more rapid erosion of the sandstones carved out the Hol- 
yoke-Mt. Tom range. 

Of the long period occupied by this erosion, rich in event as it was else- 
where, no abiding record was made in the valley ; but at the approach of the 
ice period the surface of the valley iiad about its present contour, only over 
the uplands there were rounded surfaces of deeply-rotted granites and gneisses, 
and in the valley the sandstone surface north of the Holyoke range was, I 
surmise, about as high as it is south of the mountain at present, that is, two 
or three hundred feet above the meadows. 

THE GLACIAL PERIOD. 

The work of the ice was twofold. Over the uplands it planed ofif the 
deeply-rotted rock, so that now, when ledges are exposed, they are generally 
of compact and fresh rock. It planed deeply into the sandstone, especially 
north of the Holyoke range, and formed the serrated outline of the range itself. 
On the other hand, as a river builds up bars, it built up great rounded hills 
of stony clay, of peculiar and regular shape and great density from the great 
pressure of the ice. Hence the term "hardpan." These hills are very nat- 
urally called "hog backs." They are semi-circular when seen from the direc- 
tion of motion of the ice, and semi-eliptical when seen at right angles thereto. 
They cluster around Northampton (Round Hill) and .Amherst (Castor and 
Pollux). Finally, on its melting, the mass of the material being moved along 
beneath the ice, with that which had gathered in and on it, was dumped in a 
confused mass of clay, stones and boulders, forming the characteristic " gla- 
cial landscape" which everywhere marks our hill towns, yielding a rocky soil, 
durable, but difficult of cultivation. 

THE FLOOD PERIOD. 

The ice which covered the county, covered also all New England and all 
its mountains, and moved southeast to the sea. On melting, its front moved 
back northwest across the county, with many readvances. At a railroad cut- 
ting at the camp-meeting grounds at Northampton, I found evidence of three. 

Thus the abundant waters found the water-ways obstructed by the ice and 
its deposits and changed by its erosions, and the re-establishment of the 
drainage was accompanied by many strange and^temporary streams and lakes, 
most of which extend too far beyond the limits of the county to receive treat- 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



rnent here. For instance, the ice retreating from southeast to northwest, 
passed down the tributaries of the east side of the valleys, setting free their 
head waters first, and for a long time clogging their mouths and preventing 
their waters from freely entering the main valley, while on the west it retreated 
up the valleys. So on the east the waters were dammed back in lakes and 
escaped south over the lowest col, while on the west the tributary valleys were 
simply well scoured out by the floods. Thus the ice obstructed the narrow 
passage between Palmer and Three Rivers, and the waters were deflected 
southwardly through the deep Munson valley into the Housatonic basin. 

Thus the ice rested against the entrance to the large upland basin in Pel- 
ham and formed a lake into which great bodies of sand were brought, which 
now lie more than 800 feet above the sea. A little later it clogged the mouth 
of Miller's river far to the north, and a great volume of water passed 
south through New Salem, Greenwich, Enfield and Ware, transporting great 
bodies of sand and gravel to make the broad sand plams of the flat Green- 
wich valley, which are continuous from Orange to Palmer. 

THE CONNECTICUT LAKE. 

Upon the disappearance of the ice from this section of the valley, the great 
volume of the waters of its melting sustained a lake, which stretched in 
width to the full limits of the valley, as we have given them, in length from Mt. 
Toby to the foot of Holyoke, and sent a broad lobe out round Mt. Tom, 
across Easthampton and Southampton, and on south. Its height was 300 feet 
above the sea and 200 above low water of the present Connecticut. 

The Long Plain in Leverett, North Amherst station, the Bay road, the south 
spur of Mt. Warner, the Florence plain, and West Farms, are level portions 
of its shore flats. The first and last two are great deltas sent out into its 
waters. In all its deeper waters the flat, laminated clavs were being de- 
posited, while the sands of the deltas were extending out from the shore. 
Each layer ot the clay, on an average of two-fifths of an inch thick, repre- 
sents a year's deposit. The clays are, at the Northampton bridge, above 120 
feet thick, and at East Street bridge above fifty feet, which would give num- 
bers for the duration of the lake favoring the idea that the glacial period 
was not more than 10,000 years ago, one of the shortest estimates. 

In these clays I have found an abundant glacial flora, proving that the lake 
succeeded immediately to the ice, and I have found indications of several 
re-advances of the ice ploughing up the sands of the lake. 

Within the Hmits we have assigned to the lake, the present surface of the 
ground is the old lake bottom, with all its bars and ridges. A period was set 
to the life of the lake before it had been fully silted up, and the flooded 
waters subsided with remarkable rapidity to nearly the present dimensions of 
the Connecticut. Only the meadows represent the area over which the river 
has swung since its shrinkage, building up their broad, flat surfaces of fine, 
3* 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



rich, alluvial soil by the accumulated contribution of many freshets. Mean- 
dering thus across its meadows, the stream has formed seven great "oxbows," 
three in Hatfield and four in Northampton, and then cut off six of these, 
two within the period of settlement, It has formed them all on its western 
side, betraying thus a tendency to wear more on its right bank than on its 
left, and this is much more strongly seen in all its tributaries as they pass- 
across the meadows. This is believed to be due to the influence of the 
earth's rotation. 

The great range of sand dunes which stretch across Hadley, east of the 
meadows, and dot the Hatfield plain, the peat and bog ore filling of the 
swamps, deserve notice, with the newly formed islands and the extensive ero- 
sions of the river, as the last geological objects and agencies of the valley. 



*CHAPTER III. 



Botany of Hampshire County^ — Introductory Remarks — Cata- 
logue OF Plants Growing Wild within Thirty Miles of Amherst. 

WHEN the present publishers applied to me for an article on the 
botany of Hampshire county, I had no idea of giving to the article 
the form it has finally taken. It was, however, a part of my plan to 
give a list of plants found growing wild within the limits of the county. Regret 
being expressed by my botanical acquaintances that the area of the flora should 
be so restricted , it has, with the consent of the publishers, been made to include 
that portion of Central New England within thirty miles of Amherst. The 
list therefore includes a number of plants not yet known to have been found 
in Hampshire county. Still the number of which it can be said that they 
probably do not grow within the county, is extremely small. 

Two such lists have already been published, — Hitchcock's Catalogue of 
Plants growing without cultivation in the vicijiity of A?nherst College, contrib- 
uted to by a number of the best botanists of the time (1829), and A Cata- 
logue of Plants growing without cultivation within thirty miles of Amherst 
College, by the late Prof. Edward Tuckerman, of Amherst College, in coUab- 
9ration with the late Charles C. Frost, of Brattleboro, Vt. Another prom- 
inent contributor to the latter list was Prof. H. G. Jesup, now of Dartmouth 
College. It is unnecessary to say that the preparation of the present list would 
have been impossible but for the labors of these predecessors in the same 
field. 

*Prepared by Prof. N. A. Cobb, of Williston Seminary, Easthampton. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 23 



The first of these catalogues was long since out of date. The second ex- 
cellent and well-known catalogue, with which the present list is very nearly 
co-extensive, was published in 1875. The publication, at a more recent date, 
of a number of important American works on systematic botany has rendered 
it desirable that a list should be made out more in accordance with the ma- 
terial thus made accessible. Dr. Gray's Synoptical Flora of N'orth America^ 
(Gamopetalte, 1886), which should be in the hands of every working botanist, 
makes changes that should become known to the students of his Manual ; 
Lesquereux & James's Manual of the Mosses of North America (1884) be- 
comes at once the standard American bryological work; the publication, in 
1882, cf the first part of the lamented Prof. Tuckerman's Synopsis of the North 
American Lichens, makes accessible for the first time to the general student 
some adequate account of our more conspicuous hchens ; the publication 
(1884) of Underwood's Descriptive Catalogue of the North American Hepat- 
icce, brings within the reach of all a systematic account of our liverworts. 
All these works make numerous changes in the nomenclature and arrange- 
ment of their respective departments. In addition to all this, the lapse of 
time has inevitably brought to light, in a district where botany is so assidu- 
ously cultivated, a number of species not before known as growing within its 
limits. 

That this list compensates for the loss of a second edition of his catalogue, 
which, had Prof. Tuckerman's life been spared, we should have had from his 
own hand, is not to be hoped ; but that, in embodying the changes suggested 
by the above mentioned facts, it proceeds on the plan he would have adopted, 
is unquestionable. 

Attention is called to the following points : The Phanerogamia are referred 
by page to Gray's Maniuil ; but the Gamopetalte are arranged according to 
the Synoptical Flora of North America, and the Polypetalae according to 
Mr. Sereno Watson's useful Bibliographical Index to North American Bot- 
any. Where later ivestigations, either structural or bibliographical, have 
resiflted in changing the name of a plant, the most recent name is used, (the 
Manual synonym being enclosed in parenthesis). The FiHces and Ophio- 
glossaceffi are referred by page to Gray's Manual ; but the arrangement and 
nomenclature is that most recently adopted by our American authority, Prof. 
D. C. Eaton, of Yale University. The Musci, Hepaticae and Lichenes are 
referred by page to the works hereinbefore mentioned, and the arrange- 
ment and nomenclature is that adopted in those works respectively. Those 
lichens not included in Tuckerman's Synopsis, are referred to the same ^ 
author's Genera Lichetium. The Fungi are referred by page to Cooke's 
Hand-book of the British Fnngi, which, unsatisfactory and hard to procure as it 
is, is the best systematic work available for the purpose. The arrangement 
is different from that adopted in the English work and is believed to be better. 

Plants whose names are entered without annotation are to be understood 
as at least not uncommon. Where plants are known from only a few stations. 



24 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



the stations are generally given, often with the authority. Introduced species 
are indicated by spaced type. 

The lists of Oophyta, Zygophyta and Protophyta make no pretensions to 
completeness. I have simply named such forms as I have chanced to notice 
while searching for specimens for my classes in biology. 

My thanks are due to Mrs. Edward Tuckerman for placing at my disposal 
Prof. Tuckerman's notes on additional species; to Miss Henrietta Hooker, 
of Mt. Holyoke Seminary, for new South Hadley stations ; to Dr. Asa Gray 
and to Prof. D. C. Eaton, for aid and correction ; to the Springfield Botan- 
ical Society, especially to W. H. Chapin, M. D., for the communication of 
specimens of a number of species new to our area; to my wife, to whom I 
owe the entire rearrangement of the Gamopetals ; and to many others, 
whose names will be found associated with the species upon which they have 
furnished notes ; and I take this opportunity of expressing to all my obliga- 
tions. This list must be regarded as a general contribution rather than as 
the work of any one individual, and if this rearranged and augmented form 
awakens any new interest in a favorite science, I shall be glad to have been 
able to make this very sHght contribution to the natural history of the region 
where for twelve years I have botanized with so much interest. 

PHANEROGAMIA. 

[The numbers refer to the pages of Gray's Manual of Botany^ edition of 1868.] 

' Dicotyledons or Exogens. 



A 71 g i s p e r m CE 



polypetalae. 

Ranunculace.b. 

Clematis, L. Virgin's Bower. 

verticillaris, DC. Mts. Tom and 
Holyoke; Greenfield. 35. 

V i o r n a, L. Leather-flower. 
Brattleboro, Frost. 36. 

Virginiana, L. Virgin's Bower. 
36. 
Anemone, L. Wind Flower. 

cylindrica. Gray. Mt. Toby, 
Royalston, etc. 37. 

Virginiana, L. 37. 

dichotoma, L. South Hadley, 
G. L. Goo dale. (A. Pennsyl- 
vanica, L., Man.) 37. 

nemorosa, L. Wind-Flower. 38. 

Hepatica, L. Hepatica. Liv- 
erwort. (Hepatica triloba, 
Chaix., Man.) 38. 



aciitiloba, Law. Hepatica. Liv- 
erwort. (Hepatica acutiloba, 
DC, Man.) 38. 
Thalictrum, Tourn. Meadow- Rue. 

anemonoides, Michx. Rue-An- 
emone. 38. 

dioicum, L. 39. 

Cornuti, L. 39. 
Ranunculus, L. Crowfoot. 

aquatilis, L., var. trichophyllus, 
Grav. 40. 

multifidus, Pursh. 40. 

alismaefolius, Geyer. 41. 

Flammula, L., var. reptans, Mey- 
er. 41. 

abortivus, L. 42. 

sceleratus, L. 42. 

recurvatus, Poir. 42. 

Pennsylvanicus, L. 42. 

fascicularis, Muhl. 43. 

repens, L. 43. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



25 



b u 1 b o s u s, L. Buttercups. 

43- 

acris, L. 43. 
Caltha, L. Marsh Marigold. 

palustris, L. Cowslip. 44. 
Coptis, Salisb. Goldthread. 

trifolia, Salisb. 45. 
Aquilegia, Tourn. Columbine. 

Canadensis, L. 45. 
Acttea, L. Bane-Berry. 

spicala, L., var. rubra, Ait. 47. 

alba, Bigel, 47. 
Cimicifuga, L. Black Snake-root. 

racemosa, Nutt. Goshen, E. 
Hitchcock. 48. 

Magnoliace^. 
Liriodendron, L 

Tulipifera, L. Tulip-Tree. 
Deerfield, Springfield, etc. 50. 

Menispermacete. 

Menispermum, L. Moonseed. 

Canadense, L, 51. 

Berberidace.e. 

Berberis, L. Barberry. 

vu Iga r i s, L. 52. 

Caulophyllum, Michx. 

thalictroides, Michx. Pappoose- 

Root, 53. 

Podophyllum, L. 

peltatum, L. May Apple. S. 

Amherst, Hitchcock. 54. 

Nymph.'Eace^. 

Brasenia. Schreb. 

peltata, Pursh, 55. 

Nymphcea, Tourn. 

odorata. Ait. Water- Lily. 56. 

Nuphar, Smith. 

advena, Ait. Yellow Water- 

Lily. 57. 

luteum, Smith. Oxbow, Jesup. 

57- 
pumilum, Smith. (N. luteum, 

var. pumilum, Gray, Man.) 37. 
Sarraceniace^e. 
Sarracenia, Tourn. Pitcher-Plant. 
purpurea, L. Side-Saddle Flow- 
er. 58. 

Papaverace.^. 
Chelidonium, L. 

m a j u s, L. Celandine. 60. 



Sanguinaria, Dill. 

Canadensis, L. Blood Root. 60. 

Fumariace^. 

Adlumia, Raf. 

cirrhosa, Raf. Mt. Toby, etc. 61. 
Dicentra, Bork. 

Cucullaria, DC. Dutchman's 

Breeches. North Amherst. 

Northampton. 61. 

Canadensis, DC. Squirrel-Corn. 

Conway, G. L.Goodale. 61. 

Corydalis, Vent. 

glauca, Pursh. 61. 
Fumaria, L. 

officinalis, L. Fumitory. 62. 

Crucifer^. 

Nasturtium, R. Br. Cress. 

officinale, R. Br. True Wa- 
ter-Cress. Deerfield. 64. 
s y 1 V e s t r e , R. Br. School mead- 
ow, Hadley. 64. 
palustre, DC. 64. 
Armoracia, Fries. Horse-Rad- 
ish. 65. 
Dentaria, L. Tooth wort. 
diphylla, Michx. 65. 
laciniata, Muhl. Deerfield, Hitch- 
cock. S. Hadley, one season; 
Miss Hooker. 66. 
Cardamine, L. Lady's Smock. 
rhoriiboidea, DC. 66. 
hirsuta, L., & var. sylvatica, 
Gray. 67. 
Arabis, L. Rock-Cress. 
hiisuta, Scop. 68. 
laevigata, Poir. 68. 
Canadensis. L. Sickle-Pod. 68. 
perfoliata. Lam. Spencer, Cobb. 
69. 
Barbarea, R. Br. Winter-Cress. 

vulgaris, R. Br. 69. 
Erysimum, L. Treacle-Mustard. 
cheiranthoides, L. Mt. Toby, 
Jesiip. Brattleboro, Frost. 
69. 
Sisymbrium, L. 

officinale, Scop. Hedge-Mus- 
tard. 70. 
Brassica, Tourn. 

alba. Gray. White Mustard. 
70. 



26 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



nigra, Koch. True Mustard. 

71- 
Alyssum, Tourn. 

caiycinum, L. Amherst, rare. 
72. 
Camelina, Crantz. 

sativa, Crantz. Amherst. 73. 
Capsella, Vent. 

Bursa-pastoris, Moench. 

Shepherd's-Purse. 73. 
Lepidium, L. Pepperwort. 
Virginicum, L. 74. 
campestre, R. Br. Amherst, 
Clark. 74. 
Raphanus. L. Radish. 

Raphanistrum, L. Charlock. 

75- 

Cistace.«. 

Hehanthemum, Tourn. Frost-wort. 

Canadense. Michx. 80. 
Lechea, L. Pin-weed. 

major, Michx. 81. 
g^~ minor, Walt., Lam. 82. 

VlOLACE^. 

Viola, L. Violet. 

rotundifolia, Michx. 77. 
lanceolata, L. 77. 
primulaafolia, L 77. 
blanda, Wind. White Violet. 77 
odorata, L. Sparingly about 

greenhouses and gardens. 77. 
cucullata, Ait., & var. palmata, 

Gray. Common Blue Violet. 

7S. 
sagittata. Ait. 78. 
pedata, L. Bird-Foot Violet. 

78. 
canina, L., var. sylvestris, Regel. 

Dog Violet. 79. 
rostrata, Muhl. 79. 
striata. Ait. Amherst, Hitchcock. 

79- 
Canadensis, L. 79. 
pubescens, Ait. Downy Yellow 

Violet. 79. 
tricolor, L. Pansy. About 

houses. 80. 

Polygalace^. 

Polygala, Tourn. Milk-wort. 
sanguinea, L. 121. 
verticillata, L. 122. 



polygama, Walter. Bitter Po- 
lygala. 122. 

paucifolia, Willd. Fringed Po- 
lygala. Flowering Winter- 
green. 122. 

Caryophyllace^. 

Dianthus, L. 

Armeria, L. Deptford Pink. 
Shores of Conn, river. 88. 
Saponaria, L. 

officinalis, L. Soapwort. 
Bouncing Bet. 88. 
Silene, L. Catchfly. 

in flat a, Smith. Bladder Cam- 
pion. Amherst, Spencer, etc. 
89. 
Pennsylvanica, Michx. 89. 
antirrhina, L. 90. 
noctiflora, L. 90. 
Lychnis, Tourn. 

dioica, L. Red Campion. 

Roadsides 
Githago, Lam. Cockle. 90. 
Flos-cuculi, L. 
Arenaria, L. Sandwort. 
serpyllifolia, L. 91. 
stricta, Michx. 91. 
lateriflora, L. 91. 
Stellaria, L Stitchwort. 

media, Smith. Chickweed. 92. 
longifolia, Muhl. 92. 
graminea, L. Amherst, rare, 

Tuckernian. 
uliginosa, Murr. S. Deerfield, 

Jesiip. 92. 
borealis, Bigel. 93. 
Cerastium, L. Mouse-ear Chick- 
weed. 
viscosum, L. 94. 
nutans, Raf Hadley, etc. 94. 
arvense, L. 94. 
Sagina, L. Pearlwort. 
procumbens, L. 94. 
Lepigonum, Fries. 

rubrum, Fries. (Spergularia ru- 
bra, Presl.. var. compestris, 
Gray, Man.) 95. 
Spergula, L. Spurrey. 
arvensis, L. 96. 
Paronychie^. 
Anychia, Michx. 

dichotoma, Michx. 96. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



27 



Scleranthus, L. Knawel. 
annuus, L. 96. 

PORTULACACE^. 

Portulaca, Tourn. 

oleracea, L. Purslane 98. 
grandiflora, Hook. Occasion- 
ally spontaneous. 98. 
Claytonia, L. Spring Beauty. 
Virginica, L. 98. 
Caroliniana, Michx. 98. 
Hypericace^. 
Hypericum, L. St. John's-wort. 
pyramidatum, Ait. 84. 
ellipticum, Hook. 85. 
perforatum, L. 85. 
corymbosum, Muhl. 85. 
mutilum, L. 85. 
Canadense, L. & var. majus, Gray. 

Conway, Jesnp. 86. 
Sarothra, Michx. 86. 
Elodes, Adans. 

Virginica ,Nutt. 86. 
Malvace^. 
Malva, L. Mallow. 

rotundifolia, L. Dwarf MaL- 

LOW. 99. 
sylvestris, L. Officinal or 
^ High Mallow. 99. 

moschata, L. Musk Mallow. 
99. 
Abutilon, Tourn. Indian Mallow. 
Avicennae, Gaertn. Velvet 
Leaf. ioi. 

TlLIACE^. 

Tilia, L. Lime-tree. 

Americana, L. Basswoou. 103. 

Linages. 
Linum, L. Flax. 

Virginianum, L. Flax. 104. 

GeRANIACEvE. 

Geranium, L. Crane's-bill. 
maculatum, L. 107. 
Carolinianum, L. 107. 
Robertianum, L. Herb Robert. 
107. 
Impatiens, L. Balsam. 

pallida, Nutt. Pale Touch-me- 
not. 108. 
fulva, Nutt. Spotted Touch- 
me-not. 108. 



Oxalis, L. Wood-Sorrel. 

Acetosella, L. True Wood- 
Sorrel. Conway, and north- 
ward. 109. 

violacea, L. Amherst, and south- 
ward. 109. 

corniculata, L., var. stricta, Sav. 
(O. stricta, L., Man.) 109. 

Rutace^. 

Xanthoxylum, Colden. 

Americanum, Mill. Prickly Ash. 
Sunderland, Hitchcock ; Nor- 
wottuck, Clark, no. 
Ptelia, L. Hop-tree. 

trilbliata, L. Easthampton, Cobb. 
no. 

Ilicine^. 

Ilex, L., Gray. Holly. 

verticiliata. Gray. 307. 
Isevigata, Gray. Belchertown 
ponds, Jesiip. 307. 
Nemopanthes, Raf. 

Canadensis, DC. Mountain 
Holly. 307. 

Celastrace^. 
Celastrus, L. Climbing Staff-tree. 
scandens, L. 116. 

Rhamnace^ 
Rhamnus, Tourn. Buckthorn. 

cathartica, L. True Buck- 
thorn. Roadsides, Leverett. 
114. 
alnifolia, L'Her. Deerfield, 
Hitchcock. 115. 
Ceanothus, L. New Jersey Tea. 
Americanus^ L. 115. 

Vitace^. 
Vitis, Tourn. Vine. 

Labrusca, L. Fox Grape-vine. 

112. 
ffistivahs, Michx. Summer Grape- 
vine. 112. 
riparia, Michx. 113 & 679. 
Ampelopsis, Michx. 

quinquefolia, Michx. Virginia 
Creeper. Woodbine. 113. 

Sapindace.-e. 
Staphylea, L. 

trifolia, L. Bladder Nut. 117. 



28 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



Acer, Tourn. Maple. 

Pennsylvanicurn, L. Striped Ma- 
ple. 119. 

spicatum, Lam. Mountain Ma- 
ple. 119. 

saccharinum, Wang. & var. ni- 
grum, Torr. & Gray. Sugar 
Maple. 119. 

dasycarpum, Ehrh. Silver Ma- 
ple. 1 1 9. 

rubrum, L. Red Maple. 119. 

Anacardiace^. 

Rhus, L. Sumac. 

typhina, L. 1 11. 

glabra, L. 1 1 1. 

copallina, L. in. 

venenata, DC. Poison Sumac. 

Dogwood, rii. 
Toxicodendron. L. Poison Ivy. 



Leguminos^. 

Lupinus, Tourn. Lupine. 

perennis, L. 126. 
Crotalaria, L. 

sagittalis, L. i 26. 
Trifolium, L. Trefoil. 

arvense,L. Hare's-foot Tre- 
foil. 127. 
prate use, L. Red Clover. 

127. 
hybridum; L. Pink Clover. 
Roadsides, Spencer, North- 
ampton, etc. Cobb. 
repens, L.. White Clover. 127. 
agrarium, L. Hop Trefoil. 

Yellow Clover. 127. 
procumbens, L. Low Hop- 
Trefoil. Yellow Clover. 
128. 
MeHlotus, Tourn. Melilot. 
officinalis, Willd. 128. 
alba. Lam. Roadsides. 128. 
Medicago, L. Medick. 

sativa, L. Lucerne. Rare, G. 

L. Goodale. 128. 
lupulina, L. Nonesuch. Rare. 
128. 
Robinia, L. Locust Tree. 
Pseudacacia, L. 131. 
viscosa, Vent. 131. 
Tephrosia, Pers. 



Virginiana, Pers. Amer. Goat's 
Rue. 131. 
Desmodium, DC. Tick-Trefoil, 
nudiflorum, DC. 135. 
acuminatum, DC. 135. 
rotundifolium, DC. 135. 
canescens, DC 135. 
cuspidatum, Hook. 136. 
Dillenii, DarHngt. 136. 
paniculatum, DC. 136. 
Canadense, DC. 136. 
rigidum, DC. 136. 
Marilandicum, Boott. 137. 
Lespedeza, Michx. Bush-Clover. 
repens. Barton, (L. procumbens, 
Michx., Man. is merged in 
this). 137. 
violacea, Pers. 137. 
hirta, RU. 138. 
capitata, Michx. 138. 
Vicia, Tourn. Vetch. 
sativa, L. 138. 
Cracca, L. Deerfield, Tucker- 
mari s Cat. Easthampton^ 
Cobb. 139. 
Lathyrus, L. Vetchling. 

pratensis, L. W. Springfield, 
A. P. Foster. 140. 
Apios, Boerh. 

tuberosa, Moench. Ground- 
nut. 140. 
Amphicarpaea, Ell. Hog Pea-nut. 
monoica. Ell. Twining Thread- 
wort. 142. 
Baptisia, Vent. 

tinctoria, R. Br. Wild Indigo. 

143- 
Cassia, L. 

Marilandica, L. Wild Senna. 

144. 
nictitans, L. Hadley, Easthamp- 
ton, common. 144. 

RoSACEiE. 

Prunus, Tourn. Plum. Cherry. 

Americana, Marsh. Wild Plum- 
tree. 148. 

pumila, L. Dwarf Cherry. 148. 

Pennsylvanica, L. Wild Red 
Cherry. 148. 

Virginiana, L. Choke Cherry, 
148. 

serotina, Ehrh. Wild Cherry, 
149. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



29 



Spirsea, L. 

salicifolia, L. Meadow-Sweet. 
149. 

tomentosa, L. Hardhack. 149. 
Poterium, L., Gray. Burnet. 

Canadense, Benth. & Hook. 
Hadley, Sunderland, Brook- 
field, etc. 150. 
Agnmonia, Tourn. Agrimony. 

Eupatoria, L. 151. 
Geum, L. Avens. 

album, Gmel. 152. 

Virginianum, L. 152. 

strictum. Ait. 152. 

rivale, L. Water Avens. 152. 
Waldsteinia, VVilld. 

fragarioides, Tratt. Barren 
Strawberry. 153. 
Potentilla, L. Cinquefoil. 

Norvegica, L. 154. 

Canadensis, L. 154. 

argentea, L. 154. 

arguta, Pursh. 154. 

fruticosa, L. 155. 

tridentata, Soland. Hoosac Mt.; 
Mt. Wachusett. 155. 

palustris. Scop. Brattleboro, 
Frost. 155. 
Fragaria, Tourn. Strawberry. 

Virginiana. Duchesne. 155. 

vesca, L. Mt. Holyoke, etc. 156. 
Rubus, Tourn. Bramble. 

Dalibarda, L. Greenfield. War- 
wick. (T^M. (Dalibarda repens, 
L., Man ) 156 

odoratus, L. Flowering Rasp- 
berry. 156. 

triflorus, Richards. 157. 

strigosus, Michx. Red Rasp- 
berry. 157. 

occidentals, L. Black Rasp- 
berry. 157. 

villosus, Ait. High Blackberry. 

'57- 

Canadensis, L. Low Blackber- 
ry. 157. 

hispidus, L. 158. 
Rosa, Tourn. Rose. 

Carolina, L. Swamp Rose. 158. 

lucida, Ehrh. Dwarf Rose. 158. 

blanda, Ait. Mt. Holyoke. 159. 

rubiginosa, L. Sweet Briar. 
159- 



Gallica, L. Garden Rose. 

Roadsides, and fields. 
Cinnamomea, L. Cinnamon 

Rose. Roadsides. 
Crataegus, L. Hawthorn. 
coccinea, L. 160. 
tomentosa, L., & var. punctata, 

Gray. 160. 
Crus-Galli, L. 160. 
Pirus, L. Pear. Apple. 

arbutifolia, L. Choke berry. 

161. 
Americana, DC. Mountain Ash. 

161. 
Amelanchier, Medic. June-Berry. 

Service -Berry. Shad-Bush. 
Canadensis, Torr. & Gray & 

var. oblongiflora, Torr, & Gray. 

(var. Botryapium, Gray, Man., 

is merged in the type). 162. 

Saxifragace^e. 

Ribes. L. Currant. Gooseberry- 
Cynosbati, L. Conway, War- 
wick, etc. 164. 
oxycanthoides, L. (R. hirtellum, 

Michx., Man.) 164. 
rotundifolium, Michx. West Riv- 
er Mt., Hitchcock. 164. 
prostratum, L'Her. Skunk's Cur- 
rant. 165. 
floridum, L'Her. Black Cur- 
rant. 165. 
Parnassia, Tourn. Grass of Par- 
nassus. 
Caroliniana, Michx. 167. 
Saxifraga, L, Saxifrage. 

Virginiensis, Michx. 168. 
Pennsylvanica, L. 168, 
Mitella, Tourn. Mitre-wort. 

diphylla, L. Bishop's Cap. 170. 
nuda, L. East Amherst, Jesup. 
170. 
Tiarella, L. False Mitre-wort. 

cordifolia, L. 170. 
Chrysosplenium, Tourn. Golden Sax- 
ifrage. 
Americanum, Schwein. 171. 

CRASSULACEiE. 

Penthorum, Gronov. Stone crop. 

sedoides, L. 171. 
Sedum, Tourn. Stone-crop. 



3° 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



reflexum,L. Roadside, Lev- 

erett, Jesup. 
Telephium,L. Orpine. 172. 

Droserace.^. 
Drosera, L. Sun-dew. 
rotundifolia, L. 82. 
Angliana, Huds. (D. longifolia, 
L., Man.) 82. 

Hamamelace^. 
Hamamelis, L. 

Virginina, L. Witch- Hazel. 

173- 
Liquidambar, L 

Styraciflua, L. Sweet Gum. 
Northampton, is«/^;/. 174. 
Halorage^. 
Myriophyllum, Vaill. Water-Mil- 
foil. 
verticillatum, L. 175. 
ambiguum, Nutt. Hadley, Jesiip. 

175- 
tenellum, Bigel. 175. 
Proserpinaca, L. Mermaid Weed. 
palustris, L. 175. 

Melastomace^. 
Rhexia, L. Deer Grass. 

Virginica, L. Leverett & Shutes- 
bury. 181. 

Lythrace^. 
Ammannia, Houston. 

humilis, Michx. Springfield, W. 
H. Chapin. 182. 
Lythrum, L. Purple Loosestrife. 
Salic aria, L. Roadsides, etc. 
183. 
Nesrea, Commers. 

verticillata, H. B. K. Belcher- 
town & Sunderland. 183. 
Onagrace.e. 
Circaea, Tourn. Enchanter's 

Nightshade. 
Lutetiana, L. i 76. 
alnina, L. i 76. 
Epilobium, L. Willow herb. 

spicatum. Lam. (E. angustifoli- 

um, L., Man.) 177. 
palustre, L., var. lineare, Gray. 

177- 
molle, Torr. 178. 
coloratum, Muhl. 178. 



CEnothera, L Evening Primrose. 

biennis, L. Tree-Primrose. 178 

fruticosa, L. 179. 

pumila, L. 179. 
Ludwigia, L. F.-\lse Loosestrife. 

alternifolia, L. Seed Box. Had- 
ley. 180. 

palustris, Ell. 181. 

CUCURBITACE.«. 

Sicyos, L. 

angulatus, L. Single-Seed Cu- 
cumber. 186. 
Echinocystis, Torr. & Gray. 

lobata, Torr. & Gray. Wild 
Balsam-apple. 187. 

FiCOIDE.t. 

(Caryophyllaceje, Man.) 97. 
Mollugo, L. 

verticillata, L. 97. 
Umbellifer.e. 
Hydrocotyle, Tourn. Marsh Penny- 
wort. 

Americana, L. 189. 
Sanicula, Tourn. Black Snakeroot. 

Canadensis, L. 190. 

Marilandica, L. Sanicle. 190, 
Daucus, Tourn. 

Carota, L. Carrot. 191. 
Heracleum, L. Cow-Parsnip. 

lanatum, Michx. 191. 
Pastinaca, Touin. 

sativa, L. Parsnip. 192. 
Archangelica, Hoffm. 

atropurpurea, Hoffm. Angelica. 

. '93- 
Thaspium, Nutt. 

aureum, Nutt. 194. 
Pimpinella, L. 

integerrima, Benth & Hook. 
Montague, J. L. Bennett. 
{Tataz. integerrima, DC, Man.) 

195- 
Cicuta, L. Cow-bane. 

maculata, L. Water-Hemlock. 

196. 
bulbifera, L. 196. 
Sium, L. 

cicutaefolium, Gmelin. (S. lin- 
eare, Michx., Man.) 196. 
Berula, Koch. 

angustifolia, Koch. (Sium an- 
gustifolium, L., Man.) 196. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



31 



Cryptotaenia, DC. 

Canadensis, DC. Honewort. 
197. 
Osmorrhiza, Raf. Sweet Cicely. 
longistylis, DC. 197. 
brevistylis, DC. 197. 
Conium. L. Hemlock. 

maculatum, L. Poison Hem- 
lock. 198. 

Araliace.^. 

Aralia, Tourn. 

racemosa, L. Spikenard. 199. 

hispida, Vent. 199. 

nudicaulis, L. Wild Sarsapa- 

RiLLA. 199. 
quinquefolia, Decsne & Planch. 

Ginseng. 199. 
trifolia, Decsne & Planch. 199. 

CORNACE^. 

.Cornus, Tourn. Cornel. 

Canadensis, L. Dwarf Cornel. 
200. 

florida, L. Dogwood. 200. 

circinata, L'Her. 200. 

sericea, L. Red-osier. Dog- 
wood. 200. 

stolonifera, Michx. 200, 

paniculata, L'Her. 201. 

alternifolia, L. 201, 
Nyssa, L. Tupelo. 

multiflora, Wang. Sour Gum. 
201. 

Gamopetalae. 

Caprifoliace^. 

Sambucus, Tourn. Elder. 

racemosa. L. (S. pubens, Michx. 

Man ) 205. 
Canadensis, L. Common Elder. 
205. 
Viburnum, L. Arrow-wood. 

lantanoides, Michx. Hobble- 
bush. 207. 
Opulus, L. High Cranberry. 

207. 
acerifolium, L. Maple Leaved 

Arrow- WOOD. 207. 
dentatum, L. Arrow-wood. 206 
nudum, L. 206. 
Lentago, L. 206. 
Triosteum. L. 



perfojiatum, L. Fever-wort. 

205. 
Linnaea, Gronov. 

borealis, Gronov. Twin-Flower. 

202. 
Lonicera, L. Honeysuckle. 

caerulea, L. Deerfield, Hitchcock. 

Mt. Holyoke, Miss Hooker. 

204. 
oblongifolia, Hook. Brattleboro, 

Frost. 204. 
ciliata, Muhl. Fly- Honeysuckle 

204. 
glauca, Hill. (L. parviflora, Lam,, 

Man.) 204. 
Diervilla, Tourn. 

trifida, Moench. 205. 

RUBIACE^. 

Houstonia, Gronov. 

caerulea, L. Bluets. 213. 
Cephalanthus, L. Button-bush. 

occidentalis, L. 21 t. 
Mitchella, L. Partridge-berry. 

repens, L. 211. 
Galium, L. Bed-straw. 

verum, L. Yellow Bed straw. 
Grass land, Amherst, Tuckerm. 
210. 

Aparine, L. Cleavers. Goose- 
grass 208. 

pilosum. Ait. 209. 

circaezans, Michx. Wild Liq- 
uorice. 2og. 

lanceolatum, Torr. Wild Liq- 
uorice. 210. 

boreale, L. Northern Bed- 
straw. 2 1 o. 

trifidum, L. (Includes var. tincto- 
rium, Man.) Small Bedstraw. 
209. 

asprellum. Michx. Rough Bed- 
straw. 209. 

triflorum, Michx. Sweet-scent- 
ed Bed -STRAW. 209. 

DlPSACE^. 

Dipsacus, Tourn. 

sylvestris, Mill. Teasle. Road- 
sides, occasional. 215. 

CO.MPOSIT/E. 

Vernonia, Schreb. 



32 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



Noveboracensis, Willd. Iron- 
weed. 2 2 2. 
Mikania, Willd. 

scandens, Willd. Climbing Hemp- 
weed. 227. 
Eupatorium, Tourn. 

purpureum, L. Joe Pye Weed. 
Trumpet-weed. 225. 

hyssopifolium, L. Mt. Toby, 
Jesup. 225. 

teucrifolium, Wild. 225. 

perfoliatum, L. Thoroughwort. 
226. 

ageratoides, L. f. White Snake- 
root. 226. 
Liatris, Schreb. 

scariosa, Willd. Blazing Star. 
223. 
Solidago, L. Golden-rod. 

squarrosa, Muhl. Mts. Holyoke 
& Toby. 239. 

caesia, L., & var. axillaris, Gray, 
Flora. 240. 

latifolia, L. 240. 

bicolor, L. 240. 

puberula, Nutt. Pelham. 240. 

odora, Ait. Sweet Golden-rod. 
244. 

uliginosa, Nutt. (See Hitchcock's 
Cat., S. striata, of which Dr. 
Gray says : "Doubtless S. uligi- 
nosa, Nutt." S. striata grows 
from New Jersey southward on 
pine barrens. For description 
of uliginosa, Nutt., see Syn. 
Flo. N. A., p. 151.) 

speciosa, Nutt. 240. 

patula, Muhl. 243. 

ulmifolia, Muhl. 243. 

neglecta, Torr. cSj Gray. 243. 

arguta. Ait. (Includes S. Muhlen- 
bergii, Torr. & Gray, Man.) 

243- 

serotina. Ait. & var. gigantea. 
Gray. (Includes S. gigantea, 
Ait., Man.; but the plant hith- 
erto described as gigantea, Ait. 
is the present serotina. Ait. and 
that described as serotina. Ait. 
is the present var. gigantea. 
Gray). 245. 

Canadensis. L. (Includes S. altis- 
siina, L., Man.) 245. 



nemoralis. Ait. 244. 

rigida, L. S. Hadley, Hitchcock. 
242. 

lanceolata, L. 245. 
Sericocarpus, Nees. 

conyzoides, Nees. 228. 

solidagineus, Nees. 228. 
Aster, Tourn. 

corymbosus, Ait. 228. 

macrophyllus, L. 229. 

Novae Anghee, L. 235. 

patens. Ait. 230. 

undulatus, L. 231. 

cordifolius, L. 231. 

laevis, L. (vars. Isevigatus & cy- 
aneus, Man., are merged in the 
type, laevis.) 230. 

ericoides, L. 232. 

amethystinus, Nutt. Hadley, 
Tuckertnan. 234. 

multiflorus. Ait. 232. 

dumosus, L. (Includes A. miser, 
L., Ait., Man., in part.) 232. 

Tradescanti, L., partly. (In- 
cludes A. miser, L., Ait., Man., 
in part.) 232. 

paniculatus, Lam. (A. simplex, 
Willd., Man.) 233. 

salicifolius, (Lam.?), Ait. (A. car- 
neus. Nees., Man.) 233. 

Novi-Belgii, L. (A. longifolius, 
Lam , Man.) 233. 

puniceus, L, 234. 

umbellatus. Mill. (Diplopappus 
umbellatus, Torr. «Sr Gray, 
Man.) 238. 

Hnariifolius, L. (Diplopappus lin- 
ariifolius. Hook., Man.) On a 
piece of open, sterile ground in 
Spencer, many plants having 
pure white rays appeared for 
07ie season, — never afterward. 
Cobb. 238. 

acuminatus, Michx. 235. 

tenuifolius, L. 233. 
Erigeron, L. Flea-bane. 

bellidifolius, Muhl. 237. 

Philadelphicus, L. 237. 

annuus, Pers. 237. 

strigosus, Muhl. (var. discoideum, 
Robbins, Man., is merged in 
the type, strigosus.) 237. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY, 



33 



Canadensis, L. Canada Flea- 
bane. 236. 
Antennaria, Gaertn., R. Br. 

plantaginifolia, Hook. 269. 
Anaphalis, DC. Everlasting. 

raargaritacea, Benth. & Hook. 
(Antennaria margaritacea, R. 
Br., Man.) 269. 
Gnaphalium, L. 

polycephalum, Michx. Sweet 

Everlasting. 268. 
decurrens, Ives. 268. 
uliginosuni, L. Common Cud- 
weed. 268. 
Inula, L. Elecampane. 

Helenium, L. 246. 
Ambrosia, Tourn. 
trifida, L. 251. 

artemisiasfolia, L. Roman Worm- 
wood. Pigweed. 251. 
Xanthium, Tourn. 

strumarium, L. Cockle-bur. 

Clot bur. 252. 
spinosum, L. Plainfield, Porter. 
252. 
Rudbeckia, L. Cone-flower. 
hirta, L. 254. 
laciniata, L. 254. 
Helianthus, L. Sunflower. 
giganteus, L. 256. 
divaricatus, L. 257. 
strumosus, L. 257. 
decapetalus, L, 257. 
tuberosus, L. Jerusalem 
Artichoke. Northampton. 
258. 
Coreopsis, L. 

tinctoria, Nutt. Roadsides, 
rare. 259. 
Bidens, Tourn. Bur-Marigold. 

frondosa, L. Devil's Pitch- 
forks. Beggar-ticks. Stick- 
tights. 261. 
connata, Muhl. 261. 
chrysanthemoides, Michx. 261. 
Beckii, Torn Agawam River, 
Mrs. JL L. Oweti. 261. 
Anthemis, L. 

Cotula, L. May- WEED. (Maruta 
Cotula, DC, Man.) 265. 
Achillea, Vaill. 

Millefolium, L. Yarrow. 265. 
Chrysanthemum, Tourn., L. 



Leucanthem um, L. (Leucan- 

themum vulgare, Lam.^ Man.) 

Ox-eye Daisy. White-weed. 

265. 

Balsamita,L. Costmary. Rare. 

Tanacetum, Tourn. 

vulgare, L. Tansy. 266. 
Artemisia, Tourn., L. 

Canadensis, Michx. 267. 
vulgaris, L. Mug-wort. 267. 
Tussilago, Tourn. 

Farfara, L. Coltsfoot. 227. 
Petasites, Tourn. 

palmata, Gray. Sunderland, 
Hitchcock. 
Senecio, Tourn. 

aureus, L. & var. Balsamitas, 

Torr & Gray. 271. 
vulgaris, L. Groundsel. Am- 
herst. 271. 
Erechtites, Raf. Fire-weed. 
hieracifolia, Raf. 270. 
Arctium, L. 

Lappa, L. Burdock. (Lappa 
ofificinalis, AH., Man.) 275. 
Cnicus, Tourn., L., partly. (Cirsium, 
Tourn., Man.) 
arvensis, Hofifm. Canada 

Thistle. 274. 
lanceolatus, Hoffm. Common 

Thistle. 273. 
pumilus, Torr. 274. 
altissimus, Willd. & var. discolor, 
Gray. (The variety includes C. 
discolor, Spreng., Man.) 273. 
muticus, Pursh. 274. 
Centaurea, L. Knap-weed. 

nigra, L. Waste places. Hard- 
wick, Hitchcock. 272. 
Krigia, Schreb. 

Virginica, Willd. Dwarf Dan- 
delion. 276. 
amplexicaulis, Nutt. (Cynthia 
Virginica, Don., Man.) 276. 
Cichorium, Tourn. Chiccory. Suc- 
cory. 
Intybus, L. Amherst, Green- 
field, llickerffi. N. Brookfield, 
Cobb. 275. 
Leontodon, L. partly, Juss. 

autumnalis, L. Fall Dande- 
lion. Uncommon. Amherst. 
Licester, Cobb. 276. 



34 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



Hieraciutn, Tourn. Hawk-weed. 

Canadense, Michx. 277. 

paniculatum, L. 277. 

venosum, L. Rattlesnake- 
weed. 277. 

scabrum, Michx. 277. 

Gronovii, L. 277. 
Prenanthes, Vaill. (Nabalus, Cass., 
Man.) 

alba, L. 278. 

serpentaria, Pursh. (Nabalus 
Fraseri, DC, Man.) 278. 

altissima, L. 278. 
Taraxacum, Haller. 

officinale, Weber. (T. Dens- 
leonis, Desf., Man.) Dande- 
lion. 280. 
Lactuca, Tourn. 

Canadensis, L. Wild Lettuce. 
280. 

integrifolia, Bigel. (L. Canadense, 
var. integrifolia, Torr. & Gray, 
Man.) 281. 

leucophcea, Gray. (Mulgedium 
leucophfeum, DC, Man.) 282. 
Sonchus, Tourn. Sow Thistle. 

oleraceus, L. 282. 

asper, Vill. 282. 

LOBELIACEiE. 

Lobelia, L. 

cardinalis, L. Cardinal-flow- 
er. 283. 

Dortmanria, L. 285. 

spicata. Lam. 284. 

Kalmii, L. S. Hadley, Hitch- 
cock. Near Greenfield, F. G. 
Tuckerman. 284. 

inflata, L. Indian Tobacco. 283. 

Campanulace.e. 
Specularia, Heist., A. DC. Venus's 
Looking-Glass. 
perfoliata, A. DC. 286. 
Campanula, Tourn. Bell flower. 
rotundifolia, L. Hare-bell. 285. 
aparinoides, Pursh. 285. 

Ericace.e. 

Gaylussacia, H. B. K. 

frondosa, Torr. & Gray. Blue 

Huckleberry. 289. 
resinosa, Torr. & Gray. Black 

Huckleberry. 280. 



Vaccinium, L. 

stamineura, L, Squaw Huck- 
leberry. Deer-berry. 290. 

Pennsylvanicum, Lara.. Dwarf 
Blueberry. 291. 

vaccillans, Soland. Low Blue- 
berry. Pink-fruited variety, 
Spencer. Cobt?. 291. 

corymbosum, L., var. atrococ- 
cum. Gray. High Blue-ber- 
ry. 291. 

Oxycoccus, L. Small Cran- 
berry. 289. 

macrocarpon, Ait. Cranberry. 
289. 
Chiogenes, Salisb. 

hispidula, Torr. & Gray. 292. 
Arctostaphylos, Adans. 

Uva-ursi, Spreng. Bearberry. 

292. 
Epigaea, L. 

repens, L. Mayflower. Trail- 
ing Arbutus. 293. 
Gaultheria, Kalm., L. Winter- 
green. Boxberry. 

procumbens, L. Checkerber- 
RY. 293. 
Andromeda, L. 

polifolia, L. Belchertown S. 
Pond. Hampton Pond. 295, 

ligustrina, Muhl. 296. 
Cassandra, Don. 

calyculata, Don. Leather-leaf. 
294. 
Calluna, Salisb. Heath. 

vulgaris, Sahsb. Northfield, 
Frost. 297. 
Kalmia, L. 

latifolia, L. Laurel. Spoon- 
wood. Calico-bush. 298. 

angustifolia, L. Sheep Laurel. 
298. 

glauca, Ait. 298. 
Rhododendron, L. Swamp-Pink. 

viscosum, Torr. (Azalea viscosa, 
L., Man.) 299. 

nudiflorum, Torr. (Azalea nudi- 
flora, L., Man.) 299. 

Rhodora, Don. Rhodora. (Rho- 
doraCanadensis, L.,Man.) 300. 

maximum, L. Great Laurel. 
Rose Bay. Fitzwilliam, N. 
H., Frof. T. E. N. Eaton. 300. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



35 



Ledum, L. Labrador Tea. 

latifolium, Ait. 300. 
Clethra, Gronov. Sweet Pepper- 
bush. 
alnifolia, L. 297. 
Chimaphila, Pursh. 

umbellata, Nutt. Pipsissewa. 

303. 
maculata, Pursh. Spotted Pip- 
sissewa. 303. 
Moneses, Salisb. 

uniflora, Gray. Williamsburg, Je- 
sup. Brattleboro, Frost. Spen- 
cer, Cobb. 303. 
Pyrola, Tourn. Wintergreen. 

Shin leaf. 
ser.unda. L. 302. 
chloraritha. Swartz. 302. 
elliptica, Nutt. 302. 
rotundifolia, L. & var. asarifolia, 
Hook. 301. 
Pterospora, Nutt. 

Andromedea, Nutt. Easthamp- 
ton, E Hitchcock. Brattle- 
boro, Frost. 304. 
Monotropa, L. 

uniflora, L. Indian Pipe. 304. 
Hypopitys, L. Pine-sap. Beech- 
drops. 305. 

Primulace^. 
Trientalis, L. Chickweed Winter- 

(iREEN. 

Americana, Pursh. 314. 
Steironerna, Raf. 

ciliatum, Raf. (Lysimachia cili- 
ata, L., Man.) 315. 
Lysimachia. Tourn. Loosestrife. 
quadrifolia, L. 315. 
stricta, Ait. 315. 
nuramularia, L. Moneywort. 

Spencer, Cobb. 316. 
punctata, L. South Amherst, 

Jesup. 
thyrsifolia, L. 315. 
Samolus. Tourn. 

Valerandi, L. Brattleboro, Frost. 
317- 

Oleace.^. 

Ligustrum, Tourn. Privet. 

vulgare, L. Roadsides. 400. 



Common 



395- 



Fraxinus, Tourn. Ash. 

Americana, L.White Ash. 401. 
pubescens, Lam. Red Ash. 402. 
viridis, Michx. f. 402. 
sambucifolia. Lam. Black Ash. 
402. 

APOCYNACEiE. 

Apocynum, Tourn. Dogbane. 
androsjemifolium, L. 393. 
cannabinum, L. Indian Hemp. 
394- 

ASCLEPIADACEiE. 

Asclepias, L. Milkweed. 

tuberosa, L. Pleurisy-root. 

397- 
purpurascens, L. 395. 
incarnata, L. 396. 
Cornuti, Decaisne. 

Milkweed. 395. 
phytolaccoides, Pursh. 
quadrifolia, L. 396. 
verticillala, L. 397. 
Acerates, Ell. 

viridiflora, Ell. Worcester Co., 

Hitchcock; probably within our 

limits. 398. 
Vincetoxicum, Moench. 

nigrum, Moench. Brattleboro, 

Frost. 399. 

GeNTIANACEtE. 

Gentiana, Tourn. 

crinita, Froel. Fringed Gen- 
tian. 387. 

quinqueflora. Lam. Leverett, 
Jesup. Hoosac Mt., Hitchcock. 
Blandford, Mrs. S. T. Seelye. 

387. 
Andrevvsii, Griseb. Closed Gen- 
tian. 388. 
Halenia, Borkh 

deflexa, Griseb. 
Bartonia, Muhl. 

tenella, Muhl. 
Menyanthes, Tourn. 

trifoliata, L. 390. 
Limnanthemum, Gmel. 

lacunosum, Griseb. Plainfield, 
etc. 390. 
Hydrophyllace/e. 
Hydrophyllum, Tourn. 
Virginicum, L. 367. 



386. 

389- 
Buckbean. 



36 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



Canadense, L. Windsor, Hitch- 
cock. 368. 

BoRRAGINACEjE. 

Cynoglossum, Tourn. Hound's 
Tongue. 

officinale, L. 366. 

Virginicum, I.. Brattleboro, 

Frost. 366. 
Echinospermum, Swartz 

Virginicum, Lehm. (Cynoglos- 
sum Morisoni, DC, Man.) 366. 

lappula, Lehm. Brattleboro, 
Frost 366. 
Myosotis, L. Forget-Me-Not. 

palustris, With. Brattleboro, 
Frost. Springfield, W. H. 
Chapin. 364. 

arvensis, Hoffm. Hitchcock. Cat. 

365- 
verna. Nutt. 365. 
Onosmodium, Michx. 

Virgmianum, DC. Monson,Zr//'(r//- 
cock. 362. 
Symphytum, Tourn. 

officinale, L. Comfrey. 361. 
Lycopsis, L. 

arvensis, L. Amherst and Hat- 
field, Hitchcock. 361. 
Echium, Tourn. 

vulgare, L. Viper's Burgloss. 
Roadsides near Greenfield, F. 
G. Tuckerman. Springfield, 
W. H Chapin. 361. 

CONVOLVULACEiE. 

Convolvulus, L. Bind-weed. (Cal- 
yrthegia, R. Br., Man.) 

spithamaeus, L. 376. 

sepium, L. 376. 
Cuscuta, Tourn. Dodder. 

Gronovii, Willd. 379. 

SOLANACE/E. 

Solanum, Tourn. 

Dulcamara, L. Bittersweet. 

380. 
nigrum, L. Nightshade. 380. 
Physalis, L. Ground Cherry. 

viscosa, L. 382. 
Nicandra, Adans. 

physaloides, Gaertn. Apple 
of Peru. 382. 



Datura, L. Thorn-Apple. 

Stramonium, L. Stramonium. 

38}. 
tatula, L. 383. 

SCROPHULARACEiE. 

Verbascum, L. Mullein. 

Thapsus, L. Common Mul- 
lein. 325. 

Blattaria, L. Moth Mullein. 
Roadsides. Not common. 325. 
Linaria, Tourn. Toad-flax. 

Canadensis, Dumont. 326. 

vulgaris, Mill. Butter & 
Eggs. 326. 
Scrophularia, Tourn. Figwort. 

nodosa, L. 327. 
Chelone, L. 

glabra, L. Snake-head. 327. 
Penstemon, Mitchell. 

pubescens, Soland. Hadley, 
Springfield, etc. 328. 
Mimulus, L. Monkey-flower. 

ringens, L. 328. 

alatus, Soland. 328. 
Gratiola, L. Hedge- Hyssop. 

Virginiana, L. 330. 

aurea, Muhl. 330. 
Ilysanthes, Raf. False Pimpernel. 

gratioloides, Benth. 330. 
Veronica, L. Speedwell. 

Virginica, L. Culver's Physic. 

332- . 
Anagallis, L. 332. 
Americana, Schwein. 332. 
scutellata, L. 332. 
officinalis, L. True Speedwell. 

332-. 
serpyllifolia, L. 333. 

peregrina, L. 333. 

arvensis, L. J^^Ty. 

Geradia, L. 

pedicularia, L. 335. 

flava, L. 335. 

quercifolia, Pursh. 335. 

purpurea, L. Leverett, Tuckerm. 

334- 
tenuifolia, Vahl. 335. 
Castilleia, Mutis. 

coccinea, Spreng. Painted-cup. 

336. 
Schwalbea, Gronov. Chaff-seed. 
Americana, L. Montague, Jes- 
up. 336. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



37 



Pedicularis, Tourn. Louse-wort. 
Canadensis, L. 337. 
lanceolata, Michx. Prescott, E. 
F. Bishop. W. Springfield, 
Hitchcock. 337. 
Melanipyrum, Tourn. 

American um, Miclix. Cow- 
Wheat. 338. 

Orobanchace.«. 

Aphyllon, Mitchell. Broom-rape. 

uniflorum, Gray. 323. 
Conopholis, Wallr. Squaw-root. 

Americana, Wallr. Mt. Holyoke, 
Hitchcock. 323. 
Epiphegus, Nutt. Beech drops. 

Virginiana, Bart. 322. 

Lentibulriace^. 

Utricularia, L. Bladderwort. 

inflata, \V' alt. Belchertovvn Ponds. 
31S, 

vulgaris, L. 318. 

minor, L. Leverett Pond. Bish- 
op. Proctor's Pond, Spencer, 
Cobb. 3 1 8. 

gibba, L. Leverett, Bishop. 
Springfield, W. H Chapin. 

. 3'9- 

intermedia. Hayne. Leverett & 
Belchertown. 319. 

purpurea, Walt. Belchertown, 
Bishop. 319. 

resupinata, Greene. Belcher- 
town, Bishop. 319. 

cornuta, Michx. 319. 

Verbenace^. 
Phryma, L. Lopseed. 

Lejjtostachya, L. 341. 
Verbena, Tourn. Vervain. 
urticaefolia, L. 340. 
angustifolia, Michx. S. Hadley, 
Hitchcock. Amlierst, Clark. 

340- 
hastata, L. 340. 

Labiate. 
Trichostema, Gronov. Blue Curls. 
dichotomum, L. Bastard Penny- 
royal. 344. 
Teucrium, L. Germander. 

Canadeuse, L. 343. 
Collinsonia, L. Horse-Balm. 



Canadensis, L. 350. 
Mentha, Tourn. Mint. 

viridis, L. Spearmint. 344. 

piperita, L. Peppermint. 344. 

Canadensis, L. Horse-mint. 345. 
Lycopus, Tourn. Water Hore- 

HOUND. 

Virginicus, L. Bugle-weed. 345. 
sinuatus. Ell. (L. Europaeus, L., 
var. sinuatus. Gray, Man.) 346. 
Pycnanthemum, Michx. Mountain 
Mint. 
linifolium, Pursh. 348. 
lanceolatum, Pursh. 348. 
muticum, Pers. 347. 
incanum, Michx. Mt. Holyoke, 
etc. 347. 
Origanum, Tourn. Majoram. 

vulgare, L. 348. 
Calamintha, Tourn., Moench. 

Clinopodium, Benth. Wild 
Basil. 349. 
Melissa, Tourn. Balm 

officinalis, L. Conway, Jesup. 

35^- 
Hedeoma, Pers. 

pulegioides, Pers, American 
Pennyroyal. 350. 
Monarda, L. 

didyma, L. Leverett, etc. 351, 
fistulosa, L. Shelburn, F. G. 
Tjicker}na7i. 351. 
Blephilia, Raf. 

ciliata, Raf. Hadley Meadow, 

Jesup. 352. 
hirsuta, Benth. Cummington, 
Hitchcock. 352. 
Lophanthus. Benth. Giant Hyssop. 
nepetoides, Benth. Deerfield, 
Hitchcock. 353. 
Nepeta, L. 

Cataria, L. Catnip. 353. 
Glechoma, Benth. Gill-over- 

THE-GROUND. 353. 

Scutellaria, L. Skull cap. 

lateriflora, L. Mad-dog Skull- 
cap. 357. 
galericulata, L. 357. 
Brunella, Tourn. 

vulgaris, L. Self-heal. 355. 
Marrubium, Tourn. 

vulgare, L. White Hore- 
HOUND. 357. 



38 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



Leonurus, L. 

Cardiaca, L. Motherwort. 
359. 
Lamium, Tourn. Dead Nettle. 

amplexicaule, L. 359. 

purpureum, L. 359. 
Galeopsis, L. Hemp-nettle. 

Tetrahit, L. 357. 
Stachys, Tourn. Wound-wort. 

palustris, L. 358. 

aspera, Michx. (S. palustris, L.^ 
var. aspera, Gray, Man.) 358, 

Plant agin ACE/E. 

Plantago, Tourn. 

major, L. Common Plantain. 

311. 
lanceolata, L. Rib-gr.\ss. 311. 
Patagonica. Jacq., var. aristata. 

Gray. Springfield, IV. H. 

Chapin. 312. 

Apetalae. 

Aristolochiace/e. 
Asarum, Tourn. Wild Ginger. 

Canadense, L. 403. 
Aristolochia, Tourn. 

serpentaria, L. Virginia Snake- 
root. Said to have been found 
at Turner's Falls. 404. 

Phytolaccace^. 

Phytolacca, Tourn. 

decandra, L. Poke. 405. 

CHENOPODIACEiE. 

Chenopodium, L. Goose-foot. Pig- 
weed. 
album, L. 407. 
hybridum, L. 407. 
Botrys, L. Oakof Jerusalem. 
407. 
Blitum, Tourn. Blite. 

capitatum, L. Rare, Hitchcock. 
408. 

Amarantace^. 
Amarantus, Tourn. Amaranth. 
retroflexus, L. 412. 
alb us, L. 4r2. 

POLYGONACEyE. 

Polygonum, L. Knotweed. 

orientale, L. Waste places. 
Prince's Feather. 415. 



Careyi, Olney. East Amherst, 
etc., C. H. Hitchcock. 415. 

Pennsylvanicum, L. Shores of 
Conn, river. 415. 

incarnatum, Ell. Southvvick, etc. 

415- 

Persicaria, L. Lady's Thumb. 
416. 

Hydropiper, L. Common Smart- 
weed. 416. 

acre, H. B. K 416. 

hydropiperoides, Michx. 416. 

amphibium, L. Belchertown & 
Granby, E. F. Bishop. Ash- 
field, Jesiip. 416. 

Virginianum, L. 417. 

articulatum, L. Joint-weed. 
417. 

aviculare, L. & var. erectum. 
Roth. Knotgrass. 417. 

tenue, Michx. 418. 

arifolium, L: Halberd-leaved 
Tear-thumb. 418. 

sagittatum, L. Arrow-leaved 
Tear-thumb. 41S. 

Convolvulus, L. Black 

BlND-WEED. 418. 

Cilinode, Michx. 418. 

dumetorum, L., var. scandens, 
Gray. Climbing Buckwheat. 
418. 
Fagopyrum, Tourn. 

esculentum, Moench. Buck- 
wheat. 419. 
Rumex, L. Dock. 

Patientia, L. Patience. Am- 
herst, Tuckermaii, and com- 
mon northward, yifj"///). 419. 

orbiculatus, Gray. Great Wa- 
ter-Dock. Amherst, Jesup, 
and northward, Frost. 420. 

verticiUatus, L. 420. 

crispus, L. Curled Dock. 
42 1. 

obtusifolius, L. Bitter 
Dock. 421. 

Engelmanni, Ledeb. 421. 

Acetosella, L. Sheep's Sor- 
rel. 421. 

Laurace.e. 

Sassafras, Nees. 

oflicirale, Nees. Sassafras. 423. 
Lindera, Thunb. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



39 



Benzoin, Meisn. Spice-bush. 
423- 

Thymeleace^. 
Dirca, L. Leatherwood. 
palustris, L. 424. 

Santalace^. 
Comandra, Nutt. Bastard Toad- 
Flax. 
umbellata, Nutt. 425. 

Ceratophyllace.*;. 
Ceratophyllum, L. Hornwort. 
demersiim, L. 427. 

Callitrichace^. 
Callitriche, L. Water Starwort. 
verna, L. 428. 

PoDOSTEMACEvB. 

Podostemon, Michx. 

ceratophyllus, Michx. In Conn, 
river, Hitchcock. 429. 

EUPHORBIACE^. 

Euphorbia, L. Spurge. 
inaculata, L. 432. 
hypericifoHa, L. 432. 
Cyparissias, L. 435. 
Acalypha, L. Three-seed Mercury. 
Virginica, L. & var. gracilens. 
Gray. Greenfield, J. L. Ben- 
nett. 436. 

IJRTICACEiE. 

Ulmus, L. Elm. 

fulva, Mich. Slippery Elm. 442. 

Americana, L., Willd. Common 
Elm. 442. 
Celtis, Tourn. Nettle-tree. 

occidentah's, L. & var. crassifolia. 
Gray. 443. 
Morus, Tourn. Mulberry. 

rubra, L. 444. 

alba, L. Shelburn Mt., /. Z. 
Bennett. 444. 
Urtica, Tourn. Nettle. 

gracilis, Ait. Tall Nettle. 444. 

urens, L. Small Nettle. 444. 
Laportea, Gaudich. Wood Nettle. 

Canadensis, Gaudich. 445. 
Pilea, Lindl. Richweed. Clearweed. 

pumila, Gray. 445. 
Boehmeria, Jacq. False Nettle. 

cylindrica, Willd. 445. 



Parietaria, Tourn. Pellitory. 

Pennsylvanica, Muhl. Sugar- 
Loaf, etc. 446. 
Cannabis, Tourn. Hemp. 

sativa, L. 446. 
Humulus, L. Hop. 

Lupulus, L. 446. 

Platanace^. 

Platanus, L. 

occidentalis, L. Sycamore. But- 
tonwood. Plane-Tree. 447. 

Juglandace^. 

Juglans, L. 

cinerea, L. Butternut. 447. 
Carya, Nutt. Hickory. Walnut. 

alba, Nutt. Shag-bark. 448. 

porcina. Nutt. Pig-nut. 449. 

amara, Nutt. Bitter-nut. 449. 

CUPULIFER^. 

Quercus, L. Oak. 

alba, L. White Oak. 450. 

bicolor, Willd. Swamp White 
Oak. 451. 

Prinus, L.,var. monticola, Michx. 
«Sr var. acuminata, Michx. 
Chestnut Oak. 451. 

prinoides, Willd. Dwarf Chest- 
nut or Chinquapin-Oak. 452 
&681. 

ilicifolia, Wang. Scrub Oak. 

453- 
coccinea, Wang. Scarlet Oak, 

& var. tinctoria. Gray. Black 

Oak. 453 & 454. 
rubra, L. Red Oak. 454. 
palustris, Du Roi. Pin Oak. 454. 
Castanea, Tourn. Chestnut. 

vesca, L.jVar. Americana, Michx. 

455- 
Fagus, Tourn. Beech. 

ferrueinea. Ait. 455. 
Corylus, Tourn. Hazel-nut. 

Americana, Walt. 456. 

rostrata. Ait. PJf.aked Hazel. 

456- 
Ostrya, Mich. Hop Horn-beam. 
Virginica, Willd. Iron-wood. 

456- 
Carpinus, L. H(n<x-i'.EAM. 
Americana, Michx. 457. 



40 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



Myricace/e. 

Myrica, L. 

Gale, L. Sweet Gale. Bel- 

chertown, etc. 457. 
cerifera, L. Bayberry. Con- 
way, etc. 457. 
Comptonia, Soland. 

asplenifolia, Ait. Sweet-fern. 

458- 

BETULACEiE. 

Betula, Tourn. Birch. 

lenta, L, Black birch. 458. 
lutea, Michx. f. Yellow birch. 

459- 
alba, L., var. populifolia, Spach. 

White birch. 459. 

papyracea, Ait. Canoe birch. 

459- 
pumila, L. Amherst region, 

Eaton Man. 460. 

Alnus, Tourn. Alder. 

viridis, DC. Mountain Al- 
der. Conway, Jesup. 460. 

incana, WiUd. Hoary Alder. 
461. 

serrulata, Ait. 461. 



462. 

463- 

Near Conway, 

463- 
var. occidentalis. 



464. 
464. 
Brittle 



Wil- 



Salicace^. 
Salix, Tourn. Willow. 
tristis. Ait. 462. 
humilis, Marsh. 462 
discolor, Muhl. 
sericea. Marsh, 
purpurea, L. 

Jesup. 463. 
cordata, Muhl. 
Uvida, Wahl., 

Gray. 464. 
lucida, Muhl. 
nigra, Marsh, 
fragilis, L. 

low. 465. 
alba, L., White Willow, & 

var. vitellina. Gray, Yellow 

Willow. 465. 
longiioHa, Muhl. 465. 
myrtilloides, L. Deerfield, Tuck- 
er man. 465. 
Populus, Tourn. Poplar. 

tremuloides, Michx. Aspen. 466. 
grandidentata, Michx. Great 

Aspen. 466 
monilifera. Ait. 

467. 
balsamifera, L 

lar. 467. 



Cotton-wood. 
Balsam Pop- 



G y 7?i n s p e r m CB . 



Conifer.^. 

Pinus, Tourn. Pine. 

rigida, Mill. Pitch Pine. 469. 

resinosa. Ait. Red Pine. 470. 

Strobus, L. White Pine. 470. 
Abies, Tourn. Spruce. 

nigra, Poir. Black Spruce. 471. 

alba, Michx. White Spruce. 
471. 

Canadensis, Michx. Hemlock 
Spruce. 471. 



balsamea. Marsh. Balsam Fir. 
471. 
Larix. Tourn. Larch. 

Americana, Michx. Hackma- 
tack. Tamarack. 472. 
Juniperus, L. Juniper. 

communis, L. Common Juni- 
per. 473. 
Virginiana, L. RedCedar. 474. 
Taxus, Tourn. Yew. 

baccata, L., var. Canadensis, 
Gray. 474. 



M otiocotylcdons or E n d g e n s . 



S P A D I C E .« . 

Arace^. 

Arisgenia, Mart. 

triphyllum, Torr. Indian Tur- 
nip. Jack-in-the-pulpit. 476. 



Dracontium, Schott. Green 
Dragon. Deerfield, Belcher- 
town, etc. 476. 
Peltandra, Raf. 

Virginica, Raf. Belchertown. 
476. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



41 



Calla, L. Wild Calla. 

palustris, L. 477. 
Symplocarpus, Salisb. 

foetidus, Salisb, Skunk Cab- 
bage. 477. 
Orontium, L. 

aquaticum, L. Golden Club. 
Hampton Pond. Southwick. 
Westfield Pond. Slow Brook, 
E. of Mt. Tom. 477. 
Acorus, L. 

Calamus, L. Sweet Flag. 478. 

Lemnace^. 

Lemna, L. Duckweed. 
trisulca, L. 479. 
minor, L, 479. 
polyrrhiza, L. 479. 

Typhace^. 

Typha, Tonrn. 

latifolia, L. Cat-tail. 480. 
Sparganium, Tourn. Bur-reed. 

simplex, Huds. 481. 

Naiadace^. 

Naias, L. 

flexilis, Rostk. 483. 
Potamogeton, Tourn. Pondweed. 

natans, L. 484. 

Oakesianus, Robbins. 485. 

Claytonii, Tuckerm. 485 

Spirillus, Tuckerm. 485. 

hybridus, Michx. 486. 

rufescens, Schrad. 486. 

lonchites, Tuckerm. Conn, riv- 
er, etc. 486. 

pulcher, Tuckerm. S. Pond, Bel- 
chertown. 486. 

amplifolius, Tuckerm. 487. 

gramineus, L. 487. 

lucens, I.,. Leverett Pond. 487. 

pr^longus, Wulf. 488. 

perfoliatus, L, 488. 

compressus, L. 488. 

obtusifolius, Mert. & Koch. 
Ford's Pond, Granby. 488. 

pauciflorus, Pursh. 489. 

pulsillus, L. & var. vulgaris, Fr 
489. 

pectinatus, L. Conn, river. 490. 

Robbinsii, Oakes. 490. 



Petaloide^. 

AUSMACEiE. 

Scheuchzeria, L. 

palustris, L. Belchertown Ponds. 
491. 
Alisma. 1.. 

Plantago, L., var. Americanum, 
Gray. 492. 
Sagittaria, L. Arrow-head. 

variabilis, Engelm. 493. 

heterophylla. Pursh. 494. 

graminea, Michx. 494. 

Hydrocharidace.*:. 
Anacharis, Rich. Water-weed. 

Canadensis, Planch. 495. 
VaUisneria, Mich. Tape-Grass. 
Eel-Grass. 
spiralis, L. 496. 

Orchidace^. 
Orchis, L. 

spectabilis, L. Showy Orchis. 
498 
Habenaria, Willd., R. Br. Orchis. 
tridentata. Hook. 499. 
virescens, Spreng. 499. 
viridis, R. Br., var. bracteata, 

Reichenb. 500. 
hyperborea, K. Br. 500. 
dilatata, Gray. 500. 
Hookeri, Torr. 501. 
orbiculata, Torr. 501. 
ciliaris. R. Br. East Amherst, 
C. H. Hitchcock. Easthampton. 
502, 
blepharigl(jttis. Hook. 502. 
lacera, R. Br. 502. 
psycodes, Gray. 502. 
fimbriata, R. Br. 503. 
Goodyera. R. Br. Rattle-snake 
Plantain. 
repens, R. Br. 503. 
pubescens. R. Br. Rattle- 
snake Leaf. 503. 
Spiranthes, Rich. Lady's Tresses. 
latifolia, Torr. Amherst, G. L. 
Goodalc. Conway. Jcsup. 504. 
cernua, Rich. 505. 
gracilis, Bigel. 505. 
Listera, R. Br. Twavhlade. 

cordata, R. Br. Plain field, Por- 
I ter. 506. 



42 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



Arethusa, Gronov. 

bulbosa, L 507. 
Pogonia. Juss. 

ophioglossoides, Nutt. 507. 
pendula, Lindl. Deerfield, Hitch- 
cock. 507. 
verticillata, Natt. 507. 
Calopogon, R. Br. 

pulchellus, R. Br. 508. 
Tipularia, Nutt. 

discolor, Nutt. Deerfield, Hitch- 
cock. 508. 
Microstylis, Nutt. Adder's-mouth. 
ophioglossoides, Nutt. Deerfield, 
Hitchcock. Spencer, Cobb. 509. 
Liparis, Rich. Twayblade. 

liliifolia, Rich. 509. 
^^:;;Loeseiii, Rich. 509. 
Corallorhiza, Hall. Coral-root. 
innata, R. Br. 510. 
odontorhiza. Nutt. 510. 
multiflora. Nutt. 510. 
Aplectrnm, Nutt Putty-root. 

Adam & Eve. 
hyemale, Nutt. Mt. Holyoke 
& Conway, Hitchcock. 511. 
Cypripedium, L Lady's Slipper. 
arietinum, R Br. Mt. Toby, 

Clark. 511. 
parviflorum, Salisb. 512. 
pubescens, WilUl. 512. 
spectabile, • Swartz. Deerfield, 
Hitchcock. Easthampton, 

Clark. Mt. Holyoke, Jesup. 
512. 
acaule. .\it. 512. 

A.MARVLLIDACE^. 

Hypoxys, L Yellonv Star-grass. 
erecta, L. 514. 

H.EMODORACEvE. 

Aletris, L. Star-grass. 
farinosa. L. 515. 

Iridace^. 
Iris, L. FLo^vER de Luce. 

versicolor, L. 516. 
Sisyrinchium, L Blue-eyed Grass. 
Bermudiana, L. 517. 
Smilace^.. 
Sniilax, Tourn. 

rotundifolia, L. Green-brier. 
519- 



herbacea, L. Carrion-Flower. 
520. 

Liliace^. 

Trillium, L. Wake Robin. 

grandiflorurn, Salisb. Pelham, 

Hitchcock. 522. 
erectum, L. Birth root. 523. 
cernuum, L. Nodding Wake- 
Robin. 523. 
erythrocarpum, Michx. Painted 
Trillium. 523. 
Medeola, Gronov. Indian Cucumber. 

Virgiiiica, L. 524. 
Veratruni, Tourn. 

viride, Ait. White Hellebore. 

525- 
Uvularia, L. Bellwort. 

grandiflora, Sm. Berkshire, Oakes; 
probably within our limits. 528. 
pertohata. L. 528. 
sessilifolia, L. 528. 
Streptopus, Michx. Twisted Stalk. 
amplexifolius, DC. 529. 
roseus, Michx. Spencer, in open 
meadow ! Cobb. 529. 
Clintonia, Raf. 

boreaUs, Raf. 529. 
Smilacina, Desf. False Solomon's 
Seal. 
racemosa, Desf. 530 
stellata, Desf. 530. 
trifolia, Desf Pelham & Cum- 

migton, Hitchcock. 530. 
bifolia, Ker. 530. 
Polygon atum, Tourn. Solomon's 
Seal. 
biflorum, Ell. 531. 
giganteum, Dietr. 53:. 
Asparagus, L. 

officinalis, L. Garden As- 
paragus. 531. 
Lilium, L. Lily. 

Philadelphicum, L. Orange-red 

Lily. 532. 
Canadense, L. Drooping Yel- 
low Lily. 532. 
superbum, L. Turk's-Cap Lily. 

532- 
Erythronium, L. Dog's-Tooth Vio- 
let. 
Americanum, Smith. Yellow 
Adder's-tongue. 533. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



43 



Ornithogalum, Tourn. | 

umbellatum, L. Star-of- 
Bethlehem. In grass land, 
Amherst. 533. 
Allium, L. Onion. 

tricoccum, Ait Wild Leek. 534. 
Canadense, Kalm. Meadow 
Garlic 534. 
Hemerocallis, L. Day- Lily. 

fulva, L. Roadsides. 535. 

JUNCACE^. 

Luzula, DC. Wood-Rush. 
pilosa, Willd. 536. 
parviflora, Desv., var. melanocar- 
pa, Gray. Mt. VVachusett, 
Cobb. 536. 
campestris, DC. 536. 
Juncus, L. Rush. Bog-Rush. 
effusus, L. Soft Rush. 537. 
filiformis, L. Hadley meadows. 

537- 
marginatus. Rostk. Amherst, 

etc. 539. 
bufonius. L. Toad Rush. 539. 
tenuis, Willd. 540. 
pelocarpus, E. Mey. Shores of 

Lock's Pond, etc., Tuckerman. 

540. 
articulatus, L. Mill Hollow, 

Amherst, etc, 541. 
acuminatus, Michx., var. legiti- 

mus, Engelm. 542. 
nodosus, L. Hockanum; Whit- 

more's Ferry, etc. 542. 
Canadensis, J. Gay, var. longi- 

caudatus, Eng., & var. coarc- 

tatus, Eng. 543 & 544. 

PONTEDERIACEiE. 

Pontederia, L. 

cordata, L. & var. angustifolia, 

Torr. PiCKEREL-wEED. 545. 

SchoUera, Schreb. Water Star 

GRASS. 

graminea, Willd. 545. 

COMMELYNACE>E. 

Tradescantia, L. 

Virginica, L. Escaped & estab- 
lished at Easthampton. 547. 



Xyridace^. 
Xyris. L. Yellow-eyed Grass. 

flexuosa, Muhl., Chapm., & var. 
pusilla. Gray. At Lock's Pond, 
etc. 548. 

Eriocaulonace^. 

Eriocaulon, L. Pipewort. 
septangulare. With. 550. 

Glu mace ae. 

Cyperace^. 

Sedges. 

Cyperus, L. Gai.ingale. 

diandrus, Torr. 552. 

erythrorhizos, Muhl. Agawam 
River, Mrs M. L Owen. 552. 

inflexus, Muhl. 553. 

dentatus, Torr. 553. 

phymatodes. Muhl. 554, 

strigosus, L. 554. 

Michauxianus, Schult. Hadley 
meadows, y^'j-//'/. 554. 

filiculmis, Vahl. 555. 
Dulichium, Rich. 

spathaceum, Pers. 556. 
Fuirena, Rottbol], squarrosa, Michx. 
Springfield, Mrs. M. L. Oiven. 

. 556- 
Hemicarpha, Nees. 
j subsquarrosa, Nees. 557. 

j Eleocharis, R. Br. Spike Rush. 
I Robbinsii, Cakes. Ponds. 557. 

[ obtusa, Schult. 558. 

j olivacea, Torr. 558. 

palustris, R. Br. 558. 
intermedia, Schult. 559. 
tenuis, Schult. 559. 
acicularis, R. Br. 560. 
Scirpus, L. Club Rush. 

planifolius, Muhl. 561. 
subterminalis, Torr. 561. 
pungens, Vahl. 561. 
Torreyi, Olney.* Pond in Had- 
ley meadows, etc., Tuckerman. 
562. 
validus, Vahl. Bull-rush. 563. 
debilis, Pursh. 563. 
atrovirens, Muhl. 564. 
polyphyllus, Vahl. 564. 
lineatus, Michx. Plain field, Por- 
ter. 565. 



44 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



Eriophorum, Michx. Wool 

Grass. 565. 
Eriophorum, L. Cotton-grass. 

alpinum, L. Cranberry Pond, 

Leverett, e\.c.,Tuckerman. 565. 
vaginatum, L. Belchertown S. 

T^or\^,/esiip. 565. 
Virginicum, L. 565. 
polystachyon, L., var. angusti 

folium. Gray, &var. latifolium. 

Gray. 566. 
gracile, Koch. Leverett, etc., 

Tuckerman. 566. 
Fimbristyhs, Vahl. 

autumnalis, Roem. & Schult. 567. 
capillaris. Gray. 567. 
Rhynchospora, Vahl. Beak-Rush, 
fusca, Roem. & Schult. Leverett 

Pond, Tuckerman. 568. 
alba, Vahl. 569. 
glomerata, Vahl. 569. 
macrostachya, Torr. Belcher- 
town & Leverett, Hitchcock. 

570- 
Cladium, P. Browne. Twig-Rush. 

mariscoides, Torr. Belchertown, 
Leverett etc., Hitchcock. 570. 
Scleria, L. 

triglomerata, Michx. Whip- 
grass. Amherst, Jesup. Had- 
ley, etc., Hitchcock. 570. 
Carex, L. Sedge. 

pauciflora, Lightf. Ashfield; Por- 
ter. 573. 

polytrichoides, Muhl. 573. 

Backii, Boott. Mt. Tom. /V^/. 
W. D. Whitney. 574. 

bromoides, Schk. 574. 

siccata, Dew. Westfield, Rev. 
Dr. Davis. 574. 

teretiuscula, Good , & var. major, 
Koch. Deerfield, Hitchccck. 

474 & 475- 
vulpinoidea, Michx. 575. 
stipata. Muhl. 575. 
sparganioides, Muhl. 576. 
cephalophora, Muhl. 576. 
Muhlenbergii, Schk. Hadley, 

etc. , Tuckerman. 576. 
rosea. Schk. 577. 
retroflexa, Muhl. 577. 
tenella, Schk. 577. 
trisperma, Dew. 577. 



tenuiflora, Wahl. Southampton, 

Chapman. 578. 
canescens, L.,& var. vitilis. Gray. 

578. 
Deweyana, Schwein. 578. 
sterilis, VVilld. 578. 
stellulata, L., var. scirpoides, 

Boott. 579. 
scoparia, Schk. 579. 
lagopodioides, Schk. 579. 
cristata, Sehwein., & var. mira- 

bilis Boott. 580. 
adusta, Boott. Hadley, etc., 

Tuckertnan. 580. 
straminea, Schk., & var's tenera, 

Boott, aperta, Boott, & fes- 

tucacea. Tucker m. 580. 
torta, Boott. 582. 
stricta. Lam. 583. 
crinita, Lam. 583. 
limosa, L. Ashfield, Porter. 584. 
Buxbaumii, Wahl. 585. 
aurea, Nutt. Conway. Jesup. 

585- 

tetanica, Schk. Amherst, Hitch- 
cock. 586. 

granularis, Mulh. Amherst, Hitch- 
cock, & northward, Frost. 587. 

pallescens, L. 587. 

conoidea, Schk. 587. 

grisea, Wahl. 587. 

glaucodea, Tuckerm. Mt. Hol- 
yoke, etc. 

Davisii, Schwein. & Torr. N, 
Hadley. 588. • 

formosa, Dew. Amherst, Hitch- 
cock. 588. 

gracilliraa, Schwein. 588. 

virescens, Muhl. 588. 

triceps, Michx. 588. 

planteginea. Lam. Mt. Toby. 
Rocky Mt., Greenfield. 589, 

platyphylla, Carey. Mt. Holyoke, 
etc. 589. 

retrocurva. Dew. Amherst, etc.^ 

589- 
digitalis, Willd. 589. 
laxiflora, Lam. & var. plantagi- 

nea, Boott, & var. blanda^ 

Boott. 589. 
pedunculata, Muhl. Mt. Hol- 

yoke, etc. 591. 
umbellata, Schk. 591. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



45 



Novae-Angli?e, Schwein. 591. ! 

Emmonsii, Dew. 591. 

Pennsylvanica, Lam. 591. , 

varia, Muhl. 592. 

pubescens, Muhl. 592. 

miliacea, Muhl. 592. 

scabrata, Schwein. 593. 

arctata, Boott. Leyden, Hitch- 
cock. Spencer, Easthampton, 
Cobb. 593. 

debilis, Mi<:hx. 593. 

flava, L. 594. 

fill form i=, L. 595. 

lanuginosa, Mich.x. 595. 

vestita, Willd. 595. 

polymorpha, Muhl. Westfield, 
Rev. Dr. Davis. 595. 

riparia, Curt. 596. 

trichocarpa, Muhl. Amherst, 
Hitchcock. 597. 

comosa, Boott. 597. 

hystricina, Willd. 597. 

tentaculata, Muhl, & var. altior, 
Boott. 597. 

intumescens, Rudge. 598. 

lupulina, Muhl. 598. 

folliculata, L. 598. 

squarrosa, L. Hadley, Hitch- 
cock. 599. 

retrorsa, Schwein. Plainfield, 
Hitchcock. 599. 

utriculata, Boott. 600. 

Monile, Tuckerm. 601. 

Tuckermani, Boott. 60 r. 

longirostris, Torr. 602. 

G R A M I N E^. 

Grasses. 
Leersia, Soland. White Grass. 607. 
Virginica. Willd. 607. 
oryzoides, Swartz. Rice Cut- 
Grass. 607. 
Zizania, Gronov. Wild Rice. North- 
ampton. 608. 
aquatica, L. 
Alopecurus, L. Fox-tail Grass. 
pratensis, L. 608. 
geniculatus. L. 608. 
aristulatus, Michx. Amherst, etc., 
Tuckertnan. 608. 
Phleum, L. Cats-tail Grass. 

pratense, L. Herd's Grass. 
Timothy. 608. 



Vilfa, Adans., Beauv. Rush-Grass. 

vaginteflora, Torr. 609. 
Sporobolus, R. Br. Drcp Seed Grass. 

serotinus, Gray. 610, 
Agrostis, L. Bent grass. 

perennans, Ti/cker?n. 61 r. 

scabra, Wilid. 61 1. 

vulgaris. Wiih. Red-top. 612. 

alba, L. White-top. 612. 
Cinna, L. Wood Reed-Grass. 

arundinacea. L. 612. 
Muhlenbergia, Schreb. Drop-seed 
Grass. 

sobolifera, Trin. 613. 

glomerata, Trin. 613. 

Mexican a, Trin. 613. 

sylvatica, Torr. & Gr. 613. 

Willdenovii. Trin. 614. 

diffusa, Schreb. Amherst, y^i"?//. 
614. 

capillaris, Kunth. Hair-Grass. 

Sugar Loaf etc., Cooley. 614. 

Brachyelytrum, Beauv. 

aristatum. Beauv. 
Calamagrostis, Adans. 

Canadensis. Beauv. 

Nuttallaina, Steud. 
Oryzopsis, Michx. Mountain Rice. 

melanocarpa, Muhl. 617. 

asperifolia, Michx. 

Canadensis, Torr. 
Aristida, L. 

dichotoma, Michx. 

purpurascens, Poir. 
yoke, Hitchcock. 
field. Dr. Robbins. 
Spartina, Schreb. 

cynosuroides, Willd. Shores of 
Conn, river, Tuckertnan. 619. 
Eleusine, Gaertn. Crab-Grass. 

I n d i c a , Gaertn. Dog's-Tail. 
Amherst, rare, Hitchcock. 623. 
Tricuspis. Beauv. 

seslerioides, Torr. Sugar-Loaf, 
Hitchcock. 624. 
Dactylis, L. Orchard Grass. 

glomerata, L. 625. 
Eaton ia, Raf. 

obtusata. Gray. 626. 

Pennsylvanica, Gray. 626. 
Glyceria, R. Br., Trin. Manna- 
Grass. 

Canadensis, Trin. 627. 



614. 

Blue-Joint. 
615. 
615- 



617. 
617. 

618. 

Mt. Hol- 
West Spring- 
619. 



46 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



elongata, Trin. 627. 
nervata, Trin. 627. 
pallida, Trin. 627 
aquatica, Smith. 627. 
fluitans. R. Br. 627. 
acutifl ira. Torr A'nherst. 628. 
Poa, L. Meadow Grass. 
annua, L. 629. 
compressa, L. 629. 
serotina, Ehrh 629. 
pratensis, L English Grass. 

CoM.MON Meadow Grass. 630. 
trivia lis, L. 630. 
flexuosa, Muhl. Amherst? P. 

nemoralis of Hitchcock Catal.? 

630 
Eragrostis, Beauv. 

reptans, Nees. 631. 
poaeoides. Beauv. Amherst, 

Tuckrin. Easthampton, Cobb, & 

var. megastachya, Gray. 631. 
p i 1 o s a, Beauv. Amherst, 

Tuckermaii 631. 
Purshii, (Bernh?) Schrader. 

Springfield, W. H. Chapin. 

632. 
capillaris, Nees. 632. 
pectinacea. Gray. 632. 
Briza, L. Quaking-Glass. 

m e d i a, L. Amherst, Tuckerman. 

Spencer, Cobb. 633. 
Festuca, \^. Fescue Gr.a.ss. 
tenella, VVilld. 633. 
o v i n a, L , & var. d u r i u s- 

c u 1 a, Koch. , & var. g 1 a u c a, 

Koch Sheep's Fescue 633. 
e 1 a t i o r, L., & var. p r a t e n- 

s i s., Gray. 634. 
nutans, VVilld. 634. 
Bromus, L. Brome Grass. 

secalinus, L. Chess. Wheat 

fields, etc. 634. 
Kalmii, Gray. 634. 
ciliatus, L. 635. 
Phragmites, Trin. 

communis. Trin. Reed. S. Am- 
herst, Hitchcock. 636. 
Nardus, L. 

s t r i c t a, L. Mat-Grass. In 

poor grass-land, Amherst since 

1 8 7 I , Tucker in an. 
Lolium. L. Darnel. 

perenne, L. 637. 



Triticum, L. Wheat. 

r e pe n s, L Witch- Grass. 637. 
caninum, L. Mt. Holyoke, Lev- 
erett, etc. 638. 
Elymus, L. Lyme Grass. 
Virginicus, L. 639. 
Canadensis, L 639. 
striatus, WiUd 639. 
Gymnostichum, Schreb. Bottle- 
brush Grass. 
Hystrix, Schreb. 639. 
Danthonia, DC. 

spicraa, Beauv. 640. 
compressa, Austin. Shutesbury, 

etc , [esiip. 
sericea, Nutt. Easthampton, 
Cobb. 640. 
Avena, L. 

striata, Michx. Spencer, Cobb. 
640. 
Trisetum, Pers. 

subspicatum. Beauv., var. moUe, 
Gray. Nonotuck, 2\ckerm. 
641. 
palustre, Torr. Amherst, Hitch- 
cock. 641. 
Aira, L. Hair-Grass. 
flexuosa, L. 641. 
caespitosa, L. Hadley Meadows. 
641. 
Arrhenatherum, Beauv. Oat-Grass. 

a ve n ace u m, Beauv. 642. 
Holcus, L., in part. Soft Grass. 
1 a n a t u s, L. Grass-land, Am- 
herst, Tuckernian. 642. 
Anthoxanthum, L. 

odoratum, L. Sweet Vernal 
Grass. 643. 
Phalaris, L. Canary-Grass. 

C a n a r i e n s i s, L. Royalston, 

Prof. T. E. N. Eaton. 643. 
arundmacea, L. 643. 
Paspalum, L. 

setaceum. Michx. 645. 
laeve, Michx. Spencer, Cobb. 645. 
Panicum, L. Panic-Grass. 
filiforme, L. 646. 
glabrum, Gaud. Amherst 

and Hadley. 646. 
sanguinale, L. 646. 
agrostoides, Spreng. 646. 
proliferum. Lam. Amherst, etc., 
Tuckerman. 646. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



47 



capillare, L. Old witch Grass. 

647. 
virgatLim, L. 647. 
latifolium, L. 647. 
clandestinum, L. 647. 
xanthophysum.Gray. Springfield, 

rare, IV. H Chapin. 648. 
pauciflorum, Eil ? Mt. Holyoke, 

Jesup. 648. 
dichotomum, L. 648. 
depauperatum, Muhl. 649. 
C r u s g a 1 1 i, L. 649. 



Setaria, Beauv. Fox-tail. 

g 1 a u c a, Beauv. 650. 

viridis, Beauv. 650. 

Italic a, Kunth. 650. 
Cenchrus, L. 

tribuloides, L. 650. 
Andropogon, L. 

furcatus, Muhl. 651. 

scoparius, Michx. 651. 
Sorghum, Pers. 

nutans, Gray. 652. 



PTERIDOPHYTA 



Selaginell^. 

Isoetes, L. Quill-wort. 

echinospora, Durieu. 676. 

riparia, Engelm. 676. 

Engelmanni, Braun. 677. 
Selaginella, Beauv., Spiing. 

rupestris, Spring. 675. 

apus, Spring. 675. 

LyCOPODIACE/E. 

Lycopodium, L., Spring. Club-Moss. 
lucidulum, Michx. 673. 
inundatum, L. 673. 
annotinum, L 673. 
dendroideum, Michx. 674. 
clavatum, L. True Club-Moss. 

674. 
complanatum, L. & v. sabinae- 

folium. Gray. Ground-Pine. 

674. 

Filices. 
Ferns. 43 species. 

Polypodium, L. 

vulgare, L. 658. 
Pellaea, Link, 

gracilis, Hook. Mts. Holyoke, 
Toby & Tom. 659. 

atropurpurea, F^e. Mts. Toby 
& Tom. 660. 
Pteris, L. 

aquilina, L. Brake. 658. 
Adiantum, L. Maidenhair. 

pedatum, L. 658. 
Wood ward i a. Smith. 

angustifolia, Smith. 661. 



Virginica, Smith. 660. 
Asplenium. L. 

Trichomanes, L. 661. 

ebeneum, Ait. 661. 

angustifolium, Michx. Mts. To- 
by & Tom. 662. 

Ruta-muraria, L. Mt. Toby, etc. 
662. 

thelypteroides, Michx. 662. 

Felix foemina, Bernh. 662. 
Camptosorus, Link. 

rhizophyllus, Link. 663. 
Phegopteris, Fde. 

polypodioides. Fee. 663. 

hexagonoptera, Fee. 663. 

Dryopteris, Fde. 663. 
Aspidium, Swartz. Shield-fern. 

Noveboracense, Swartz. 664. 

Thelypteris, Swartz. 664. 

cristatum, Swartz, & var. Clinton- 
ianum, Eaton. 665. 

Goldianum, Hook. 666 

margin ale, Swartz. 666. 

spinulosum, Swartz, & vars. vul- 
gare, Eaton, intermedium, Eat- 
on, tSi dilatatum, Hook. 664 
& 665. 

Bootii, Tuckerm. (A. spinulosum, 
Swartz, var. Boottii, Gray, 
Man.) 665. 

acrostichoides, Swartz. 666. 

aculeatum, Swartz, var. Braunii, 
Doell. Brattleboro, Frost. 
667. 
Cystopteris, Bernh. 

fragilis, Bernh. 667. 

bulbifera, Bernh. 667. 



48 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



Onoclea, L. 

sensibilis, L. 668. 

Struthiopteris, Hoffm. (Struthi- 
opteris, Germanica, Willd., 
Man.) 667. 
Woodsia, R. Br. 

Ilvensis, R. Br. 66g. 

obtusa, Torr. 668. 
Dicksonia, L' Her. 

pilosiuscula, Willd. (D. punctilo 
bula, Kunze, Man.) 669. 
Lygodium, Swartz. Climbing Fern. 

palmatum, Swartz. 670. 
Osmunda, L. 

regalis, L. 670. 

Claytoniana, L. 670. 

cinnamomea, L. 670. 

Ophioglossace.«. 

Ophioglossum, L. 

vulgatum, L. Adder's-tongue. 
672. 
Botrychium, Swartz. Moon wort. 



matricariaefolium, Milde. Con- 
way, Springfield, etc. 

lanceolatum, Angstr. Conway, 
Amheist, etc. 671. 

simplex, Hitchcock. Conway, 
Springfield, etc. 671. 

ternatum, Swartz, & vars. lunar- 
oides. Milde, australe, Eaton, 
obliquum, Milde, dissectum, 
Milde, (B. lunaroides, Swartz, 
& vars., Man.) 672. 

Virginianum, Swartz. 671. 

Equisetace^. 
Equisetum. L. 

arvense, L. 654. 

sylvaticum, L. 654. 

limosum, L. 654. 

hyemale, L. 655. 

variegatura, Schleich. Conway, 

Jesiip. 655. 
scirpoides, Michx. Plainfield, 
Porter. 655. 



BRYOPHYT A 



Musci. 
Mosses. 196 species. The numbers 
refer to pages in l>esquereux 
& James's Manual of the Moss- 
es of North A nierica ; S. E. 
Cassino & Co., Boston, Mass., 
1884. 

Sphagnace.'E. 

Sphagnum, Dill. 

acutifolium, Ehrh. 13. 
cuspidatum, Ehrh. 14. 
squarrcsum, Pers. r6. 
subsecundum, Nees. 19. 
cymbifolium, Ehrh. 21. 

ANDREiEACE/E. 

Andresea, Ehrh. 

rupestris, Tourn. 25. 

Bryace.^. 
Sphaerangium, Schimp. 

muticum. 40. 
Phascum, L., in part. 

cuspidatum, Schreb. 42. 
Pleuridium, Brid. 

subulatum, Br. & Sch. 43. 

alternifolium, Brid., in part. 44. 



Bruchia, Schwaegr. 

flexuosa. 46. 
Gymnostomura, Hedw. 

rupestre, Schwaegr. 53. 

curvirostrum, Hedw. 54. 
Weisia, Hedw. 

viridula, Brid. 55. 
Dichodontium, Schimp. 

pellucidum, Schimp. 62. 
Trematodon, IVlichx. 

ambiguum, Hornsch. 63. 

longicoUis, Michx. 63. 
Dicranella, Schimp. 

varia, Schimp. 65. 

rufescens, Schimp. 66. 

heteromalla, Schimp. 66. 
Dicranum, Hedw. 

flagellare, Hedw. 70. 

fulvum, Hook. 70. 

longifolium, Hedw. 70. 

scoparium, Hedw. 73. 

Drummondii, Muell. 76. 

undulatum. Turn. 76. 
Fissidens, Hedw. 

bryoides, Hedw. 81. 

minutulus, Sulliv. 85. 

osmundoides, Hedw. 87. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



49 



adiantoides, Hedw. 88. 

subbasilaris, Hedw. 88. 
Conomitrium, Mont. 

Julianum, Mont. 8g. 
Leucobryum, Hanipe. 

vulgare, Hantipe. 90. 

minus, Sulliv. 91. 
Ceratodon, Brid. 

purpureus, Brid. 92. 

Pottia, Ehrh. 

truncata, Fuern. loi. 
Leptotrichum, Hampe. 105. 

tortile, Muell. 105. 

vaginans, Lesq. & James. 106. 

pallidum, Hampe. 107. 

glaucescens, Hempe. 108. 
Barbula, Hedw. 

unguiculata, Hedw. 120. 

fallax, Hedw. 121. 

convoluta, Hedw. 127. 

caespitosa, Schwaegr. 129. 

mucronifolia, Br. & Sch. 131. 

Grimmia, Ehrh. 

conferta, Funck. 135. 

apocarpa, Hedw. 136. 

Olneyi, Sulliv. 142. 

Donniana, Smith. 142. 

Pennsylvanica, Schwaegr. 144. 
Racomitrium, Biid. 

aciculare, Brid. 148. 

fasciculare, Brid. 150. 
Hedwigia, Ehrh. 

ciliata, Ehrh. 152. 

Drummondia, Hook. 

clavellata, Hook. 160. 
Ulota, Mohr. 

Ludwigii, Brid. 161. 

crispa, Brid. 162. 

crispula, Brid. 163. 

Hutchinsice, Schimp. 163. 
Orthotrichum, Hedw. 

cupulatum, Hoffm., var. minus, 
Sulliv. 165. 

speciosum, Nees. 169. 

strangulatum, Beauv. 172. 

obtusifolium, Schrad. 177. 
Encalypta, Schreb. 

ciliata, Hedw. 182. 

Tetraphis, Hedw. 

pellucida, Hedw. 186. 



Aphanorhegma, SuUiv. 

serrata, Sulliv. 196. 
Physcomitrium, Brid. 

pyriforme, Brid. 197. 
Funaria, Schreb. 

hygrometrica, Sibth. 202. 

Bartramia, Hedw. 

Oedenana, Swartz. 205. 

pomiformis, Hedw. 206. 
Philonotis, Brid. 

Muhlenbergii, Brid. 208. 

fontana, Brid. 209. 

Leptobryum, Schimp. 

pyriforme, Schimp. 215. 
Webera. Hedw. 

nutans, Hedw. 217. 

cruda, Schimp. 218. 

annotina, Schwaegr. 219. 

albicans, Schimp. 222. 
Bryum, Dill. 

intermedium, Brid. 228. 

bimum, Schreb. 229. 

atropurpureura, Wahl. 232. 

argenteum, L. 234. 

caespiticiura. L 2 55. 

capillare, L. 235. 

pseudotriquetrum. Schwaegr. 238. 

roseum, Schreb. 239. 
Mnium, L. 

cuspidatum, Hedw. 242. 

rostratum, Schwaegr. 243. 

affine. Bland. 244 

hornum, L. 245. 

stellare, Reichard. 247. 

cinclidioides, Hueben. 248. 

punctatum, Hedw. 248. 

Aulacomnium, Schwaegr. 

palustre, Schwaegr. 252. 
heterostichum, Br. & Sch, 253. 

Atrichum, Beauv. 

undulatum, Beauv. 256. 

angustatum, Br. & Sch. 256. 

crispum, James. 257. 
Pogonatum, Beauv. 

brevicaule, Beauv. 260. 

urnigerum, Beauv. 262. 
Polytrichum, L. 

formosum, Hedw. 264. 

piliferum, Schreb. 264. 

juniperinum, Willd. 265. 

commune, L. 266. 



5° 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



Diphyscium, Mohr. 

foliosum, Mohr. 267. 
Buxbaumia, Hall. 

aphylla, L. 268. 

Fontinalis, Dill. 

antipyretica, L. 268. 

Dalecarlica, Br. & Sch. 270. 

biformis, Sulliv. 270. 

Novae- Angliae, Sulliv. 270. 

Lescurii, Sulliv. 271. 

disticha, Hook. & Wils. 272. 
Dichelyma, Myrin. 

falcatum, Myrin. 273. 

capillaceum, Br. & Sch. 273. 

Leptodon, Mohr. 

tricomitrion, Mohr. 278. 
Neckera, Hedw. 

pennata, Hedw, 282. 

Leucodon, Schwaegr. 

julaceus, Sulliv. 288. 
Pterigynandrum, Hedw. 

filiforme, Hedw. 289. 

Anacamptodon, Brid. 

splachnoides, Brid. 296. 

Thelia, Sulliv. 

hirtelia, Sulliv. 299. 

asprella, Sulliv. 299. 
Myur'ella, Br. & Sch. 

Careyana, Sulliv. 300. 
Leskea, Hedw. 

polycarpa, Ehrh. 301. 

obscura, Hedw. 301. 

tristis, Cesat. 303. 
Anomodon, Hook. & Tayl. 

rostratus, Schimp. 305. 

attenuatus, Hueben. 305. 

obtusifolius, Br, & Sch. 305, 

viticulosus, Hook. & Tayl. 306. 

Platygyrium, Br. & Sch. 

repens, Br. & Sch. 307. 
Pylaisia, Br. & Sch. 

intricata, Br. & Sch. 309, 
Homalothecium, Br. & Sch. 

subcapillatum, Sulliv. 310. 
Cylindrothecium, Br. & Sch. 

cladorrhizans, Schimp. 311. 

seductrix, Sulliv. 311. 
Climacium, W®b. & Mohr. 

Americanum, Brid. 314. 



Hypnum, Dill. 

dimorphum, Brid. 321. 

minutulum, Hedw. 322. 
scitum, Beauv. 323. 
gracile, Br. & Sch. 324. 
recognitum, Hedw. 325. 
delicatulum. L 325. 
abietinum, L. 326. 
Blandovii, Weber & Mohr. 326, 

paludosum, Sulliv. 330. 

laetum, Brid. 335. 
acuminatum, Beauv. 336. 
salebrosum, Hoffm. 336. 
velutinum, L. 339. 
rutabulum, L. 342. 
Novae-Anglise, Sulliv. & Lesq. 

344 
populeum, Hedw. 345. 
plumosum, Swartz. 345. 

strigosum, Hoffm. 351. 
Boscii, Schwaegr. 352. 
piliferum, Schreb. 353. 
Sullivantii, Spruce. 353. 
hians. Hedw. 354. 

demissum, Wils. 355. 
recurvans, Schwaegr. 356. 

serrulatum, Hedw. 359. 
rusciforme, Weis. 359. 

Alleghaniense, Muell. 362. 

denticulatum, L, 367. 
SuUivantiae, Schimp. 368. 
sylvaticum, Huds. 368. 
Muhlenbeckii, Spruce. 370. 

serpens, L. 373. 
radicale, Beauv. 373. 
orthocladon, Beauv. 374. 
adnatum, Hedw. 375. 
Lescurii, Sulliv. 376. 
riparium, L. 376. 

hispidulum, Brid. 378. 
chrysophyllum, Brid. 378. 
stellatum, Schreb. 379. 

aduncum, Hedw. 380. 
uncinatum, Hedw. 382. 
fluitans, L. 383. 

filicinum, L. 386. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



51 



cristacastrensis, L. 389. 

mollusciim, Hedw. 389. 

reptile, Michx. 390. 
imponens, Hedw. 393. 
cupressiforme. L. 394. 
curvifolium, Hedvv. 396. 
pratense, Koch. 397. 
Haldanianura, Grev. 397. 

palustre, Huds. 398. 
eugyrium, Schimp. 401. 
ochraceum, Turn. 401. 

cordifoliurii. Hedw. 402. 
cuspidatum, L. 403. 
Schreberi, VVilld. 404. 
stramineum, Dicks. 405. 

splendens, Hedvv. 407. 
umbratum, Ehrh. 407. 
brevirostre, Ehrh. 408. 

triquetrum, L. 409. 

Hepatic/E. 

Liverworts. 47 species. The 
numbers refer to pages of Underwood's 
Catalogue of the North American 
Hepatica, North of Mexico ; Peoria, 
III, 1884. 

RiCCIACEiE. 

Riccia, Mich. 

lutescens, Schwein. 27. 
fluitans, L. 28. 
natans, L. 29. 

Marchantiace^. 

Marchantia, L. 

polymorpha, L. 'i^t^. 
Asterella, Beauv. 

hemisph?erica, Beauv. 37. 
Conocephalus, Necker. 

conicus, Dumort. 39. 
Fimbriaria, Nees. 

tenella, Nees. 41. 

AnTHOCEROTACEvE. 

Anthoceros. L. 

laevis, L. 45. 
punctatus, L. 47. 



Jungermanniace^. 

Aneura, Dumort. 

multifida, Dumort. 54. 

palmata, Nees. 54. 
Pellia, Raddi. 

epiphylla, Nees. 56. 
Blasia, Mich. 

pusilla, L. 56. 
Metzgeria, Raddi. 

myriopoda, Lindbl. 58. 
Frullania, Raddi. 

Eboracensis, Gottsche. 61. 

Virginica, Gottsche. 65. 

tamarisci, Neee. 66. 

Grayana, Mont. 66. 
Lejeunia, Libert. 

cucullata, Nees. 71. 
Madotheca, Dumort. 

platyphylla, Dumort. 75. 

porella, Nees. 76. 
Radula, Nees. 

complanata, Nees. 78. 
Blepharostoma, Dumort. 

trichophylla, Dumort. 80. 
Blepharozia. Dumort. 

ciliaris, Dumort. 81. 
Trichocolea, Dumort. 

tomentella, Dumort. 82. 
Bazzania, B. Gr. 

trilobata, B. Gr. 83. 
Lepidozia, Nees. 

reptans, Dumort. 84. 

setacea. Mitt. 84. 
Calypogeia, Raddi. 

trichomanis, Corda. 85. 
Geocalyx, Nees. 

graveolens, Nees. 86. 
Chiloscyphus, Corda. 

polyanthos, Corda. 87. 
Lophocolea, Nees. 

bidentata, Dumort. 88. 
Odontoschisma, Dumort. 

sphagni. Dumort. 91. 
Cephalozia. Dumort. 

bicuspidata. Dumort. 93. 
multitlora, Lindbl. 94. 

divaricata, Dumoit. 94. 

curvifolia, Dumort. 95. 
Jungermannia, L. 

Schraderi, Martins. 98. 
barbata, Schreb. 100. 
crenulata, Smith. loi. 



52 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



excisa, Dicks. 105. 
Scapania, Dumort. 

nemorosa, Nees. 109. 

exsecta, Aust. no. 
Plagiochila, Dumort. 



porelloides, Lindenb. 112. 
spinulosa, Nees & Mont, 
asplenoides, Nees & Munt. 
Nardia, B. Gr. 

emarginata, B. Gr. 114. 



113- 



CARPOPHYTA 



C h a r ac e a e . 



C H A R E A E . 

Nitelia, Ag. 

gracilis, Ag. 
syncarpa, Thuill. 
flexilis, Ag., & var. glomerulifera, 
Braun. 



mucronata, Braun. 
batrachosperma, Braun. 
Chara, (L.), Ag. 
vulgaris, L.> 

coronata, Ziz., var. Schweinitzii, 
Braun. 



B a s i d i my c e te s 



Hymenomycetes. 

ToAD-s TOOLS, Mushrooms 

Agaricus, L. 

vaginatus. Bull. 5. 
c^sareus. Scop. 
Ceciliae, B. & Br. 6. 
vernus, Fr. 7. 
phalloides, Fr. 7. 
map pa, Batsch. 7. 
volvatus, Peck, 
excelsus, Fr. 8. 
muscarins, Fr. 8. 
strobiliformis, Fr. 9. 
rubescens, Pers 
affinis, Frost. 

procerus, Scop, 
rachodes, Vitt. 
excorialus, Schaef. 13. 
mastoideus, Fr. 13. 
acutesquamosus, Wm. 14. 
clypeolarius, Bull. $5. 
felinus. Peck. 
Americanus, Peck, 
cristatus, Fr. 15. 
cepjestipes. Sow. 16. 
granulosus, Batsch. 17. 

ramentaceus, Bull. 19. 
melleus, Vahl. 19. 
ponderosus, Peck. 



9- 

12. 

I 2. 



equestris, L. 20. 
sejunctus. Sow. 21. 
portentosus, Fr. 21. 
compactus, Sow. 
spermaticus, Fr. 22. 
rubicundus, Peck, 
rutilans, Schaeff. 24. 
imbricatus, Fr. 25. 
multipunctus, Peck, 
terreus, Schaeff. 27. 
albus, Fr. 33. 
nudus, Fr. 

nebularis, Batsch. 35. 
subinvolutus, Batsch. 
altus, Frost, 
phyllophilus, Fr. 37. 
dealbatus, Pers. 38. 
elixus, Sjw. 38. 
illudens, Schw. 
fumosus, Pers. 39. 
maxim us, Fr. 40. 
infundibulifofl-mis, Schaeff. 40. 
geotropus, Bull. 41. 
albissimus, Peck, 
pinus, Frost, 
abortiens, B. & C. 
flaccidus, Sow. 42. 
cyathiformis, Fr. 42. 
anomalus, Frost, 
laccatus, Scop. 44. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY, 



53 



ulmarius, Bull. 46. 
ostreatus, Jacq. 48. 
salignus, Fr. 48. 
petaloides, Bull. 49. 
mitis, Pers. 49. 
porrigens, Pers. 50. 
applicatus, Batsch. 52. 
stypticus, Bull, 
chioneus, Pers. 52. 

radicatus, Relh. 53. 
platyphyllus, Fr. 54. 
fusipes, Bull. 54. 
butyraceus, Bull. 55. 
velutipes, Curt. 55. 
contluens, Pers. 56. 
conigenus, Pers. 57. 
cirrhatus, Schum. 57. 
tuberosus, Bull. 58. 
myriadophyllus, Peck, 
dryophylus. Bull. 59. 
tenacellus, Pers. 60. 
clavus, Bull. 60. 
asemus, Fr. 

pelianthinus, Fr. 63. 
rubromarginatus, Fr. 64. 
rosellus, Fr. 65. 
purus, Pers. 65. 
lacteus. Pers. 66. 
galericulatus, Scop. 67. 
alcalinus, Fr. 69. 
filipes, Bull. 70. 
aureosquamosus, Frost, 
galopus, Schrad. 73. 
epiterygius, Scop. 73. 
citrinellus, Pers. 74. 
corticola, Schum. 76. 
capillaris, Schum. 77. 
olivarius, Peck. 

pyxidatus, Bull. 78. 
hepaticus, Batsch. 78. 
cyanipes, Frost, 
campanella, Batsch. 81. 
camptophyllus, Peck. 
fibula, Bull. 82. 

parvulus, Weinm. 85. 

cretaceus, Fr. 86. 

cervinus, Schaeff. 87. 
sterilimarginatus, Peck. 



cyaneus, Peck. 
sericellus, Fr. 93. 
clypeatus, L. 93. 
rhodopolius, Fr. 94. 
stnctior, Peck, 
salmoneus, Peck. 

prunulus, Scop. & var. Orcella, 
Bull. 96 & 31. 

variabilis, Pers. 98. 
chalybeus, Pers. 100. 
asprellus, Fr. loi. 

prsecox, Pers. 105. 
squarrosus, Muell. 107. 
adiposus, Fr. 108. 
mutabilis, Schaeff. 109. 
discolor. Peck, 
mycenoides, Fr. no. 
temnophyllus, Peck. 

flocculentus. Poll. 114. 
lacerus, Fr. 115. 
rimosus, Bull. 118. 
geophyllus, Sow. 119. 
subochraceus, Peck. 

polychrous. Berk. 

mollis, SchaefT. 125. 

melinoides. Fr. 128. 
discomorbidus, Peck, 
semiorbicularis, Bull. 129. 
autumnalis, Peck. 

tener, Schaeff. 133. 
hypnorum, Batsch. 134. 

furfuraceus, Pers. 136. 

arvensis, Schaeff. 137. 
campestris, L. 137. 

seruginosus, Curt. 140. 
stercorarius, Fr. 142. 
magnus, Frost, 
semiglobatus, Batsch. 142. 

sublateritius, Fr. 143. 
epixanthus, Fr. 143. 
lachrymabundus, Fr. 144. 
perplexus, Peck. 

fcenisecii, Pers. 149. 

fibrillosus, Pers. 152. 



54 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



fimiputris, Bull. 156. 
phalcenarum, Fr. 156. 
retirugis, Batsch. 156. 
campanulatus, L. 157. 
papilionaceus, Bull. 157. 
fimicola, Fr. 158. 

disseminatus, Fr. 160. 
Coprinus, Fr. 

comatus Fr. 161. 

atramentarius, Fr. 162. 

fimetanus. Fr. 164. 

tomentosus, Fr. 164. 

niveus, Fr. 164. 

micaceus, Fr. 165. 

radiatus, Fr. 168. 

domesticus, Fr. 168. 

ephemerus, Fr. 168. 

plicatilis, Fr. 169. 
Bolbitus, Fr. 

titubans, Fr. 170. 

tener, B. 171. 
Coitinarius, Fr. 

caperatus, Fr. 172. 

cyanipes, Fr. 173. 

callochrous, Fr. 174. 

cserulescens, Fr. 175. 

subpurpurascens, Fr. 

lilacinus, Peck. 

turbinalus, Fr. 175. 

orichalceus, Batsch. 

scaurus, Fr. 176. 

squamulosus, Peck. 

coUinitus, Fr. 177. 

spha^rophorus, Peck. 

tricolor, Peck. 

elatior, Fr. 177. 

violaceus, Fr. 179. 

pholideus, Fr. i8o. 

ochroleucus, Fr. 181. 

tabularis, Fr. 182. 

anoraalus, Fr. 183. 

sanguineus, Fr. 183. 

cinnamorneus, Fr. 184. 

armillatus, Fr. 186. 

Spraguei, B. & C. 

rugosus, Frost. 

nigellus, Peck. 

lachrymans. Frost. 

speciosus, Frost. 

ileopodius, Fr. 188. 

castaneus, Fr. 190. 

vernalis, Peck. 

striatus, Frost. 



Lepista, Smith, 

personata, Fr. 193. 
Paxillus, Fr. 

involutus, Batsch. 194. 

porosus, Fr. 

griseo-tomentosus, Seer. 

flavidus, Berk. 
Hygrophorus, Fr. 

chrysodon, Fr. 195. 

eburneus, Fr. 196. 

cossus, Fr. 196. 

erubescens. Fr. 

fuligneus, Frost. 

flavo-discus, Frost. 

tephroleucus, Fr. 

virgatulus, Peck. 

pratensis, Fr. 199. 

virgineus, Fr. 199. 

niveus, Fr. 199. 

borealis, Peck 

cinnabarinus, Fr. 

Cantharellus, Fr. 

laetus, Fr. 201. 

ceraceus, Schaef. 201. 

coccineus, Fr. 201. 

cuspidatus, Frost. 

coerulescens, B. & C. 

nitidus, B. & C. 

miniatus, Fr. 202. 

congelatus. Peck. 

puniceus, Fr. 202. 

obrusseus, Fr. 202. 

conicus, Fr. 203. 

psittacinus, Fr. 203. 
Gomphidius, Fr. 

viscidus, Fr. 205. 
Lactarius, Fr. 

torminosus, Fr. 207. 

cilicioides. Fr. 207. 

insulsus, Fr. 208. 

zonarius, With. 

fistulosus, Frost. 

hysginus, Fr. 209. 

trivialis, Fr 210. 

purpureofuscus, Frost. 

politus, Frost, 

flexuosus, Fr. 

uvidus, Fr. 210. 

leucophcTeus, Frost. 

pyrogalus, Fr. 210. 

Gerardii, Peck. 

pergamenus, Sw. 

fragrans, Frost. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



55 



piperatus, Fr. 212. 


peronatus, Fr. 232. 


vellereus, Fr. 2 1 2. 


oreades, Fr. 233. 


deliciosus, L. 213. 


plancus, Fr. 


Chelidonium, Feck. 


archyropus, Fr. 235. 


Indigo, Schw. 


scorodonius, Ft. 235. 


pallidus, Fr. 213. 


velutipes, B. &. Br. 


unicolor, Frost. 


rotula, Fr. 238. 


theiogalus, Fr. 214. 


campanulatus, Peck. 


paludosus, Frost. 


androsaceus, L. 239. 


rufus, Fr. 215. 


perforans, Fr. 239. 


subdulc.is, Fr. 217. 


filipes, Peck. 


subfloccosus, Frost. 


opacus, B. & C. 


mordax, Frost. 


Lentinus, Fr. 


pallor, Frost. 


lepideus, Fr. 242. 


udus. Frost. 


cochleatus, Fr. 242. 


distans. Peck. 


Lecontei, Fr. 


umbellKformis, Frost. 


strigosus, Schw. 


Russula, Fr. 


Panus, Fr. 


adusta, Fr. 218. 


torulosus, Fr. 244. 


funiosa, Frost. 


conchatus, Fr. 244, 


compacta. Frost. 


operculatus, B. & C. 


furcata, Fr. 219. 


stypticus, Fr. 245. 


sulcata, Frost. 


Schizopliyllum, Fr. 


virescens, Pers. 220. 


commune, Fr. 247. 


albocinerascens. Frost. 


Lenzites, Fr. 


lepida, Fr. 22 '. 


betulina, Fr. 247. 


rubra, Fr. 221. 


Klotszchii, Berk. 


purpurea. Frost. 


sepiaria, Fr. 248. 


Candida, Frost. 


bicolor, Fr. 


fcetans, Pers. 222. 


abietina, Fr. 248. 


simillima. Peck. 


vialis. Peck. 


emetica, Fr. 223. 


Boletus, Fr. 


ochroleuca, Fr. 223. 


pictus, Peck. 


distans, Frost. 


Ravenelii, B. & C. 


flavida. Frost. 


salmonicolor, Frost. 


fragilis, Fr. 224. 


serotinus. Frost. 


decolorans, Fr. 224. 


viridarius. Frost. 


nitida, Fr. 225. 


rtavidus, Fr. 


regularis, Frost. 


viscosus, Frost. 


alutacea, Fr. 225. 


collinitus, Fr. 


Cantharellus, Adams. 


granulatus. L. 251. 


floccosus, Schw. 


unicolor. Frost. 


cibarius, Fr. 227. 


albus, Peck. 


minor. Peck. 


bovinus, L. 252. 


aurantiacus, Fr. 227. 


chrysenteron, Fr. 254. 


tubieformis, Fr. 228. 


subtomentosus, L. 254. 


infundibuliformis, Fr. 229. 


spadiceus, Schaef. 


cinereus, Fr. 229. 


miniatoolivaceus, Frost. 


muscigenus, Fr. 230 


speciosus. Frost. 


Nyctalis, Fr. 


rubeus, Frost. 


asterophora, Fr. 231. 


Spraguei, Frost. 


parasitica, Fr. 231. 


luridus, Fr. 258. 


Marasmius, Fr. 


Frostii, Russell. 



56 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



firmus, Frost. 

ampliporus, Peck. 

magnisporus, Frost. 

decorus, Frost. 

tenuiculus, Frost. 

aurisporus, Peck. 

innixus, Frost. 

Roxanae, Frost. 

Russellii, Frost. 

affinis, Peck. 

edulis, Bull. 256. 

retipes, B. & C. 

limatulus, Frost. 

robustus, Frost. 

gracilis, Peck. 

piperatus, Bull. 252. 

ferrugineus, Frost. 

pallidas, Frost. 

sordidus, Frost. 

chromapus, Frost. 

versipellis, Fr. 259. 

scaber, Fr. 259. 

felleus, Bull. 260. 

castaneus, Bull. 261. 

cyanescens, Bull. 260. 
Strobilomyces, Berk. 

strobilaceus, Berk. 261 
Polyporus, Fr. 

ovinus, Schaef. 

brutnalis, Fr. 262. 

Schweinitzii, Fr. 264. 

perennis, Fr. 264. 

splendens, Peck. 

caeruleosporus, Peck. 

varius, Fr. 266. 
elegans, Fr. 266. 
Boucheanus, Fr. 
lucidus, Fr. 267. 

giganteus, Fr. 268. 
sulfureus, Fr. 268. 

destructor, Fr. 270. 
lacteus, Fr. 
gilvus, Schw. 
adustus, Fr. 271. 
isabellinus. Vr. 
cuticularis, Fr. 272. 
spumeus, Fr. 273. 
resinosus, Fr. 
betulinus, Fr. 273. 
conchifer, Schw. 
spissus, Schw. 



applanatus, Fr. 274. 
fomentarius, Fr. 274. 
ignarius, Fr. 275. 
Ribis, Fr. 275. 
pinicola, Fr. 
marginatus, Fr. 
cinnabarinus, Fr. 
ulmarius, ¥r. 276. 
carneus, Nees. 
radiatus, Fr. 278. 
cupuK-efonnis, B. & C. 
scruposus, Fr. 
salicinus, Fr. 276. 
cervinus, Fr. 
annosus, Fr. 277. 
hirsutus, Fr. 278. 
hirsutulus, Schw. 
versicolor, Fr. 279. 
pergamenus, Batsch. 
laceratus. Berk, 
abietinus. Fr. 279. 

ferruginos.is. Fr. 280. 

incarnatus, Fr. 281. 

xanthus, Fr. 

meduUa-panis, Fr. 282. 

vulgaris, Fr. 282. 

vaporarius, Fr. 284. 

amorphus, Fr. 272 

incrustans, B. & C. 

scutellatus, Schw. 

sanguinolentus, Schw. 

cucullatus, B. <k C. 
Trametes, Fr. 

pini,Fr. 285. 

suaveolens, Fr. 286. 

odnra, Fr. 286. 

sepium. Berk. 
Dsedalea, Fr. 

quercina, Pers. 287. 

confragosa, Pers. 287. 

unicolor, Fr. 288. 
Merulius, Fr. 

tremellosus, Schrad. 2 J 

incarnatus, Schw. 

corium, Fr. 289. 

porinoides, Fr. 290. 

lachrymans, Fr. 291. 

hoedinus. B. & C. 

badius, B. & C. 

patellseformis, B. & C. 
Fistulina, Bull. 

hepatica, Fr. 292. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



57 



Hydnum, L. 

imbncatiim, L. 292. 
repandum. L. 292. 
compactiim, Fr. 293. 
zonaturn, Batsch. 293. 
dififractura, Berk, 
spadiceum, Pers. 
suaveolens, Scop. 

adustum, Schw. 

coralloides, Scop. 297. 
erinaceus, Bull. 297. 

septentrionale, Fr. 
strigosum, Sw. 
gelatinosum, Scop. 298. 
ochraceum, Pers. 298. 

niveum, Pers. 300. 

ferruginosum, Fr. 299. 

amplissimum, B. & C. 

farinaceum, Pers. 301. 
Sistotrema, Fr. 

confluens, Pers. 302. 
Irpex, Fr. 

pendulus, Fr. 303. 

sinuosus, Fr. 

cinnamomeus, Fr. 

cinerascens, Schw. 

pityreus, B. & C 

deformis, Fr. 
Radulum, Fr. 

molare, Fr. 

rubiginosa, Berk. & Rav. 
Phlebia, Fr. 

merismoides, Fr. 305. 

radiata, Fr. 305. 

vaga, Fr. 306. 
Odontia, Fr. 

fimbriata, Fr. 307. 
Craterellus, Fr. 

iutescens, L. 309. 

cornucopioides, Fr. 309. 

crispus, Fr. 310. 
Thelephora, Fr. 

tuberosa, Grev. 311. 

anthocephala, Fr. 311. 

caryophylla, Fr. 312. 

multipartita, Schw. 

vialis, Schw. 

palmata, Fr. 312. 
paUida, Schw. 
trifaria, B. & C. 



pteruloides, B. & C. 
terrestris, Fr. 312. 

laciniata, Pers. 313. 

sebacea, Fr. 314. 
Stereum, Fr. 

purpureum, Fr. 316. 

fasciatum, Fr. 

hirsutum, Fr. 316. 

striatum, Fr. 

corrugatum, Berk. 

spadiceum, Fr. 317. 

ochraceo-flavum, Schw. 

complicatum, Fr. 

radiatum, Peck. 

rugosum, Fr. 317. 

Curtisii, Berk. 

Murraii, B. & C. 

frustulosum, Fr. 

imbricatulum, Schw. 

bicolor, Fr. 

acerinum, Fr. 317. 

obliquum, B. & C. 

albobadium, Schw. 
Hymenochaete, Lev. 

rubiginosa, Lev. 318. 

tabacina, Lev. 318. 
Auricularia, Fr. 

mesenterica, Bull. 319. 
Corticium, Fr. 

giganteum, Fr. 320. 

arachnoideutr., Berk. 321. 

evolvens, Fr. 320. 

leeve, Fr. 321. 

c?eruleum. Fr. 322. 

quercinum, Pers. 324. 

cinereum, Fr. 324. 

incarnatum. Fr. 324. 

Oakesii, B. & C. 

coUiculosum, B. &: C. 

Sambuci, Pers. 325. 

pauperculum, B. & C. 

scutellatum, B. & C. 

Auberianum, Mont. 

salicinum, Fr. 
Guepina, Fr. 

spathularia, Fr. 
Cyphella, Fr. 

fascirulata, B. & C. 

capula, Fr. 328. 

fulva, B. &. Rav. 328. 
Exobasidium, Woronin. 

Azaleas, Peck. May -Apples 



58 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



Solenia, Pers. 

Candida, Hoffm. 329. 
ochracea, Hoffm. 329. 
Sparasus, Fr. 

crispa, Fr. 330. 
Clavaria, L. 
flava, Fr. 

botrytis, Pers. ^^i. 
coralloides, L. 332. 
Tuckermani, Frost, 
albo-lilacina, Frost, 
cinerea, Bull. 332. 
cristata, Holmsk. 332. 
rugosa, Bull. 332. 
rnacropus, Pers. 
subtilis, Pers. 
pyxidata, Pers. 
Kunzei, Fr. 333. 
aurea, Schaeff. 333. 
rufescens, Schaeff. 
Peckii, Frost, 
spinulosa, Fr. 
abietina, Sebum. ^^2- 
stricta, Pers. 334. 
crispula. Fr. 334. 
fusiformis, Sow. 335. 
inequalis, Muell. 336. 
fragilis, Holmsk. 337. 
pistiUaris, L. 337. 
ligula, Fr. 
contorta, Fr. 338. 
raucida, Pers. 
clavata, Peck. 
Pterula, Fr. 

durissima, B. & C. 
Calocera, Fr. 

viscosa, Fr. 339. 
cornea, ¥r. 339. 
palmata, Fr. 
Crinula, Fr. 

paradoxa, B. & C. 
Typhula, Fr. 

phacorrhiza. Fr. 341 . 
muscicola, Fr. 341. 
Tremella, Fr. 

aurantia, Schw. 
lutescons, Fr. 345. 
mesenterica, Retz. 345. 
foliacea, Pers. 345. 
vesicaria, Bull. 345. 
albida, Huds. 346. 
intumescens, Sow. 346. 
enata, B. & C. 



Exidia, Fr. 

glandulosa, Fr. 349. 

cinnabarina, B. & C. 

repanda, Fr. 
Hirneola, Fr. 

Auricula-Judse, Berk. 349. 
N?ematelia, Fr. 

encephala, Fr. 350. 

nucleata, Fr. 350. 

atrata, Peck. 
Dacrymyces, Nees. 

violaceus, Fr. 351. 

deliquescens, Duby. 351. 

stillatus, Fr. 352. 

chrysosperma, B. & C. 

tortus, Fr. 
Hymenula, Fr. 

umbilicata, Fr. 

Gasteromycetes. 
Puff-balls. 

Hymenogaster, Tul. 

vulgaris, Tul. 361. 
Splanchnomyces, Corda. 

roseolus, Corda. 
Phallus, L. 

impudicus, L. 364. 

duplicatus, Bosc. 

indusiatus, Vent. 

rubicundus, Fr. 
Cynophallus, Fr. 

caninus, Fr. 365. 
Tulostoma, Pers. 

mammosum, Fr. 368. 
Geaster, Mich. 

limbatus, Fr. 370. 

fimbriatus, Fr. 370. 

hygrometricus, Pers. 371. 

minimus, Schw. 
Bovista, Dill. 

plumbea, Pers. 372. 
Lycoperdon, Tourn. 

albo-purpureum. Frost. 

gemmatum. Fr. 374. 

pyriforme, Schaeff. 374. 

separans, Peck. 
Mitremyces, Nees. 

lutescens, Schw. 
Scleroderma, Pers. 

vulgare, Fr. 374. 

Bovista, Fr. 375. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



59 



Cyathus, Pers. 

striatus, Hoffm. 409. 
vernicosus, DC. 410. 



Crucibulum, Tul. 

vulgare, Tul. 411. 
Sphaerobolus, Tode. 

stellatus, Tode. 412, 



Co7iiomycetes. 
Moulds, Rusts, & Smuts. 



Many of these forms are non-autonomous and nearly all are perhaps as- 
comycetous. 



417. 



Leptostroma, Fr. 

litigiosum, Desm. 
Phoma, Fr. 

scabriusculum, B. & C. 

nebulosum, Berk. 421. 

pallens, B. & C. 

Syringe, B. & C. 

glandicola, B. & C. 

ampelinum, B. &: C. 
Leptothyrium, Kunze. 

Fragarias, Lib. 423. 

Celastri, B. & C. 
Sphsronema, Tode. 

spina, B & C. 
Sphaeropsis, Lev. 

phomatospora, B. & C 

Platani, Peck. 

insignis, B. & C 

Frostii, Peck. 

Viticola, B. & C. 

Plantagicola, B. & C. 

collabens, B. & C. 

mamillaris, B. & C. 

torulosa, B. & C. 

oCellata, B. & C. 
Discosia, Lib. 

alnea, Lib. 439. 

grammita, B. & C. 
Diplodia, Fr. 

vulgaris. Lev. 

viticola, Desm. 

valsoides Peck. 
Vermicularia, Tode. 

Dematium, Fr. 

Liliaceorum, Schw. 
Hendersonia, Berk. 

Sartvvelli, B. & C. 

caespitosaj B. & C. 
Septoria, Fr. 

Ulmi, Kze. 441. 



431- 
432- 



438. 



Nabali, B. & C. 

Vitis, B. & C. 

Polygonorum, Desm. 444. 

Rhoides, B. & C. 

ochroleuca, B. & C, 

Herbarum, B. & C. 

maculans, B. & C 

plantaginicola, B. & C. 

Rubi, B. & C. 

Pyri, Curt. 

CEnotherre, B. & C. 
Depazea, Fr. 

Kalmicola, Schw. 

Pyrola^, Fr. 

cruenta, Kze. 

circumscissa, B. & C. 

castaneaecola, Fr. 
Asteroma, DC. 

reticulatum, Berk. 460. 

pomigena, Schw. 
Rabenhorstia, Fr. 

Tiliae, Fr. 461. 
Micropera, Lev. 

Drupacearum, Lev. 462. 
Discella, B. & Br. 

obscura, B. & C. 

carbonacea, B. & Br. 463. 
Melanconium, Link. 

bicolor, Nees. 466. 

magnum, Berk. 466. 

betulinum, Schw. 818. 

varium, B. cSc C. 
Stilbospora, Pers 

ovata, Pers. 468. 

macrosperma, Pers. 468. 
Conotheciuni, B. & C. 

torulosum, B. & C. 
Spilocaea, Fr. 

Pomi, Fr. 
Coryneum, Kunze. 



6o 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY, 



pulvinatum, Kze. 469. 

disciforme, B. & C. 

clavsesporum, Peck. 
Pestalozzia, DeNot. 

Guepini, Desm. 471. 
Endobotrya. 

elegans, B. & C. 
Myxosporium, DeNot. 

nitidum, B & C. 
Nemaspora, Pers. 

crocea, Pers. 472. 

pruinosa, B. & C. 
Gloeosporium, Mont. 

concentricum, B. & Br. 474. 

crocosporum, B. & C. 
Toriila, Pers. 

Herbarum, Link. 478. 
Bactridium, Kunze. 

flavum, Kze. 479. 
Septonema, Corda. 

spilcmeum, Berk. 481. 

olivaceum. Peck. 
Sporidesmium, Link. 

Lepraria, B. & Br. 484. 
Phragmidium, Link. 

mucronatum, Link. 490. 

speciosum, Fr. 
Triphragmium, Link. 

clavellosum, Berk. 
Puccinia, Pers. 

graminis, Pers. (Uredo graminis.) 

493- 

coronata, Corda. 494. 

Polygonorum, Link. 495. 

Menthae, Pers. 496. 

mesomajalis. Frost, Cat. 

Compositarum, Schl. 498. 

Umbelliferarum, DC. 501. 

Anemones, Pers. 503. 

Violarum, Link. 504. 

Tiarellce, B. & C. 

Circaeae, Pers. 507. 

Asteris, Schw. 

solida, Schw. 

Pyrolse, Cooke. 

Caricis, DC. 

Xanthi, Schw. 
Gymnosporangium, DC. 

Juniperi, Lk. 509. 
Podisoma, Link. 

Juniperi, Fr. 510. 
Ustilago, Link. 

Car bo, Tul. 512. 



Urceolorum, Tul. 512, 

Maydis, Corda. 513. 

utriculosa, Nees. 514. 

Junci, Schw. 
Urocystis, Rabh. 

pompholygodes, Schlecht. 517. 

Cepulae, Frost. 

pusilla, C. & P. 
Uromyces, Link. 

appendiculata, Lev. 518. 

Lespedezfe-violacae, Schw. 

Lespedeza^-procumbentis, Schw. 

Hyperici, Schw. 

macrospora, B. & C. 

apiculosa. Lev. 518. 

scutellata. Frost Cat. 

triquetra, Cooke. 

sohda, B & C. 

Junci, B. & C. 
Coleosporium, Lev. 

Tussilaginis, Lev. 520. 
Melamspora, Cast. 

salicina. Lev. 522. 

popuhna. Lev. 523. 
Uredo, Lev. 

Rubigo, DC. 

SoHdaginis, Schw. 

Pyrolse, Strauss. 

Caricina, DC. 493. 

Polygonorum, DC. 495. 

Potentillee, DC. 491. 

Cichoraceum, Lev. 

Filicum, Desm. 526. 

effusa, Strauss. 492 & 520. 

Leguminosarum, Lk. 

Ari-Virginici, Schw. 

miniata, Strauss. 489. 

graveolens, B. & C. 

Vacciniorum, Johnst. 

luminata, Schw. 
Trichobasis, Lev. 

Pyrolae, B. 529. 

suaveolens, Lev. 530. 
Lecythea, Lev. 

Saliceti, Lev. 532. 

ovata, Strauss. 
Roestelia, Reb. 

cornuta, Tul. 534. 

lacerata, Sow. 534. 

aurantiaca. Peck. 
Peridermium, Chev. 

Cerebrum, Peck. 

Pini, Chev. 535. 



I 



I 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



6l 



^cidium, Pers. 

quadrifidum, DC. 536. 

Epilobii, DC. 536. 

Euphorbiae, Pers. 537. 

Berberidis, Pers. 538. 

hydnoideuin, B. & C. 

Hbustonianum, Schvv. 

Sambuci. Schvv. 

Ranunculacearum, DC. 539. 

Cltmatitis. Schvv. 

GrosSLilarise. DC. 541. 

Urticffi, DC. 541. 

Compositarum, Mart. 542. 

Viola;. Schum. 54 5. 

Geranii. DC. 543. 

Marias-Wilsoni, Peck. 

Menthae, DC. 544. 

Rumicis, Pers. 

Lycopi, Gerard. 

Aroidaturn, Schw. 

CEnotherjE, Peck. 

Asteratum, Schvv. 
Cronartium, Fr. 

Asclepiadeuin, Fr. 
Isaria, Fr. 

farinosa, Fr. 548. 

brachiata, Schum. 548. 
Ceratium, A. & S. 

hydiioides, A. & S. 550. 
Stilbum, Tode. 

Soraguei, B. & C. 

Rhois, B. & C 

Polyporinum, Frost. 
Stemphyhum, VVallr. 

Fuligo, B. & C 
Tubercularia, Tode. 

granulata, Pers. 557. 

nigricans, DC. 558. 

vulgaris, Tode. 558. 

contiuens, Pers. 

dubia, Schvv. 
Fusarium. Link. 

laterit'um, Nees. 558. 

Berenice, B. & C. 
Epicoccum, 1-ink. 

micropus. Corda. 
Illosporium, Mont. 

roseum, Fr. 560. 

coccineum, Fr. 561. 
^gerita, Pers. 

Candida, Pers. 561. 



Periconia, Corda. 

CaUcioides, Berk. 565. 
Sporocybe, Fr. 

Persicae, Fr. 

Rhois, B. & C. 

byssoides, Fr. 566. 
Helnminthosponum, Link. 

macrocarpon, Corda. 

Tiha;, Fr. 572. 
Macrosporium, Fr. 

Cheiranthi, Fr. 576. 

Brassicae, Berk. 577. 
Mystrosporium, Corda. 

Spraguei, B. & C. 

ventricosum, B. & C. 
Polythrincium. Kunze. 

TrifoHi, Kze. 582. 
Cladosporium, iJnk. 

Herbarum, Link. 582. 

Fuinago, Link. 

epiphyllum, Nees. 583. 

cabosporum, B. & C. 
Aspergillus, Mich. 

glaucus, Lk. 588. 

fuliginosus, Peck. 

roseus, Lk. 588. 

maximus, Lk. 
Botrytis, Mich. 

"Viticola, B. & C. 

lateritia, Fr. (as A. cinnibarinus.) 

635- 
Verticillium, Link. 

nanum, B. & Br. 599. 
Dactylium, Nees. 

roseum. Berk. 608. 

dendroides, Fr. 607. 
Polyactis, Link. 

vulgaris. Lk. 600. 

cinerea. Berk. 601. 
Zygodesmus, Corda. 

fuscus, Corda. 611. 

olivaceus, B. & C. 
Streptothrix, Corda. 

atra, B & C. 
Botryosporiurn, Corda. 

diffusum, Corda. 617. 
Sepedonium, Link. 

chrysospermum, Lk. 619. 

cervinum, Fr. 
Pilacre, Fr. 

faginea, B. & Br. 625. 

Petersii, B. & C. 625. 



62 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



A s c o m y c e t e s . 
Lichens & Moulds. 



Some of these forms are probably non-autonomous. 



L I c H E N E s . 

Lichens. 

The page numbers previous to the 
genus Bteomyces refer to Tucker- 
man's Synopsis of the North American 
Lichens, Part I. ; S. E. Cassino, Bos- 
ton, 1882. 

Ramalina, Ach., De Not. 

calicaris, (L), Fr. 25 

pollinaria, (Ach.) 26. 
Cetrana, (Ach.). Fr., Miill. 

aleurites, (Ach.), Th. Fr. 32. 

ciHaris, (Ach.) 34. 

lacunosa, Ach. 35. 

glauca, (L.), Ach. 35. 

Oakesiana, Tuckerm. 36. 

aurescens, Tuckerm. 37. 
Evernia, Ach., Mann. 

furfuracea, (L. ), Mann. 39. 

prunastri, (L.), Ach. 39. 
Usnea, (Dill.), Ach. 

barbala, (L.), Fr. & vars. florida, 
Fr., hirta, Fr., rubiginea, Michx., 
ceratina, Schaer. & dasypoga, 
Fr. 41. 

angulata, Ach. 42. 

trichodea, Ach. 42. 

longissima, Ach. 43. 
Alectoria, (Ach.), Nyl. 

jubata, (L.) & var. chalybeiformis, 
Ach. 44. 

Theloschistes, Norm., Emend. 

chrysophthalmus, (L.), Norm. 48. 

parietinus, (L.), Norm., var. poly- 
carpus, (Ehrh.) 50. 

concolor, (Dicks.) 51. 
Parmelia, (Ach.), DeNot. 

perlata, (L.), Ach. 53. 

perforata, (Jacq.), Ach., var. crini- 
ta, Ach. 55. 

tiliacea, (Hoffm.), Floerk. 57. 

Borreri, Turn., var. rudecta, 
Tuckerm. 58. 



saxatilis, (L.), Fr. 59. 

physodes, (L.). Ach. 59. 

pertusa, (Schrank.), Schaer. 61. 

colpodes, (Ach.), Nyl. 61. 

olivacea, (L.), Ach. 62. 

caperata, (L), Ach. 63. 

conspersa, (Ehrh.), Ach. 64. 
Physcia, (DC, Fr.), Th. Fr. 

speciosa, (Wulf., Ach.), Nyl. & 
var. hypoleuca, (Muhl.), Tuck- 
erm. 67 & 68. 

aquila, (Ach.), Nyl., var. detonsa, 
Tuckerm. 71. 

pulverulenta, (Schreb.), Nyl. 72. 

stellaris, (L.), & var. tribacia, 
(Ach.), Tuckerm. herb., & var. 
hispida, (Schreb., Fr.), Tuck- 
erm. herb. 73-75. 

caesia, (Hoffm.), Nyl. 76. 

obscura, (Ehrh.), Nyl. & var., en- 
dochrysea, Nyl. 76 & 77. 

adglutinata, (Floerk.), Nyl. 77. 
Pyxine, Fr., Tuckerm. 

picta, (Sw. ;, Tuckerm., var. sore- 
diata, Fr. 80. 

Umbihcaria, Hoffm. 

Muhlenbergii, (Ach.), Tuckerm. 

86. 
Dillenii, Tuckerm. 87. 
Pennsylvanica, Hoffm. 89. 
pustulata, (L.), Hoffm. 90. 

Sticta, (Schreb. ), Fr. 

amplissima, (Scop.), Mass. 92. 

pulmonaria, (L.), Ach. 96. 

quercizans, (Michx.), Ach. 98. 

crocata, (L.), Ach. 100. 
Nephroma, Ach. 

tomentosum, (Hoffm.), Koerb. 
103. 

Helveticum, Ach. io.:|. 

laevigatum, Ach. 104. 
Peltigera, (VVilld., Hoffm.), Fee. 

venosa, (L), Hoffm. 105. 

aphthosa, (L.), Hoffm. 106. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



63 



horizontalis, (L.), Hoffm. 106. 
polydactyla. (Neck.), Hoffm. roy. 
rufescens, (Neck.). Hoffm. 108. 
canina, (L.), Hoffm. 109. 

Physma, Mass. 

luridum, (Mont.) 116. 
Pannaria, Delis. 

lanuginosa, (Ach.), Koerb. 117. 

rubiginosa, (Thunb.), Delis., & 
var. conoplea, Fr. 119 & 120. 

leucosticta, Tuckerm. 120. 

microphylla, (Sw.), Delis. 121. 

tryptophylla, (Ach.), Mass. 123. 

crossophylla, Tuckerm. 124. 

molybdaea, (Pers.). Tuckerm., 
var. cronia, Nyl. 125. 

flabellosa, Tuckerm. 127. 

nigra, (Huds.), Nyl. 127. 

Ephebe. Fr., Born. 

pubescens, Fr. 132. 
Omphalaria, Dur. & Mont. 

phyllisca, (Wahl.), Tuckerm. 139. 
Collema, (Hoffm.), Fr. 

pycnocarpum, Nyl. 143. 

aggregatum, Nyl. var. leptaleum, 
Tuckerm. 146. 

microptychium, Tuckerm. 147. 

flaccidum, Ach. 147. 

nigrescens, (Huds.), Ach. & var. 
ryssoleum, Tuckerm. 147 & 
T48. 

pulposum, (Bernh.), Nyl. 148. 
Leptogium, Fr., Nyl. 

muscicola, (Sw.), Fr. 154. 

lacerum, (Sw. ), Fr. 158. 

pulchellum, (Ach.), Nyl. 160. 

Tremelloides, (L. fil), Fr. 161. 

chloromelum, (Sw.), Nyl. 163. 

myochroum, (Ehrh., Schaer.), 
Tuckerm. 166. 

Placodium, (DC), Naeg. & Hepp. 
cinnabarrinum, (Ach.), Anz. 173. 
aurantiacura, (Lightf.), Naeg. & 

Hepp. 174. 
cerinum,(Hedw.), Naeg. & Hepp. 
& var. sideritis, Tuckerm. 175. 
ferrugineum, (Huds. ), Hepp. 177. 
vitellinum, (Ehrh.), Naeg. & 
Hepp. 180. 
Lecanora. Ach., Tuckerm. 

rubina, (Vill.), Ach. 183. 



muralis, (Schreb.), Schaer. 184. 

pallida, (Schreb.), Schaer. 185. 

subfusca, (L.), Ach. & vars. allo- 
phana, Ach., argentata, Ach., 
coilocarpa, Ach. & distans, 
Ach. 187 & 188. 

atra, (Huds.), Ach. 189. 

Willeyi. Tuckerm. 191. 

varia, (Ehrh.), Nyl. & vars. sym- 
micta, Ach. & saepincola, Fr. 
191 & 192. 

elatina, Ach., var. ochrophaea, 
Tuckerm. 195. 

pallescens, (L.), Schaer. 196. 

tartarea, (L.), Ach. 196. 

cinerea, (L.), Sommerf. 198. 

epulotica, (Ach.), Leight., var. 

sube'pulotica, Nyl. 200. 

Bockii, (Fr), Th. Fr. 200. 

cervina, (Pers.), Nyl. var., rufes- 
cens, Th. Fr. & var. privigna, 
(Ach.), Nyl. 202-204. 
Rinodina, Mass., Stizenb., Tuckerm. 

oreina, (Ach.). Mass. 206. 

Ascociscana, Tuckerm. 206. 

sophodes, (Ach.), Nyl. emend., & 
vars. confragosa, Nyl. & exigua, 
Fr. 207-208. 

constans, (Nyl.), Tuckerm. 210. 
Pertusaria, DC. 

velata, (Turn.), Nyl. 212. 

multipuncta, (Turn.), Nyl. 212. 

communis, DC. 214. 

leioplaca, (Ach.), Schaer. '214. 

pustulata, (Ach.), Nyl. 215. 

globularis, Ach. 216. 

Wulfenii, DC. 216. 
Conotrema, Tuckerm. 

urceolatum, (Ach.), Tuckerm. 
217. 
Gyalecta, (Ach.), Anz. 

lutea, (Dicks.), Tuckerm. 218. 

Pineti, (Schrad.), Tuckerm. 218. 

fagicola, ( Hepp.), Tuckerm. 220. 

Flotovii, Koerb. 221. 

cupularis, (Hedw. ), Schaer. 221. 
Urceolaria, (Ach.), Flot. 

scruposa, (L.), Nyl. 222. 
Thelotrema, (Ach.), Eschw. 

subtile, Tuckerm. 224. 

Stereocaulon, Schreb. 

coralloides, Fr. 231. 



64 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



paschale, (L.), Fr. 232. 
tomentosum, (Fr.), Th. Fr. 232. 
denudatum, Floerk. 233. 
Cladonia, Hoffm. 

cariosa, (Ach.), Spreng. 240. 
pyxidata, (L.), Fr. 240. 
fimbriata, (L.), Fr. & var. tubae- 

formis, Fr. 241. 
degenerans, Floerk. 242. 
gracilis, (L. ), Nyl. & vars. verti- 

cillata, Fr., hybrida, Schaer. & 

eiongata, Fr. 242-243. 
cenotea, Ach., Schaer., var. furcel- 

lata, Fr. 246. 
squamosa, Hofit'm , & vars. deli- 

cata, (Ehrh.), Fl. & caespiticia, 

(Pers.), Fl. 246 & 247. 
furcata, (Huds.), Fr. & vars. cris- 

pata, FL, racemosa, Fl. & sub- 

ulata, Fl. 247 & 248. 
rangiferina, (L.), Hoffm. & vars. 

sylvatica, L. & alpestris, L. 

248. 
uncialis, (L.), Fr. 250. 
cornucopioides, (L ), Fr. 252. 
cristatella, Tuckerm. 255. 

The remainder of this order is re- 
ferred by page to Tuckerman's 6^<r«^ra 
Lichenum, Amherst, Edwin Nelson, 
1872. 

Bseomyces, Pers., Nyl. 

bySsoides, (L.), Schaer. 153. 

roseus, Pers. 153. 

aeruginosus, (Scop.), Nyl. 153. 
Biatora, Fr. 

Russellii, Tuckerm. Brattleboro, 
Frost. 155. 

ostreata, (Hoffm.), Fr. Brattle- 
boro, Russell. 156. 

coarctata, (Ach.), Th. Fr. Brat- 
tleboro, Frost. 157. 

granulosa, (Ehrh.), Poetsch. 

flexuosa, Fr. 157. 

viridescens, (Schrad.), Fr. 157. 

russula. (Ach.), Mont. Hadley. 

158- 
vernalis, (L), Th. Fr. 157 & 158. 
sanguineo-atra, (Fr.), Tuckerm. 

158. 
exigua, (Chaub.), Fr. 159. 
uliginosa, (Schrad.), Fr. 159. 



rivilosa, (Ach.), Fr. 159. 

lucida, (Ach.), Fr. 160. 

cyrtella, (Ach., Nyl.) 161. 

globulosa, (Floerk.), Tuckerm. 
161. 

tricolor, (With.) 

atropurpurea, (Mass.), Tuckerm. 
161. 

trachona, Flot. 162. 

hypnophila, (Turn.), Tuckerm. 
163. 

milliaria, (Fr.), Tuckerm. 161 & 
164. 

rubella, (Ehrh.), Rabenh., & vars. 
spadicea, Tuck , suffusa. Tuck., 
Schweinitzii, Tuck., incompta, 
Nyl., muscorum, Nyl., & inun- 
data, Fr. 164 & 166. 

umbrina, (Ach), Tuckerm. 167. 

chlorantha, Tuckerm. 167. 
Heterolhecium, Flot., Tuckerm 

sangumarium, (L.\ Flot. Brattle- 
boro, Frost. 172 

tuberculosum, (Fee.), Flot., var. 
porphyrites, Tuckerm. 173. 

pezizoideum, (Ach.), Flot. 176. 
Lecidea, (Ach.), Fr. 

enteroleuca, Ach. 179. 

melancheima, Tuckerm. 180. 

contigua. Fr., Nyl. 178. 

spilota, Fr. t8o. 

polycarpa, Floerk., Fr. 180. 

tessellina, Tuckerm. 

fuscoatra, Ach., Fr. 180. 
Buellia, DeNot., Tuckerm. 

lepidastra, Tuckerm. 186. 

atro-alba, (Flot.), Th. Fr. 185 & 
186. 

parasema, (Ach.), Koerb. 185, 
187, 188 & 189. 

dialyta, Nyl. 187. 

myriocarpa, (DC). Mudd. 187. 

turgescens, Nyl. 187. 

saxatilis, (Schaer.), Koerb. 188. 

Elizae, Tuckerm. Brattleboro, 
Frost. 

petrasa, (Flot.), Tuckerm. 190. 

geographica, (L), Tuckerm. 185 
& 190. 

Lecanactis, (Eschw.), Tuckerm. 

premnea, (Ach.), Tuckerm., var. 
chloroconia, Tuck. 194. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



65 



Melaspilea, Nyl. 

arthonioides, (Fee.), Nyl. 197. 

Opegrapha, (Humb.), Ach., Nyl. 

microcyclia, Tuckerm. 199. 

varia, (Pers. ), Fr. 200. 

vulgata, Ach., Nyl. 200. 
Graphis, Ach., Nyl. 

scripta, (L.), Ach., & var. assimi- 
lis, Tuckerm. 207. 

Arthonia, Ach., Nyl. 

pyrrhula, Nyl. 220. 

velata, Nyl. 221. 

cinereo-pruinosa, Sch?er. 221. 

lecideella, Nyl. 221. 

lurida, Ach. 221. 

patellulata, Nyl. 221. 

diffusa, Nyl. 222. 

lurido-alba, Nyl. 222. 

astroidea, Ach., Nyl. 222. 

spectabilis, Flot. 222. 
Mycoporum, (Flot.), Nyl. 

pycnocarpum, Nyl. 224. 

Acolium, (Fde). UeNot. 

viridulum, (Schaer.), DeNot. Brat- 
tle boro. Frost. 238. 

tigillare, (Ach.), DeNot. 234 & 
238. 
Calicium, Pers., Fr. 

trichiale, Ach. 240. 

chrysocephalum, (Turn.), Ach. 
240. 

lenticulare, (Hoffm.), Ach. 240. 

subtile, Fr. 240. 

trachelinum, Ach. 240. 

roscidum, Floerk., Nyl., var. tra- 
binellum, Nyl. 241. 

Curtisii. Tuckerm. 241. 

turbinatum. Pers. 242. 
Coniocybe. Ach. 

furfuracea, (L.), Ach. 243. 

pallida (Pers.), Fr. 243. 

Endocarpon, Hedw., Fr. 

miniatum (L. ), Schier. & vars. 

complicatum, Schaer. & aquati- 

cum, Scha^r. 249. 
arboreum, Schwein. 250. 
rufescens, Ach. 250. 
pusillum, Hedw. 251. 



Staurothele, Norm. 

umbrina, (VVahl.), Tuckerm. 258. 

diffractella, (Nyl.), Tuckerm. 258. 
Trypethelium, Spreng , Nyl. 

virens, Tuckerm. 260. 
Sagedia, (Mass.), Koerb. 

chlorotica, (Ach.), Mass. 265. 

Cestrensis, Tuckerm. 265. 

lactea, Koerb. 266. 

oxyspora, (Nyl.), Tuckerm. 266. 
Verrucaria, Pers. 

epigffia, (Pers ), Ach. 268. 

margacea, Wahl., Nyl. 268. 

nigrescens, Pers. 268. 

virens, Nyl. 269. 

muralis, Ach. ■ 269. 
Pyrenula, (Ach.),Naeg. & Hepp. 

thelfena, (Ach.), Tuckerm. 272. 

punctiformis, (Ach.), Naeg. 272. 

gemniata, (Ach.), Naeg. 273. 

hvalospora, (Nyl.), Tuckerm. 273. 

leucoplaca, (VVallr.), Koerb. 274. 

glabrata, (Ach.), Mass. 274. 

nitida, Ach. 274. 

lactea, (Mass ), Tuck. 275. 

Pyrenomycetes. 

Phacidium, Fr. 

Pini, A. & S. 751. 

dentatum, Fr. 752. 

crustaceum, B. & C. 

coronatum, Fr. 752, 
Rhytisma, Fr. 

salicinum, Fr. 755. 

acerinum, Fr. 756. 

punctatum, Fr. 756. 

Asteris, Schw. 

Solidaginis, Schw. 

Prini. Fr. 

Vaccinii, Fr. 
Glonium. Mich. 

stellatum, Mich. 
Hysterium, Tode. 

pulicare, Pers. 757. 

elongatum, Wahl. 759. 

Fra.xini, Pers. 759. 

vulvatum, Schw. 

parvulum, Gerard. 

insidens, Schw. 

lineare, Fr. 760. 

ilicinum, DeNot. 760. 

fusiger, B. & C. 

hiascens, B. & C. 



66 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



commune, Fr. 761. 

maculare, Fr. 762. 

Pinastri, Schrad. 763. 

typhinum, Fr. 764. 

rufescens, Schw. 

Rubi, Pers. 
Colpoma, Wallr. 

quercinum,Wallr. 765. 
Labrella, Fr. 

Pomi, Mont. 
Torrubia, Lev. 

militaris, Fr. 770. 

ophioglossoides, Tul. 771. 

capitata. Fr. 771. 
Claviceps, Tul. 

purpurea, Tul: 772. 
Hypocrea, Fr. 

gelatinosa, Fr. 774. 

rufa, Fr. 774. 

citrina, Fr. 775. 

Richardsonii, B. & Mont. 

Lactifluorurn, Schw. 

contoria, Schw. 
Hyphomyces, Tul. 

lateritius, Tul. 779. 
Nectria, Fr. 

cinnabarina, Fr. 781. 

coccinea, Fr. 782. 

Celastri, Schw. 

Cucurbitula, Fr. 782. 

sinopica. Fr. 782. 

Peziza, Fr. 784. 

sanguinea, Fr. 785. 

episphteria, Fr. 785. 

Ribis. Tode. 

Purtoni, Curr. 786. 

agoeothele, B. & C. 
Xylaria, Fr. 

polymorpha, Grev. 789. 

digitata, Grev. 789. 

corniformis, Mont. 789. 

Hypoxylon, Grev. 790. 
Rhizomorpha, Reb. 

subcorticalis, Pers. 
Poronia, Fr. 

punctata, Fr. 791. 
Ustulina, Tul. 

vulgaris, Tul. 792. 
Hypoxylon, Fr. 

concentricum, Grev. 794. 

coccineum. Bull. 794. 

Morseii, B. & C. 

multiforme, Fr. 794. 



cohgerens, Fr. 795. 

argillaceum, Fr. 795. 

atro-purpureum, Fr. 796. 

fuscum, Fr. 796. 

atropunctatum, Schw. 

rubiginosum, Fr. 796. 

serpens, Fr. 797. 

Clypeus, Schw. 
Nummularia, Tul. 

Bulliardi, Tul. 798. 
Eutypa, Tul. 

lata, Tul. 799. 

spinosa, Tul. 799. 

leioplaca, Fr. 800. 
Melogramma, Tul. 

atrofuscum, B. & C. 

Quercuum, Schw. 
Polystigma, Pers. 

rubrum, Pers. 803. 
Dothidea, Fr. 

Ulmi, Fr. 804. 

betulina. Fr. 805. 

Trifohi, Fr. 805. 

Pteridis, Fr. 807. 

ribesia, Fr. 807. 

filicina. Fr. 808. 

culmicola, Schw. 

Graminis, Fr. 806. 

flabella, B. & C. 

Sambuci, Fr. 

fructigenae, Schw. 

Anemones, Fr. 
Diatrype, Fr. 

quercina, Tul. 810. 

verrucseformis, Fr. 811. 

Stigma, Fr. 811. 

disciformis, Fr. 812. 

Hystrix, Fr. 812. 

platystoma, Schw. 

Strumella, Fr. 814. 

undulata, Fr. 814. 

microplaca, B. & C. 

discreta, Schw. 
Melanconis, Tul. 

stilbostoma, Tul. 8r8. 

elliptica. Peck. 
Valsa, Fr. 

stellulata, Fr, 821. 

nivea, Fr. 822. 

leucostoma, Fr. 82 2. 

Abietis, Fr. 825. 

ceratophora, Tul. 825. 

ambiens, Fr. 826. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



67 



\ 



salicina, Fr. 827. 


intercellularis, B. & C. 


quaternata, Fr. 828. 


Spraguei, B. & C. 


(JoUiculus, Wormsk. 


Sphaerella, DeNot. 


hapalocystis, B. & C. 


macula;forrnis, Fr., var. ?equalis 


Americana, B. & C. 


912. 


Alni, Peck. 


punctiform's, Pers. 914. 


enteroleuca, !•>. 834. 


myriadea, DC. 915. 


Pini, Fr. 


Pinastri, Duby. 916. 


constellata, B. & C. 


Pter dis, Desm. 919. 


Platani, Schw. 


spleniata, C. & P. 


centripeta, Fr. 


errabunda, Desm. 


Cucurbitaria, Gray. 


Microthyrium, Desm. 


elongata, Grev. 840. 


paradoxum, B. & C. 


cupularis, Fr. 842. 


microscopicum, Desm. 927. 


Massaria, DeNot. 


Stigmatea, Fr. 


vomitoria, B. 8z C. 


Robertiani, Fr. 928. 


Lophiostoma. DeNot. 


Hypospila, Fr. 


nucula, Fr. 849. 


quercina, Fr. 930. 


Sphaeria, Hall. 


populina, Fr. 930. 


aquila, Fr. 853. 


Dichaena, Fr. 


Desmazierii, B. & Br. 854. 


faginea, Fr. 


Brassiere, Klotszch. 856. 


Capnodium, Mont. 


Bombarda, Batsch. 860. 


elongatum, B. & Desm. 933. 


spermoides, Hoffm. 86 r. 


Pini, B. & C. 


tnoriformis, Tode. 861. 




pomiformis, Pers. 862. 


Helvellace^. 


collabens. Curr. 864. 




pulvis pyrius, Pers. 865. 


Morchella, Dill. 


coprophila, Fr. 866. 


esculenta, Pers. 655. 


pulveracea, Ehr. 868. 


Gyromitra, Fr. 


livida, Fr. 877. 


esculenta, Pers. 


ulmea, Schw. 


Helvella, L. 


Lespedezae, Schw. 


crispa, Fr. 658. 


salicella, Fr. 886. 


elastica, Bull. 659. 


spiculosa, Pers. 882. 


lacunosa, Afz. 658. 


morbosa, Schw. 


Kphippium, Lev. 659. 


fiisca, Pers. 796. 


Mitrula, Fr. 


aculeans, Schw. 


cucullata, Fr. 660. 


acuminata, Fr. 899. 


paludosa. Fr. 660. 


complanata, Tode. 903. 


Spathularia, Pers. 


Coryli, Batsch. 910. 


flavida. Pers. 661. 


callista. B. & C. 


Leotia, Hill 


enteromela, Schw. 


lubrici, Pers. 661. 


Saubeneti, Mont. 


Vibrissea, Fr. 


subconica, C. & P. 


Tnincorum, Fr. 662. 


aculeata, Schw. 


lutea, Peck. 


fuscella, B. & Br. 892. 


Geoglossum, Pers. 


limreformis, B. & C. 


hirsutum, Pers. 663. 


mutila, B. & C. 


difforme, Pers. 664. 


ramulicola, Peck. 


simile, Peck. 


lilacina, Schw. 


luteum. Peck. 


excentrica. C. & P. 


Rhizina, Fr. 


Doliolum, Pers. 902. 


undulata, Fr. 664. 



68 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



Peziza, L. 

Acetabulum, L. 665. 

macropus, Pers. 666. 

venosa, Pers. 666. 

cochleata, Huds. 667. 

aurantia, Fr. 668. 

vesiculosa, Bull. 670. 

violacea, Pers. 

micropus, Pers. 671. 

fascicularis, A. & S. 678. 

furfuracea. Fr. 678. 

coccinea, Jacq. 679. 

hemisphaerica, Wig;?. 680. 

stercorea, Pers. 683. 

myceticola, B & C. 

virginea, Batsch. 684. 

nivea, Fr. 685. 

calycina, Schuu). 685. 

cerina. Pers. 685. 

Pini, Frost. 

citrina, Batsch. (As Helotium 
citrinum, Fr.) 7 i 2. 

mollisiajoides, Schw. 

aurelia, Pers. 692. 

fusca, Pers. 

chlora, Fr. 

Persoonii, Moug. 6g8. 

cyathoidea, Bull. 699. 

episphceria, Mart. 689. 

nigrell;, Pers. 

sanguinea, Pers. 695. 

rubella, Pers. 

echinos-perma, Peck. 

compressa, A. & S. 707. 

scutellata, L. 

flexella, Fr. 707. 

ResiniT[j F"r. 706 

atrata, Pers. 704. 

schizospora, Phillips. 

Tilice, Peck. 

firma, Pers. 697. 

humosa, Fr. 676. 

succosa, Berk. 667. 

cinerea, Batsch. 70 r. 

vinosa, A. & S. 700. 

omphalodes, Bull 676. 

diversicolor, Fr. 

vulgaris, Fr. 703. 

cupularis, L. 673. 
Helotium, Fr. 

reruginosum. Fr. 708. 

Virgultorum, Fr. 709. 

aquaticum, Curr. 711. 



citrinum, Fr. 712. 

Schweinitzii. Fr. 

lenticulare, Fr. 7 12. 

Herbaruin, Fr. 714. 

epiphyllum, Fr. 7 15. 

ferrugineum, Sebum. 715. 
Patellaria, Fr. 

atrata, Fr. 716. 

indigotica, Peck. 

stygia, B. & C. 

rhabarbarina, Berk. 717. 

congregata, Moreau. 

discolor, Mont. 7 18. 

fusispora, C. & P. 

applanata, B. & C. 
Urnula, Fr. 

Craterium, Fr. 
Tympanis, Tode. 

alnea, Pers. 722. 

conspersa, Fr. 723. 

picastra. B. & C. 
Cenangium, Fr. 

triangulare. Fr. 

Cerasi, Fr. 724. 

Ribis, Fr. 723. 

Prunastri, Fr. 724. 

populinum, Schw. 

Pinastri, Fr. 

pithyum, B. & C. 

seriatum, Fr. 

Rubi, Fr. 725. 
Ascobolus, Tode. 

furfuraceus, Pers. 727. 

glomeratus. Fr. 

ciliatus. Schm. 73 i. 

Trifolii, Bernh. 753. 
Bulgaria, Fr. 

in(juinans, Fr. 732. 

sarcoides, Fr. 733. 
Stictis, Pers. 

radiata, Pers. 734. 

versicolor, Fr. 736. 

hystericina, Fr. 

rufa, B. & C. 

TUBERACE^. 

Penicillium, Link. 

crustacum, Fr. 60 f. 

epigaeum, B. & C. 

candidum. Link. 602. 
Elaphomyces, Nees. 

granulatus, Fr. 750. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY, 



69 



Perisporiace.e. 




Podosphaeria, Kunze. 
Kunzei, Lev. 647. 


Beyond this point the page num- 


biuncinata, C. & P. 


bers refer to Cooke. 




Microsphc-eria, Lev. 


Onygena, Pers. 




Friesii, Lev. & var. Castaneas, 


equina, Pers. 642. 




C. & P. 


Sphgerotheca, Lev. 




extensa, C. & P. 


pruinosa, C. & P. 




pulchra, C. & P. 


Castagnei, Lev. 645. 




diffusa, C. & P. 


Lasiobotrys, Kunze. 




Hedwigii, Lev. 648. 


Lonicer?e, Kze. 644. 




Vaccinii, C. & P. 


Phyllactina, Lev. 




Erysiphe, Hedw. 


guttata, Lev. 646. 




communis, Schl. 652. 


Uncinula, Lev. 




lamprocarpa, C. & P. 


adunca, Lev. 646. 




Martii, Link. 651. 


macrospora. Peck. 




Ceanothi, Schw. 


circinata, C. & P. 




Vaccinii, Schw. 


flexuosa. Peck. 




Erysiphella, Peck. 


Ampelopsidis, Peck. 




aggregata, Peck. 


Oidium, Link. 




Chcetomium, Kunze. 


fulvuni, Lk. 603. 




chartarum, Ehb. 653. 


fructigenum, Schrad. 


604. 


Eurotium, Link. 


moniUoides, Lk., as E 


graminis, 


aspergillus-glaucus, DeBary. 654. 


DC. 651. 








Flor 


' de a e . 


Lemaniace.^. 




fluviatilis, Ag. Turner's Falls, 


Lemania. 




Hitchcock. 



O O P H Y T A . 

Coeloblasteae 



Peronospore.^. 
Peronospora, DeBy. 

infestans, Mont. 593. 



Cystopus, De Bary. 

candidus, Lev. 524. 



Volvox, Fhrb. 



Volvocineae. 

I globator, (L.) Ehrb. 

ZYGOPHYTA. 
C 71 j u g a t a e . 



MUCORINI. 

Ascophora, Tode. 

MucedOjTode. (Mucor stolonifer.) 
629. 

6* 



Mucor, Mich. 

phycomyces, Berk. 
Mucedo, L. 630. 
caninus, Pers. 631. 



630. 






70 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



flavidus, Pers. 
inequalis, Peck, 
capito-ramosus, Schw. 
Pilobolus, Tode. 

ciystallinus, Tode. 633. 
roridus, Schum. 633. 

ZyGNEMACEvE. 

Mesocarpus, Hass. 

scalaris, Hass. 
Zygnemia. 

insigne, (Hass.), Ktz. 
Spirogyra, Link. 

crassa, Ktz. 

longata, (Vauch.), Ktz. 



DlATOMACE^. 



Navicula. 
viridis. 



Diatoma. 

vulgare. 

Desmidiacete. 

Closterium, Nitsch. 

Lunula, (Miill), Ehrb. 

Dianae, Ehrb. 
Cosmarium, (Corda). 

Botrytis, Bory. 

Meneghenii, Breb. 

margaritiferum, (Turp.), Mengh. 
Micrasterias, Ag. 

Americana, Ehrb. 

furcata, Ag. 
Pediastrum, Meyen. 

biradiatum. 

Zoospores. 

Hydrodictyon, Roth, 
utriculatum, Roth. 



PROTOPHYTA. 



Protococcace^. 

Scenodesmus, Meyen. 

polymorphus, Wood. 

quadricauda, (Turp.), Breb. 

rotundatus. Wood. 
Protococcus, Ag. 



pluvialis, Ktz. 
viridis. 

Palmellace.«. 

Rhaphidium, Ktz. 

polymorphum, Fresen. 



C y ajiophycecs. 



OsCILLATORIACEyE. 

OsciUitoria, Base, 
limosa, Agardh. 

N0ST0CACE.«. 

Nostoc, Vauch. 

comminutum, Ktz. 



Chroococcace^. 

Chroococcus, NaegeH. 

refractus, Wood. 
Gleocapsa, Ktz. 

sparsa, Wood. 



Saccharomycetes 



SACCHAROMYCACEiE. 

Saccharomyces. 



cerevisese. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



7E 



Schizomycetes, 



BaCTERIACEvE, 

Spirillum, Ehrb. 

volutans, Ehrb. 

iindula, Ehrb. 

tenue, Ehrb. 
Spirochaete, Ehrb. 

Obermeieri, Cohn. 
Vibrio, Auct. emend, 

serpens, Miill. 

Rugula, Miill. 

Bacillus. Cohn. 

anthracis, Cohn. 
ulna, Cohn. 
subtilis, Cohn. 
tuberculosis, Cohn. 



amylobacter, Van Tieghem. 

Bacterium, Duj. emend. 
Termo, Ehrb., Duj. 
lineola, Cohn. 
xanthium, Schroeter. 
syncyanum, Schroeter. 
aeruginosum, Schroeter. 

Micrococcus, (Cohn), Hallier. 
septicus, Cohn. 
diphtheriticus, Cohn. 
vaccinge, Cohn. 
ureae, Cohn. 
crepusculum, Cohn. 
prodigiosus, Cohn. 



My xomycetes 



Slime-moulds. 

Arranged according to Rostafinski. 
Page numbers refer to Cooke. 

Calcare^. 

Physarum, Pers. 

Schuraac"heri, Spr. (Diderma 

citrinum, Fr.) 382. 
cinereum,(Batsch)^Schw.(Didym- 

ium cinereum, Fr.) 389. 
Berkeleyi, Rtfki. (P. pulcherri- 

pes. Peck.) 
sinuosum (Bull) (Angioridium, 

sinuosum, Grev.) 391. 
muscicola, Schw. (an uncertain 

species.) 
Craterium, Trent. 

Leucocepiialum,Pers.,Ditm. 394. 
Tilmadoche, Fr. 

nutans, (Pers.) (Physarum nutans, 

Pers.) 389. 
gracilenta, (Fr.) (Didymium fur- 

furaceum, Fr.) 385. 
mutabilis, Rtfki. (Physarum, 

aureum, Pers.) 389. 



(Aethalium 
380. 

(D. melan- 



Leocarpus, Link. 

fragilis (Dicks.) (Diderma ver- 
nicosum, Pers.) 382. 
Fuligo, Hall. 

varians, Sommf. 
septic ui\ Fr.) 
Didymium, Schr. 

farinaceum, Schrad. 
opus, Fr.) 385. 
microcarpon, (Fr.) 
thopus, Fr.) 387. 
Chondrioderma, R. 

spumarioides, (Fr.) 

farinaceum, Peck.) 
difforme, (Pers.) (Physarum al- 
bum, Fr.) 390. 
globosum, (Pers.) (Diderma glob- 

bosum, Fr.) 384. 
Crustacea, (Peck.) (Diderma 
crustaceum. Peck.) 
Diachcca, Fr. 

leucopoda, (Bull.) (Diachasa ele- 
gans, Fr.) 395. 
Spumaria, Pers. 

alba, (Bull.) 380. 



(D. 



(Diderma 



72 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



AMAUROCHETEiE. 

Stemonites, Gled. 

fusca, Roth. 396. 

ferruginea, Ehrb. 396. 
Brefeldia, R. 

maxima, (Fr.) (Reticularia max- 
ima, Fr.) 379. 

Aneme^. 

Tubulina, Pers. 

cylindrica, Bull. (Licea cylin- 
drica, Fr.) 407. 

Heteroderme^. 

Dictydium, Schrad. 

cernuum, (Pers.), Schvv. (D. urn- 
bilicatum, Schrad.) 399. 
Cribraria, Pers. 

purpurea, Schrad. 

microcarpa, (Schrad.) (Dictydium 

microcarpon, Schrad.) 
intricata, Schrad. 399. 



Reticulari^e. 



Reticularia, Bull. 

lycoperdon, Bull. 
Fr.) 379- 



(R. umbrina. 



CALONENEMEiE, 

Trichia, Hall. 

fallax, Pers. 404. 

fragilis, Sow. (T. serotir.a, 

Schrad.) 404. 
varia, Pers., var. genuina. 406. 
chrysosperma, Bull. (T. turbi- 
nata. With.) 405. 
Hemiarcyria, R. 

rubiformis. (Pers ) (Trichia pyri- 

formis, HotTm.) 403. 
clavata, (Pers.) (Trichia clavata, 

Pers.) 404. 
serpula, (Scop.) (Trichia serpula, 
Pers.) 406. 
Arcyria, Hill. 

punicea, Pers. 400. 

stricta, R. (A. cinerea, Schum.) 

401. 
nutans, (Bull ), Curt. 401 
Lachnobolus, Fr. 

globosns, (Schw.) (Arcyria glo- 
bosa, Schw.) 
Lycogala, Mich. 

epidendrum, (Buxb.) 379. 
Perichjena, FV. 

corticalis, (Batsch.) (P. popu- 

lina, Fr.) 407. 
flavida, Peck, (uncertain species.) 



CHAPTER IV. 



Soil Formations — Agricultural Statistics — Manufactures — 
Statistics. 



A GENERAL idea of the formation of the soil of the county has been 
given in our chapter on the geology. Still, the soil and productions 
differ materially in different parts of the county ; hence, detailed de- 
scriptions properly belong in connection with the several town sketches, 
where we have accordingly placed them. A general idea of the county's re- 
sources in this direction as a whole, however, may be derived from the fol- 
lowing statistics, shown by the census reports of 1880: The county then 
had 3,113 farms, representing an area of 205,802 acres of improved land, 
valued, including buildings, etc., at $9,214,543.00, while its total debt, bonded 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



73 



and floating, was $1,127,282.00. These farms supported 4,885 horses, four 
mules, 1,137 working oxen, 11,930 milch cows, 11,193 other cattle, 7,290 
sheep, and 6,327 swine. The stock products for the year were 35, 123 pounds 
of wool, 725,548 gallons of milk, r. 358,495 pounds of butter, and 65.316 
pounds of cheese. The products of the farms were 1,988 bushels of barley, 
6,338 bushels of buckwheat, 220,232 bushels of Indian corn, 49 263 bushels 
of oats, 33,584 bushels of rye, 1,756 bushels of wheat, 59684 tons of hay, 
237,668 bushels of potatoes, 2,305,442 pounds of tobacco, and orchard pro- 
ducts to the value of $54,534.00. 

Hampshire, while it is an extensive farming district, is also eminently a 
manufacturing county. The principal manufacture is cloth and its kindred, 
elastic fabric, thread, yarn, etc., though wooden ware and lumber in its vari- 
ous branches ; paper, cigars, brass and iron work, including cutlery ; whips, 
brooms, straw goods, etc., furnish employment to thousands of hands. As 
we shall give in each township a sketch of each one of its manufactories, how- 
ever, we will dismiss the subject at this point with the following statistics from 
the census reports of 1880, though many of the totals are doubtless at this 
time much larger. There were then 333 manufacturing establishments in the 
county, representmg an invested capital of $7,283,518.00, and giving employ- 
ment to 8,112 hands, to whom were paid $2,419,401.00 in wages. The total 
value of materials used was $6^603,887.00, and the total product $11,786,- 
406.00. 



CHAPTER V. 



Origin of the Indians — Antiquity of — Ancients Visit this Conti- 
nent — Fatal Epidemic — Algonquins — Nipmucks — Roger Williams 
— Indian Habits — Nonotucks — Their Claims — Indian Forts — 
NoNOTucKS Depart. 

THE origin of the North American Indian is a subject which, though 
it has engrossed the attention of learned men for over two hundred 
years, must ever remain open to debate, and the question, " By whom 
was America peopled?" will doubtless ever remain without a satisfactory 
answer. In 1637 Thomas Morton wrote a book to prove that the Indians 
were of late origin. John Joselyn held, in 1638, that they were of Tartar 
descent. Cotton Mather inclined to the opinion that they were Scythians. 
James Adair seems to have been fully convinced that they were decendants 
of the Israelites, the lost tribes ; and after thirty years' residence among them, 
published, in 1775, an account of their manners and customs, from which he 



74 HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



deduced his conclusions. Dr. Mitchell, after considerable investigation, con- 
cluded that, " the three races, Malays, Tartars, and Scandinavians, con- 
tributed to make up the great American population, who were the authors 
of the various works and antiquities found on the continent." De Witt 
Clinton held that, " the probability is, that America was peopled from various 
quarters of the old world, and that its predominant race is the Scythian or 
Tartarian." Calmet, a distinguished author, brings forward the writings of 
Hornius, son of Theodosius the Great, who affirms that, " at or about the 
time of the commencement of the Christian era, voyages from Africa and 
Spain into the Atlantic ocean were both frequent and celebrated," and holds 
that, "there is strong probability that the Romans and Carthagenians, even 
300 B. C, were acquainted with the existence of this country," adding that 
there are "tokens of the presence of the Greeks, Romans, Persians and 
Carthagenians in many parts of the continent." The story of Madoc's voyage 
to America, in 1 170, has been reported by every writer upon the subject, and 
actual traces of Welch colonization are affirmed to have been discovered in 
the language and customs of a tribe of Indians Uving on the Missouri. Then 
the fact is stated that "America was visited by some Norwegians," who had 
made a settlement in Greenland, in the loth century. Priest, in his Ameri- 
can AftHqtiities, states that his observations had led him " to the conclusion 
that the two great continents, Asia and America, were peopled by similar 
races of men." But it is not necessary to enlarge upon this catalogue. 
Charlevoix and other later writers have entered into elaborate disquisitions 
on this subject, and the curious reader may find much to interest, if not to 
instruct him. 

Some time anterior to the landing of the Pilgrims, the aboriginal occupants 
had been visited by a fatal disease, which greatly diminished their numbers; 
and there is no certain data for determining how many then dwelt within the 
limits of Massachusetts, though it is estimated that there were between thirty 
and forty thousand. 

Bancroft tells us that the Algonquin race occupied the whole Atlantic coast, 
from the gulf of St. Lawrence to Cape Fear. The Indians of the interior 
were known and called among the tribes upon the sea-shore by the general 
name of AUpmiicks, or fresh-water Indians, and, true to their name, the Nip- 
tniicks usually had their residences upon places of fresh water, the ponds, lakes, 
and rivers of the interior. The Nipmuck Indians, then, were the aboriginal 
occupants of the territory under consideration. 

The N'ipmucks were decidedly nomadic in their habits, seldom remaining 
long in one place, but wandered back and forth from clearing to clearing, 
where they would raise a little Indian corn and perhaps a few beans and 
squashes, and change from one hunting or fishing-ground to another. Thus 
Roger Williams tells us: — 

" From thick, warm valleys where they winter they remove a little nearer 
to their summer fields. When it is warm spring they remove to their fields, 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



75 



where they plant corn. In middle summer, because of the abundance of fleas 
which the dust of the house breeds, they will fly and remove on a sudden to 
a fresh place. And sometimes having fields a mile or two or many miles 
asunder, when the work of one field is over they remove hence to the other. 
If death call in amongst them, they presently remove to a fresh place. If an 
enemy approach they remove to a thicket or swamp, unless they have some 
fort to remove into. Sometimes they remove to a hunting-house in the end of 
the year and forsake it not until the snow lies thick ; and tlien will travel home, 
men, women and children, through the snow thirty, yea, fifty or sixty miles. 
But their great remove is from their summer fields to warm and thick woodv 
bottoms where they winter. They are quick, in a half-day, yea, sometimes in 
a few hours' warning, to be gone, and the house is up elsewhere, especially if 
they have a few stakes ready pitched for their mats. I once in my travels 
lodged at a house at which in my return I hoped to have lodged again the 
next night, but the house was gone in that interim, and I was glad to lodge 
under a tree." 

In the chapter on the geology of the county we have spoken of several ox- 
bows and islands having once been formed in the Connecticut river here. 
The Nipmucks who occupied this region derived their name from these islands 
and peninsulas, viz.: Nonotucks, meaning 'Mn the middle of the river." This 
name, formerly written Noen-tiik, or No-ah-tJik, is still familiar in the vicinity 
and is borne by a part of Mt. Tom. 

The Nonotiuks claimed all the country on both sides of the river, from 
the head of the South Hadley falls to the south side of Mt. We-quomps, now 
Sugar- Loaf mountain. They had several villages and f'orts on both sides of 
the river, and numerous corn-planting fields of from twelve to sixteen acres 
each. Their principal fort was on a high bank near the mouth of Half-way 
brook, between Northampton and Hadley. This fort was occupied until the 
night of the 24th of August, 1675, when Uin-pan-cha-la, chief sachem of the 
Noiiotuchs, left the land with all his tribe for some far-off" western home, no 
one knows whither. Another fort, containing about an acre inclosed, was 
occupied by another Noiwtitck sachem, called Quon-quont. It stood on the 
east side of the river, in Hadley, on a ridge between East and West School 
meadow. 



76 HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



CHAPTER VI. 

First Visit of Europeans — First Official Record — Petition for 
Grant of Land — Petition Granted — Indian Purchase — Extent 
of Purchase — First Settlers — Statistics. 

ON page six we quoted Holland's version of the tradition of the nam- 
ing of Mt. Tom and Mt. Holyoke. Supposing this version to be 
authentic, we have then the first visit of Europeans to the territory 
now included within the limits of Hampshire county. But be this as it may, 
in 1653 we find the first official intimation of a settlement north of Spring- 
field, or Agawam, as it was then known, when " Mr. Samuel Cole, of Boston," 
was granted 400 acres of land at Nonotuck. About the same time the fol- 
lowing petition was sent in to the general court, asking the privilege of mak- 
ing a settlement at Nonotuck, viz. : — 

'* Your highly honored, the General Court of the Massachusetts. The 
humble petition of John Pynchon, Eleazur Holliock, and Samuel Chapin, 
Inhabitants of Springfield, sheweth. We hartyly desire the continuance of 
your peace. And in exercise of your subrich in these parts. In order where 
unto we humbly tender o'' desire of that liberty may be granted to erect a plan- 
tation, About fifteen miles Above us, on this river of Connecticut, if it be the 
will of the Lord, the place being, as we think, very commodious, — sideratis 
con Sixondo sor, — the containing Large quantities of excellent land and 
meadow, and tillable ground sufficient for two long plantations, and work, 
w'^^', if it should go on, might, as we conceive, prove greatly Advantagous to 
your Common Wealth, — to w'=^ purpose there are divers mour Neighboring 
plantatur that have a desire to remove thither, vvith your approbation thereof, 
to the number of twenty-five families, at least, that Already appear, whereof 
many of them are of considerable quality for Estates and for the matter for a 
church, when it shall please God to find opportunity that way : it is the hum- 
ble desire that by this Hon'' Corte some power may be established or some 
course appointed for the regulating, at their ist proceedings, as concerning 
whoine to admit and other occurrences that to the glory of God may be fur- 
thered, And your peace and happiness not retarded. And the Inducement 
to us in these desires is not Any similar respect of our owne, but that we, 
being Alone, may by this means may have som more neighborhood of your 
jurisdiction, thus, not doubting your acceptance of our desires, w'' thus 
entreat the Lord to sit among you in All your counsels, And remain your most 
humble servts. 

"Springfield, the 5th of ye 3d Mo. 1653. 

"John Pynchon, 
" Elezer Holliok, 
" Sam'l Chapin." 

This petition seems to have been favorably received by the general court, 
and the prayer thereof granted in the following words : — 

" Att a General Court of Election held at Boston the 18 day May, 1653, 
In answer to the inhabitants of Springfield's petition and others thereabouts. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 77 



this Court doth order, that Mr. John Pinchon, Mr. Holyoke, and some other 
of the petition''^ should be appoynted a committee to divide the land peti- 
tioned for into two plantations and that the petition""^ make choice of one of 
them, where they shall have liberty to plant themselves ; provided, they shall 
not appropriate to any planter above one hundred acors of all sorts of land, 
whereof not above twenty acres to be meddow, till twenty inhabitants have 
planted there, whereof twelve to be freemen, or more, which said freemen 
shall have power to distribute the land and give out proportions of land to 
the severall inhabitants as in other townes of this jurisdiction, and that the 
land be divided according to estates or eminent qualifications, and that 
Samuel Chapin be joined with Mr. Pynchon and Mr. Holyoke for the divid- 
ing of the towns." 

In pursuance of this order the commissioners appointed thereby performed 
the duty therein enjoined, and returned to the general court the following 
report, to wit : — 
" Nov. I, 1654. 

"To the honored Generall Court of the Massachusetts. Wee whose names 
are underwritten, being ai)pointed to divide the lands at Naotucke into two 
plantations, wee accordingly have granted to them that now first appeared to 
remove thither to plant themselves on the west side of the River Connec- 
ticott, as they desired, and have laid out their bounds, viz. : from the little 
meadovve above theire plantation, which meadowe is called Capawonk or Mat- 
taomett, doune to the head of the falls which are belowe them, reserving the 
land on the east side of the said river for another plantation when God, by his 
providence shall so dispose thereof, and still remain 

" your humble servants, 

" John Pinchon, 
" Elizer Holyoke. 
" Samuel Chapin," 

The land purchased of the Indians embraced the four Hamptons and 
parts of Hatfield and Montgomery. It comprised one hundred square 
miles, or 64,000 acres, extending from the south part of Hatfield to South 
Hadley Falls, and cost about $200.00 in wampum. On the 29th of October, 
1654, the settlement of the new territory was begun.* The names of the 
original settlers were as follows : Thomas Judd, John King, Joseph Parsons^ 
Thomas Bascom, Isaac Shelden, John Strong, Thomas Ford, Edward El- 
more, Aaron Cook, John Hillyer, William Hulburt, Thomas Woodford, Sam- 
uel Wright, Robert Bartlett, John Lyman, James Bridgman, Thomas Root, 
Alexander Edwards, William Miller, David Burt, Samuel Allen, William Han- 
num, Nathaniel Phelps and John Stebbins. All of these located in what is 
now the City of Northampton. 

From this small beginning the settlement spread and has increased until 
we have the populous, wealthy, learned county of to-day. Details of these 
early settlements, the erection and growth of each one of the county's town- 
ships, and the names of their present residents may be found in the future 



*There is a tradition that an English family located in Northampton in 1652, remaining 
during the winter. 



78 HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



pages of this work. The comparative growth of the territory now included 
with the county since 1776, however, may be seen by the following figures. 
According to the colonial census of 1776, the territory had a population of 
12,154 souls. The first government census was taken in 1790, when the 
population here had increased to 18,823, and for each decade since, the re- 
turns have shown, for 1800, 22,885 j 1810, 24,553; 1820, 2^1,487; 1830, 
30,254; 1840,30,897; 1850,35,732; 1860,37,823; 1870,44,388; 1880, 
47,236. 



CHAPTER VII. 



Arrangement of Civil Machinery — First Committee's Report — 
Northampton Made Shire Town — Provincial Courts — Common- 
wealth Courts — Court Houses — Jails — Civil List. 

THE first official announcement of the proper county arrangement for 
the dispensation of the law in Hampshire county, is the report of the 
committee appointed by the several towns "to order and settle ye 
aff'aires of ye county," consisting of Capt. John Pynchon, Henry Clarke, 
Capt. Aaron Cooke, Lieut. David Milton and Elizur Holyoke. On April 2, 
1663, this committee reported that they had — 

"Agreed and determined at ye Beginning of ye yeare for ye Shire meetings 
of this County shal be on ye first day of March yearely ; And that ye Shire 
meetings shall be each other yeare at Springfield, and each other yeare at 
Northampton, in a constant course. And all our Shire meetings this yeare to 
be at Northampton ; Springfield having had them last yeare. Also they 
agreed that ye commissioner chosen in March yearely by ye Shire commis- 
sioner to carry ye votes for Nomination of Magistrates to Boston, shall have 
allowed him by the County thirty shillings, to be paid by the County Treas- 
urer ; the rest of his charges he is to beare himself; and that noe one man be 
thereby overburtherned. It is determined that there be a change yearely 
of ye person to carry the votes, except for necessity or convenience they 
shall see cause to act otherwise." 

Previous to this a county court had been established in each county, to be 
held by the magistrates living in it, or any other magistrates that could attend 
the same, or by such magistrates as the general court should appoint from 
time to time, "together with such persons of worth, where there shall be need 
as shall from time to time be appointed by the General Court." This court 
had power to hear and determine all causes, civil and criminal, not extending 
to life, member, or banishment, or to cases of divorce. Probate matters were 
also within its jurisdiction. The first session held at Northampton^ or within 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 79 



the present limits of the county, was under this old dispensation, March 26, 
1661. 

The judicial system of the province at the time the settlement of the county 
was commenced, and thence down to the period of the Revolution, comprised 
a superior court of judicature with original and appellate jurisdiction through- 
out the province, corresponding in a great degree to the present superior 
judicial court, and holding its sessions in the several counties ; a court called 
the superior court of common pleas, for each county, consisting of four 
justices, of whom three were necessary to form a quorum, which had " cog- 
nizance of all civil actions, * * * * triable at the common 
law, of what nature, kind or quality, soever ; " and a court of sessions in 
■each county, comprising all of its justices of the peace, which had a limited 
criminal jurisdiction, and managed the prudential affairs of the county. Jus- 
tices of the peace had a separate jurisdiction in minor matters, both criminal 
and civil, and from their judgment there was a right of appeal to the com- 
mon pleas and court of sessions. There was also a probate court, having 
jurisdiction as at the present time. The superior court never held any ses- 
sion in Berkshire, but all its causes arising in this county were heard at the 
term held in the county of Hampshire. Judicial business was thus equalized, 
though the courts with which the inhabitants of the county were mostfamiUar 
■were those presided over by the local magistrates. All of the judicial officers 
^were appointed by, and held their offices at, the pleasure of the crown, or its 
representative, the governor of the province, with the consent of the council. 

The courts of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts were established by act 
•of July 3, 1782. These were the supreme judicial court, the court of com- 
mon pleas, and court of general sessions of the peace. 

The judges of the supreme judicial court, by that act, were to "hold their 
■offices as long as they behave themselves well," and to have honorable sala- 
ries, ascertained and established by standing laws. This court was to consist 
of one chief and four other justices, any three of whom constituted a lawful 
tribunal. It was given jurisdiction in civil and criminal causes and in vari- 
ous other matters, and was constituted the " supreme court of probate," 
with appellate jurisdiction in nearly all probate matters. 

A court of common pleas, established by the same act for each county, was 
similar to the provincial court of that name, and was superceded by the cir- 
cuit court of common pleas, by act of June 21, 181 1 ; which act divided the 
state into six circuits, exclusive of Dukes and Nantucket counties. This 
court was abolished in 182 1, and a court of common pleas throughout the 
state established, consisting of four judges, one judge empowered to hold a 
court. The powers and duties of the latter court were substantially those of 
the circuit courts. 

The court of general sessions of the peace, established by the act of 1782 
for each county, was held by the justices of the peace therein, and determined 



8o HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



matters relating to the conservation of the peace and the punishment of 
ofifenses cognizable by them at common law. After several changes and 
modifications its powers and duties were transferred to the circuit court of 
common pleas. The latter was finally abolished in 1859. 

By the constitution of Massachusetts, "judges of probate of wills, and for 
granting letters of administration," hold their offices during good behavior, 
and are appointed and commissioned by the governor. By the act of March 
12, 1784, probate courts were established, and their powers and duties pre- 
scribed. 

When the provincial courts were established, in 1792, the court of probate 
was separated from the others — at least in Hampshire county. From that 
time until June, 1858, the officers of this court were a judge of probate and a 
register of probate. At the latter date the court of insolvency was placed 
under the jurisdiction of these officers, who have since been denominated, 
respectively, "judge of probate and insolvency,'' and " register of probate and 
insolvency." 

The court of insolvency was established in 1856, superseding the commis- 
sioners of insolvency, who had previously the charge of insolvent matters. 
Horace I. Hodges was appointed judge of insolvency in June of the year 
named, and R. B. Hubbard, register. The latter served until January, 1857, 
and was succeeded by Luke Lyman, who was chosen in the fall of 1856, the 
office having been made elective. The duties of these officers ceased when 
the courts were united as above named in 1858. 

A board of county commissioners was established by act of the general 
court, February 26, 1828. The powers and duties of the court of sessions 
and of commissioners of highways were transferred to the board of commis- 
sioners. The board consists of three members, one of whom is chosen annu- 
ally for a term of three years. Two special commissioners are elected, each 
at the same time, for a term of three years. 

The commissioners have the care of county property, and are empowered, 
among other things, to estimate and apportion county taxes, erect and repair 
county buildings, lay out highways, license ferries and inn-holders, appoint 
overseers of the house of correction, and establish rules for its government. 

The special commissioners are called to act in cases of vacancy in the 
board, or where the commissioners are interested parties. 

Five court houses have been erected in Northampton. The first one, a 
building erected in 1655, stood near the intersection of Main and King streets. 
The second, built probably in 1738-39, stood "near the east end of the green, 
fronting Shop Row." This did service until 18 13, when a third was erected 
upon the site of the present. This was destroyed by fire in November, 1822. 
It was re-built soon after, and the building, with several modifications, did 
service until taken down during the past summer to make room for the fine 
structure now being built. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



The first jail or " prison " at Northampton stood near the present city hall, 
and was erected in 1704. It was twenty-four by sixteen feet in size, and had 
a small dwelling at one end for the keeper. 

The second jail was built in 1800-01. It was principally a stone structure, 
located on Pleasant street, and cost $11,458.39. 

The present jail and house of correction was ordered built in September, 
1850, and was finished in 1852. It is of brick, consists of a central edifice, 
four stories or sixty-six feet in height, with basement and attic, and with 
ground dimensions forty-six by sixty-one feet ; and two wings, each with a 
frontage of sixty-five feet and a width of forty-five; and fifty feet in height. 
The jail wing contains two departments — one for males and one for females 
— that for males containing twelve cells, eight by ten feet in size, and ten feet 
high, while that for females has twenty-two cells, four by ten feet, and ten feet 
high. The other wing is the "house of correction," and has fifty-four cells 
corresponding in size to the cells for females in the jail wing. These are all 
for males. The cell floors are of brick. The building contains also the 
keeper's residence, chapel, poor debtor's room, hospital and bathing-room. 
In the rear of the main building is a workshop, thirty by sixty feet, and two 
stories in height. 

JUDICIARY AND CIVIL LIST. 

Since the period of the Revolution the following citizens of the county 
have held positions on the bench of the superior court of judicature and 
supreme judicial court : — 

Justices. 

Simeon Strong, Amherst 1801-05 

Charles A. Dewey,* Northampton 1837-66 

Charles E. Forbes,t Northampton 1848- 

William Allen, Northampton 1872- 

Court of Com/non Pleas. 

Solomon Strong. Amherst 1820-42 

Samuel Howe, Northampton 1820-28 

Charles E. Forbes, Northampton 1847-48 

State Senators. 

Levi Stockbiidge, Hadley . 1865-66 

Edmund H. Sawyer, Easthampton 1867-68 



*Mr. Dewey was a native of Northampton, but was appointed from Worcester. 
f Resijjned the same year. 



82 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



Edward A. Thomas, Prescott 1869 

Stephen M. Crosby, Williamsburg 1870 

Rufus D. Woods, Enfield 1872-73 

Francis Edson, Hadley 1874 

William M. Gaylord, Northampton 1876 

Lewis N. Gilbert, Ware 1877-78 

John L. Otis, Northampton 1879-80 

Samuel M. Cook, Granby 1881-82 

Alvan Ej^rrus, Goshen 1 883-84 

Myron P. Walker, Belchertown i885-86. 

Charles N. Clark, Northampton 1887- 



Countv Treasurers. 



John Pynchon 1660-81 Jonathan H. Butler 1846-49 



Peter Tilton 1682-! 

John Pynchon 1 689 — 

William Pynchon 1798-1808 

Edward Pynchon 1808-12 

Daniel Stebbins 181 2-45 



Charles DeLano i85o-5( 

Henry S. Gere 1 859-76 

Watson L. Smith 1877-79 

Lewis Warner 1880- 



Sheriffs 

Elisha Porter 1781-96 Samuel L. Hinckley 1844-51 

Ebenezer Mattoon 1796-181 1 Alfred L. Strong JS51-53 

Thomas Shepard 1811-12 Henry A. Longley - 1855-83 

Ebenezer Mattoon 1812-16 Jairus E. Clark ^883- 

Joseph Lyman 1816-44 



Judges of Probate. 



John Pynchon 1692-1703 

Samuel Partridge 1 703-29 

John Stoddard 1729-48 

Timothy Dwight 1748-64 

Isaac Williams 1 764-74 

Samuel Mather 1776-79 

Samuel Henshaw 1797-1809 



Jonathan Leavitt 1809-10 

Joseph Lyman 1810-16 

Samuel Hinckley 1816-34 

Ithamar Conkey .... 1834-58 

Samuel F. Lyman 1858-73 

Samuel T. Spaulding ^873-79 

William G. Bassett 1879- 



Registers of Probate. 



Samuel Partridge 1 692-1 703 

John Pynchon 1703-29 

Timothy Dwight 1729-48 

Timothy Dwight, Jr 1748-64 

Solomon Stoddard 1764-69 

Israel Williams, Jr 1769-74 



John C. WilHams 1776-87 

Samuel Hinckley 1787-1816 

Samuel F. Lyman 1827-55 

Luke Lyman 1859-83 

Hubbard M. Abbott 1883- 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



83 



Clerks of Courts. 



Elizur Holyoke 1660-76 

Samuel Partridge 1676-78 

John Holyoke. .... 1678-93 

John Pynchon 1693-1735 

Israel \Villiams '735-5^ 

William Williams 1758-78 

Robert Breck 1 778-98 

Joseph Lyman 1 798-1810 



Joseph Dwight 1810-11 

John Taylor 1811-12 

Josiah Dwight 181 2-2 i 

Solomon Stoddard 1821-37 

Samuel VVells 1837-65 

WilHam P. Strickland 1865-82 

William H. Clapp 1882- 



Registers of Deeds. 

Ebenezer Hunt 1787-96 Charles Hooker 1830-33 

Levi Lyman 1796 -181 1 C. P. Huntington 1833-33 

Solomon Stoddard 181 1-2 i Giles C. Kellogg 1833-46 

Levi Lyraan j 83 i -30 Henry P. Billings 1 87 i- 



Trial Justices. * 



Horace L Hodges '858 

James W. Boyden 1858 

William S. Brockenbridge 1858 

Elisha H. Brewster 1858 

Epaphras Clark 1858 

Elijah N. Woods 1858 

Franklin Dickinson 185S 

Albion P. Howe ^859 

Abion P. Peck 1860 

Francis DeWitt i860 

Franklin D. Richards ^863 

Samuel Wells '863 

Charles Richards 1864 

Hiram Smith, Ji 1864 

Oliver Pease 1865 

William P. Strickland 1865 



Seth Warner 1865 

R. Ogden Dwight [868 

C. Edgar Smith 1 869 

William G. Bassett . . 1869 

Alfred M. Copeland 1869 

Francis H. Dawes 1 870 

Garry Munson 1872 

Edward A. Thomas 1874 

Haynes H. Chilson 1875 

Nathan Morse 1876 

Lafayette Clark 1877 

Enos Parsons 1880 

John J. Reardon 1 88 1 

Edwin R. Bridgman 1882 

Alburn J. Fargo 1882 



County Commissioners. 



Charles P. Phelps 1828-34 Osmyn Baker 1834-37 

Levi Lyman 1829-30 Elisha Strong 1835-40 

Alvan Rice 1829-33 i Joseph Cummings 1835-52 

Ithamar Conkey 1830-34 j Chauncey B. Rising 1838-40 



* The jurisdiction of the trial justices of Hampshire county was terminated by act of 
legislature approved May 16, 1882, which formed the towns of Hampshire county into a 
district court, of which William P. .Stickland, of Northampton, was appointed justice, 
A.J. Fargo, of Easthampton, and R. W. Lyman, of Belchertown, special justices, and 
Haynes H. Chilson, of Northampton, clerk. 



84 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



Roswell Hubbard 1838- 

Israel Billings 1841-43 

Timothy A. Piielps 1841-43 

Mark Doolittle 1844-46 

Joel Hayden 1844-52 

William Bowdoin 1847-48 

Benjamin Barrett 1847-48 

Haynes H. Chilson 1850-52 

Horace I. Hodges 1853-54 

Elisha H. Brewster 1853-65 

John Warner 1853 

William P. Dickinson 1855-59 



Elkanah Ring, Jr f 856-58 

Daniel B Gillett 1859-6 i 

Enoch H. Lyman 1860-66 

William C. Eaton 1862-67 

P. Smith Williams 1867-69 

Elisha A. Edwards* 1868 

Justm Thayer 1869-74 

Samuel Mills Cook 1S7 1-75 

Elnathan Graves 1875-86 

Flavel Gaylord 1 879-87 

Emory C. Davisj 1887- 



Special County Commissioners. 



Ithamar Conkey 1828-29 

Oliver Smith 1830-34 

Elisha Strong 1 830-34 

Dyar Bancroft 1835 

Ephraim Smith 1835-40 

Benjamin White 1835-40 

William Clark, Jr 1841-43 

James H. Clapp 1841-43 

Joseph Smith 1 844-48 

Luther Edwards 1844-49 

John A. Morton i 849 

George Allen 1850-52 



Elkanah Ring, Jr 1 850-5 2 

Adolphus Strong 1853-56 

Otis G. Hill 1853-56 

Charles Adams 1857-62 

Justin Thayer 1857-68 

Lorenzo S. Nash 1863-68 

Elnathan Graves 1869-74 

Austin Eastman 1869-73 

Samuel L. Parsons 1874-83 

Charles E. BloodJ 1874- 

Silas G. Hubbard 1883-86 

Charles K. BrewsterJ 1887- 



Term expires 1888. f Term expires 1889. 

X Term expires 1889. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



85 



CHAPTER VIII. 

First Newspaper — Its Origin — Still in Existence — Newspapers of 
Northampton — of Amherst — of Easthampton — of Huntington— 
OF Ware — of Belchertown. 

THE year 1786 marked an important era in the history of the territory 
now included within the limits of the county. In the early autumn of 
thai year the first newspaper made its appearance, at Northampton — 
a mark of enterprise and progress in any community. There was then no 
paper published nearer than Springfield, Hartford and Worcester. The 
troubled times of the Shays Rebellion period were at their zenith in this vicin- 
ity then, and to afford a vehicle for reaching the reason of the people, was 
doubtless a weighty object in starting the sheet. William Butler was the 
founder of the paper, and the first number appeared on the 6th of September. 
The Hampshire Gazette,* which, to this very day, covering a prosperous life 
of over one hundred years, continues to be a welcome weekly visitor and a 
valued friend to morality and progress. 

William Butler was then a young man of twenty-two years, and a practical 
printer. He had served an apprenticeship at the printing business with Hud- 
son &: Goodwin, printers and publishers of Hartford. He came here in the 
summer of 17S6, and at the time he issued his first number had no office of 
his own, but had planned to erect a building, and while it was being built he 
set up his printing office in the rear part of Benjamin Prescott's house, on 
the corner of Main and Pleasant streets, where the Kirkland block now 
stands. 

The first copies say, " Printed by William Butler, a few rods east of the 
court-house." Soon afterward his building was completed. It stood on the 
northeasterly side of Pleasant street, was two stories in height, twenty feet 
front, and twenty-one feet deep, and is now the northwesterly part of the 
store of G. L. Loomis & Co. The printing office was in the second story, 
and Daniel Butler, brother of the printer, had a variety store below. 

Mr. Butler sold the paper July i, 1815, and William W. Clapp was his suc- 
cessor. Mr. Clapp changed the name of the paper, making it the Hamp- 
shire Gazette and Publick Advertiser, and also changed its general style and 
make-up, but not to the satisfaction of his patrons generally. At any rate, in 
December of the following year (i8i6) he advertised the establishment for 

* In this chapter the names of all live papers are printed in small capitals, extinct pa- 
pers in italics. 
7* 



86 HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



sale, and January i, 1817, it was bought by a young law firm, consisting of 
Isaac C. Bates and Hophni Judd. As neither of these were practical print- 
ers, they took into partnership with them, in the following June, Thomas 
Watson Shepard, who was a printer and had a job office here. From that time 
until April 10, 1822, the paper was published under the firm name of Thomas 
W. Shepard & Co., when it passed into the hands of Sylvester Judd, Jr., 
brother of Hophni. 

Mr. Judd retained the paper until January r, 1835. Under his manage- 
ment the paper rapidly inceased in value and circulation. But Mr. Judd's 
writings and his valuable historical labors are too well known in Hampshire 
county to require recapitulation at this point. 

Charles P. Huntington and William A. Hawley secceeded Mr. Judd. The 
former was a young lawyer, and the latter just out of his seven years' appren- 
ticeship in the printing office of J. S. & C. Adams, of Amherst. Mr. Hun- 
tington was connected with the paper only about five months, when, June 3, 
1835, he sold his interest to Mr. Hawley, who continued its editor and pub- 
lisher until March, 1853, when he sold out to Hopkins, Bridgman & Co., 
booksellers and publishers at the old Butler book store on Shop Row. 

When the latter firm took the paper, they employed James R. Trumbull 
as editor, who had served a four years' apprenticeship in the Gazette office 
under Mr. Hawley. Mr. Trumbull edited the paper until January r, 1858, 
when Thomas Hale, of Windsor, Vt., bought a half-interest in it, and be- 
came the editor. He remained in that position until October i, 1858, when 
the entire establishment was sold to Mr. Trumbull, and on November i. fol- 
lowing, the Gazette and the Northampton Courier were united, under the 
ownership and editorship of Mr. Trumbull and Henry S. Gere. This co- 
partnership continued until January i, 1877, when Mr. Trumbull, through 
failing health, sold out to Mr. Gere, vvho is still the venerable old Gazette s 
editor and publisher. 

Twice, for short periods, the Gazette has been issued daily. In 1 846, 
while the interest in the Mexican war was at its height, Mr. Hawley issued 
a daily from May 27th to July 30th; and in 186 1, from April 26th to May 
25th, when the excitement over the war of the Rebellion was most intense, 
a daily was printed by Trumbull & Gere. 

The Gazette is now published every Tuesday afternoon, and has a circula- 
tion of about 3,400. 

The Patriotic Gazette was the second paper started in Northampton. It 
was established by Andrew Wright. April 12, 1799, and died in about a year. 
The Rcpublicaii Spy, established at Springfield in 1803, was removed to 
Northampton in 1804, by its publisher, Thom.as Ashley. On the 14th of 
December, 1808, its name was changed to the Anti-Monarchist and Repub- 
lican Watchman, and subsequently, March 12, i8xr, to The Democrat. It 
was discontinued about the year 18 15, or soon after the close of the war of 
1812. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 87 



The Hive, by T. M. Pomeroy, was established at Northampton in August) 
1803. It was semi-literary in cast, and Federal in politics, at least until De- 
cember 25, 1804, when it became exclusively a political journal. It was dis- 
continued the following year, 1805. 

The Oracle, Northampton's seventh paper, was established by Hiram 
Ferry, in 1823, It was a religious weekly, and took a decided stand on the 
side of total abstinence. It was continued only about three years. 

The Christian Freeman was the next venture here, by Jonathan A. Saxton, 
who brought it from Greenfield. It was devoted to politics and Unitarian- 
ism, and had a brief existence. 

The Northampton Courier first appeared in 1829, a Whig newspaper, estab 
lished by VVinthrop At will. April 8, 1840, Mr. Atwill sold out to Thomas 
W. Shepard, and on the 2 2d of the same month Mr. Shepard took into part- 
nership Josiah W. Smith, who, on the 17th of June, became sole proprietor. 
On the 24th of April, 1847, Mr. Smith sold the establishment to Rev. Will- 
iam Tyler, a Congregational clergyman. In the following year he changed 
its politics to the free-soil side. In 1849, May ist. Rev. Mr. Tyler sold to 
Henry S. Gere, who continued the paper until November i, 1858, when he 
united it with the Hampshire Gazette, as we have previously stated. 

Ihe Hampshire Republican appears next in the list of Northampton news- 
papers. It was established by Chauncey Clark, and first appeared February 
18, 1835. In 1836 he was succeeded by Oliver Warner, and he in turn by 
Lewis Ferry, in 1837. About this time its name was changed to the North- 
atnpton T)emocrdt. From this time forward the changes in its proprietorship 
and management were rapid, and finally, July i, 1847, its subscription list 
was purchased by the Springfield Post, and it was issued with its old head 
from that establishment until the discontinuance of the latter, in 1854. 

The Temperance Banner, a temperance bi-monthly, was established here 
by Timothy H. Mather, February 21, 1835, ^"^ ^^s continued by him until 
October, 1836. 

The Hampshire Herald, an organ of the " Liberty party," was established 
February 4, 1845. It was owned by J. P. Williston, Northampton, and Joel 
Hayden, Williamsburg, and conducted by A. W. Thayer. It was continued 
till August 15, 1848. During its last year it was published by Henry S. Gere 
and Harvey J. Smith. On the 2 2d of August it was merged with the North- 
amptoft Courier. 

The Independent Citizen was started by Henry J. Smith in 1849, only one or 
two numbers of which were issued. 

The Hampshire County Journal. — In the history of this enterprising 
sheet we must turn back to the year i860. On April 13th of that year 
Henry M. Burt issued the first number of the Northampton Free Press. 
This sheet had a varying fortune, and, in 1874, it was consolidated with the 
Northampton Jour7ial, under the name of The Journal and Free Press, 
This name was retained until the proprietors took the paper, when it was 



88 HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



changed to the Hampshire County Journal. Mr. Burt's venture was in 
the shape of a semi-weekly sheet of four pages, 20x28 inches, five columns to 
the page. The new paper met with a warm reception, and the marked 
independence of character and managerial ability of its owner and editor 
soon impressed itself upon the paper which he edited, and the Free Press 
became noted for the vigor and independence of its conduct. In 1864 Mr. 
Burt enlarged his paper, making it 21x33 inches, and taking as partner 
Charles H Lyman. This partnership, however, lasted but a few months, 
and Mr. Burt remained the sole conductor of the paper a few months longer, 
disposing of his entire interest in the sheet December 9, 1864, to Albert R. 
Parsons, a native of Northampton, and a graduate of Yale college. The 
Free Press was again enlarged under Mr. Parsons's management the following 
year, making it 23x35 inches. In December, 1869, Mr. Parsons disposed of 
the establishment to Calvin Porter and H. M. Converse, who gave the paper 
a new dress of type and improved it generally. At the beginning of the year 
1 87 1 the paper was again enlarged, and changed from a weekly to a semi- 
weekly. Mr. Porter severed his connection with the Free Press November 
3d of the same year, and the new firm took the name of Converse & Bur- 
leigh, the junior partner being Le Moyne Burleigh. Mr. Converse sold his 
interest in the Free Press to Mr. Burleigh, February i, 1873, and Mr. Bur- 
leigh continued alone the management of the paper until its consolidation 
with the Journal, the latter paper being established September 12, 1874. 
This was an eight-page paper, printed in old style type. Its proprietors were 
H. H. Bond. & Co., H. H. Bond and A. M. Powell being editors. In 1875 
A. G. Hill, of Florence, bought of Mr. Bond his entire merest in XXi^ Journal 
property, and consolidated the two papers, as we have shown. George R. 
Edwards was publisher of the paper till November, 1876. January i. 
1877, the present proprietors. Wade, Warner & Co., took charge of the office. 
The [ouRNAL is a large, bright, independent family newspaper, issued from 
its office on Court street every Friday afternoon. 

Le Jean Baptiste, a French paper, was started here by Burleigh & Chatel, 
February 24, 1875, but on the 21st of September following, P. O. Chatei 
became sole proprietor. April 10, 1876, Mr. Chatel removed the paper to 
Holyoke. In March, 1878, he again came back to Northampton and 
remained for a time. 

The Northampton Daily Herald came into existence as follows : In 
the summer of 1882, Messrs. Bridgman & Gay bought out the plant of the 
Holyoke Herald, and October i, 1882, the Hatnpshire Herald was started, 
printed in Holyoke as a weekly. September i, 1883, the plant was removed 
to Northampton, and the Daily Herald established. Mr. Bridgman soon 
became the sole proprietor of the paper, and from February i, 1884, to July 
I, 1885, leased the paper to Carruthers & Howland, obtaining management 
of it again on the latter date. In September, 1885, the present proprietor, 
E. C. Stone, purchased the office. The paper has greatly increased in circu- 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



lation and influence within the past year. It is the only daily published in 
Hampshire county. 

AMHERST. 

John B. Cotting was the editor, and Carter & Adams the proprietors, of 
Amherst's first venture in the newspaper business — The Chemist and Meteoro- 
logical Journal, whose brief hfe began with the issue of July i, 1826. The 
same proprietors began the publication of The New England Enquirer, De- 
cember 2, 1826, a file of which is carefully preserved by S. C. Carter, the 
venerable treasurer of the Amherst savings bank ; its editors were Hon. Osmyri 
Baker (a native of the town and a member of congress, ] 839-1845) and Rev. 
Samuel Worcester, a college professor. 

The next paper was The Amherst Gazette, James B. Yerrington, editor 
and proprietor, which appeared in 1839. 

The first paper which "lived to grow up" was The Hampshire a)id Fraiik- 
lin Express, edited by Samuel C. Nash. Its publication was begun in 1844, 
and has continued until the present time, though under different names, viz.: 
The Hampshire and Franklin Express, 1 844-1 865 ; The Hampshire Express, 
1865-1868; and The Amherst Record, since May, 1868. A.mong its 
editors have been Samuel C. Nash, J. R. Trumbull, who was afterwards editor 
of The Hampshire Gazette iox z. o^d.x\^x of a century; Leander Wetherell, 
William Faxon, who was both editor and proprietor as Mr. Trumbull had 
been before him, Mr. Wetherell having been employed by the Adams Bros, 
as publisher ; J, H. Brewster and Rev. Fliny H. White, J. H. Brewster and 
Rev. J. H. M. Leland, and Rev. J. H. M. Leland successively conducted the 
paper until 1858, when it was purchased by Mr. H. A. Marsh, who sold it in 
1866 to Capt. J. L. Skinner. Mr. H. M. McCloud became connected with 
the paper in February, 1868. He was at first associated with Mr. Skinner, 
afterwards with Mr. Charles L Storrs, and finally with Mr. J. E. Williams, 
who became connected with the paper in June, 1877, ^"'^ who is at present 
its editor and proprietor. The Record is issued every W^ednesday afternoon. 

A rival paper, The Amherst Transcript, established in 1877 by the Marsh 
Bros., who had the contract for the publication of the Amherst Student, a 
college paper. It had an independent existence of about two years, but was 
soon consoUdated with its more successful rival. 

The college publications began with The Sprite, in 1831, whose brief exis- 
tence covered but half a dozen numbers. Its successors, The Shrine and 
The Guest were yearlings when they ceased to be published. The perma- 
nent papers have been Horae Collegianae, 1837-1840 ; The Indicator, 
184S-1851; The Experijnent, 1850-1851; The Ainherst Collegiate Magazine, 
1853-1857, and 1861-1862; The Ichnolite, 1857-1861. None of these at- 
tained the success of the present Amherst Student, which was started in 
1868 and has since been regularly published. Its editors are chosen from 



9° 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



the junior class and it is published on alternate Saturdays of the college 
terms. 

EASTHAMPTON. 

Previous to October, 1875, newspapers were published only transiently at 
Easthampton. On the 14th of that month appeared the first number of The 
Leader, which was destined to continue through various vicissitudes and 
changes in name, form and proprietorship to the present time (1886). The 
founder of The Leader was H. De Bill, a caterer, who kept a restaurant on 
Shop Row. It was an eight page, four column paper, published Thursdays, 
and devoted to local news, correspondence and miscellany. The first eight 
numbers were printed by the Star Printing Co., at Northampton. On the fol- 
lowing 9th of December the form was changed to four pages, five columns, 
and the publication was continued in that form till May 13, 1876, when the 
publication day was changed to Saturdays. With the next number. May 20, 
the paper was enlarged to six columns. Mr. De Bill's connection with the 
paper closed with that month. It was sold June ist to Mr. H. M. Converse, 
who at that time conducted a job printing office in Easthampton. The name 
was changed to Eastliainpton Enterprise, and the publication continued by 
Mr. Converse till September i, 1881. With the beginning of the fourth 
volume, October 11, 1878, the pubhcation day was changed from Saturday 
morning to Friday evening. The subscription rate was $1,50 a year. 

The News Letter was started by the Torrey Brothers, L. E. and D. C. 
Torrey, on Wednesday, June 4, 1879. It was a diminutive sheet, four small 
pages of three columns each, published Wednesday and Saturday mornings 
at $1.00 per year. Twelve numbers were issued in this style. Then, after 
an interval of eleven days. The A^ews Letter appeared with four pages, four 
columns, published weekly, Wednesday mornings, at seventy-five cents per 
year. With the first number of the second volume, May i3, i88o, the size 
was doubled to eight pages, four columns, the name changed to The East- 
hampton News, and the price put at $1.00 a year. It was continued without 
further change till September i, 1881, when the Torrey Brothers purchased 
The Eiitetprise of Mr. Converse and merged the two papers under the title 
of The Easthampton News and Enterprise. The form adopted was that 
of the Enterprise, and Friday was chosen as the day of publication. It has 
been published continuously and with a good degree of growth and prosper- 
ity to the present time. The interest of the junior partner in the concern 
was purchased by the senior partner and present owner, L. E. Torrey, Janu- 
ary I, 1884. 

HUNTINGTON. 

The Valley Echo, of Huntington, is the first newspaper ever ])ublished 
between Westfield and Pittsfield, or in any Hampshire county town west of 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 9 1 



Northampton. In February, 1885, two Holyoke journalists conceived the 
idea that a right Hve paper, free from the millstones which might drag down 
country newspapers, could be made to pay in that large stretch of territory, 
and accordingly steps were immediately taken to give individuality to the 
thirteen small towns through the instrumentality of a home organ. In the 
following month the first issue appeared, and was bought up with an eager- 
ness that astonished the publishers. , A thorough canvass of all the towns ly- 
ing in the beautiful valley and among the rugged rocks of the adjoining towns 
was commenced with such good success, that in July a printing office was 
established in Huntington. Soon after, the increasing business compelled 
the publishers to start a separate edition for Chester, and in the early part of 
1886 another edition was commenced, for Westfield. During this time the 
press work had been done by hand-power, and it had become so arduous that 
in May a large steam press was added, and the paper enlarged. The pub- 
lishers claim that their success is due principally to these facts, viz. : that they 
knew their business thoroughly ; that they printed all the home news in the 
same manner that the daily doings are served by the enterprising dailies; 
that'a low rate of subscription was charged; and by " minding their own 
business." 

WARE. 

The Village Gazette, Ware's first newspaper, was established by Hemen- 
way & Fisk, July 7, 1847. The firm remained thus until March 15, 1848, 
when Mr. Fisk disposed of his interest to Mr. Hemenway, though he re- 
mained with the paper in the capacity of editor until January i, 1849. Later 
on, in the same month, Mr. Hemenway sold out to Mandell & Hathaway, 
who continued the paper, with an alteration of its title to The Ware Gazette, 
until the summer of 1850, when the subscription list was purchased by J. F. 
Downing. Mr. Downing founded upon this list the Ware American. The 
following autumn it was sold to the Springfield Republican. 

The Ware Offering, a monthly publication, designed for factory operatives, 
was started in January, 1848, by S. F. Pepper, though only two or three issues 
were printed. Since that time Ware has had no purely local paper. Several, 
however, from Worcester, Barre and Palmer have been sent to the town as 
Tcprints, with Ware headings, and partially made up of Ware local items. 

BELCHERTOWN. 

The Hampshire Sentinel and Far?ners' and Manufacturers Journal was 
started at Belchertown in November, 1826, by J. R. Shute. Mr. Shutedied 
March 21, 1828, and was succeeded by C. A. Warren, who, three months 
later, was succeeded by Warren & Wilson. They issued their first number 
August 6, 1828, and continued the publication till September 8, 1830, 
when it was published by S. W. Andrews as the Hampshire Sentinel, till May 
4, 1831, when it was consolidated with the Northampton Courier. 



92 HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



CHAPTER IX. 

Connecticut River a Highway for Travel — Its Navigation Im- 
proved — County's First Internal Improvements — Locks Around 
South Hadley Falls — Steamboat Navigation — Morey and Ful- . 
ton — New Haven and Northampton Canal — Turnpikes and 
Railroads — Boston and Albany Railroad — Connecticut River 
Railroad — New Haven and Northampton Railroad — Mt. Tom 
AND Easthampton Railroad — New London Northern Railroad 
— Ware River Railroad — Springfield, Athol and Northeastern 
Railroad — Massachusetts Central Railroad. 

IN this chapter it is our purpose to briefly review the internal improve- 
ments that have been made in the county since the days when its' only 
highways of travel were its several streams and a few Indian pathways. 
First, then, we must turn to the noble river which rolls through the county's 
beautiful valley. From time immemorial Connecticut river was a favorite 
pathway of Indian travel, and later became the great highway of the white 
settlers located in its valley. But with the increase of population came the 
increase of commerce and travel, and it soon became apparent that the river 
navigation must be improved to accommodate the increasing demand for con- 
veniences. The several large falls in its course were the greatest inconven- 
ience the boatmen encountered. Accordingly, petitions were drawn up and 
presented to the legislature, and on the 23d of February, 1792, that body 
passed an '* act incorporating the Hon. John Worthington, Esq., and others 
therein named, — for the purpose of rendering Connecticut river passable for 
boats and other things from the mouth of Chicopee river northward through 
this Commonwealth,— by the names of the proprietors of the Locks and Canals 
on the Connecticut river." 

Under this act of incorporation, work in constructing a canal and locks 
around South Hadley falls was soon after commenced, under the superintend- 
ence of Benjamin Prescott, of Northampton, engineer. This was the first 
stroke towards building up the great works of internal improvement that the 
county to-day enjoys. Turnpike corporations and stage-coach lines rapidly 
followed. 

It soon became apparent, however, that some more convenient mode of 
transportation must be devised than that afforded by the rude flat boats of 
the Connecticut, or by the several stage lines which traversed the several 
turnpike systems. Then followed the period of steamboat navigation on the 
Connecticut. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 93 



Although Steamboat navigation was never brought to a point of practical 
utility here, its history begins with the history of the steamboat itself, briefly 
as follows: About the beginning of the century there lived in the northern 
part of the valley two brothers Morey, Samuel and Ithamar, the former at 
Oxford, N. H., and the latter at Fairlee, Vt., — Samuel with a remarkable 
genius for invention, and Ithamar, a skillful mechanic. The universal appU- 
cability of steam had already been demonstrated, and among those who un- 
dertook its application to navigation was Samuel Morey. Under his direc- 
tion Ithamar built a steamboat, which actually navigated the waters of the 
Connecticut between Oxford and Fairlee. Of this steamboat, which had its 
machinery in its bow, Samuel took a model to New York and showed it to 
Fulton, who was experimenting to the same end. Fulton was pleased with 
the work, and suggested to Morey to change the machinery to the middle of 
the boat. This he returned to Fairlee to do, and then took his model again 
to New York, to find that Fulton had made use of his ideas and was ahead 
of him in getting out a patent. He returned home disappointed and with a 
sense of injury. 

The first really practical attempt at steamboat navigation on the Connecti- 
cut, however, was not made until 1827, when the " Barnet," a strong boat 
seventy-five by fourteen and one-half feet, was built at Hartford, and suc- 
ceeded, with some help, in ascending the river as far as Bellows Falls, Vt. 
This was her first and last trip, however, for she was taken back to Hartford, 
laid up, and finally broken to pieces. In 1829 a Mr. Blanchard built a boat 
called the " Blanchard," of the size of the preceding one, and another eighty 
feet long and fourteen feet wide, drawing only twelve or fifteen inches of 
water, called the " Vermont." The stroke of its piston was horizontal, and 
its engine was of one hundred and twenty horse power. A few experimental 
trips were made between Bellows Falls and Barnet, but the obstacles were so 
great that the undertaking, after a few other vain attempts, had to be relin- 
quished. On the levels between the locks and canals of the several falls, how- 
ever, steamboats were used with comparative success, though the passengers 
and freight had to be transferred at the end of each level. The flat boats, 
rafts, etc., made through trips, using the locks, so that the navigation was 
fairly good from Hartford, Conn., to Dalton, N. H. 

In the meantime a new highway of commerce and travel had been devel- 
oped. The project of uniting the waters of the Connecticut at Northampton 
with New Haven harbor was first agitated in 1822. A public meeting of the 
towns interested in the matter was held at Southampton, in August of that 
year. A committee was appointed, composed of persons from all the towns 
represented, of which Jonathan H. Lyman, of Northampton, was chairman, 
to report on the feasibility of a canal from Northampton to the state line of 
Connecticut, in Granby. Their report, favorable to the project, with engi- 
neer's estimates, was published in the following November. In 1823 com- 
panies were chartered in Connecticut and Massachusetts to build the canal. 



94 HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



The Connecticut company was called the Farmington Canal Co., and the 
Massachusetts, the Hampshire and Hampden Canal Co, The capital of the 
latter company was $300,000 oo — about $80,000 00 of which was subscribed 
in this state. The entire work from New Haven to this town cost about 
$1,000,00000. The canal was completed to Westfield in 1830, and to 
Northampton in 1834. The business was not profitable and the stock in both 
states was finally transferred 10 a new company, called the New Haven and 
Northampton Canal Co., for the sum of $300,000,00. 

The canal was opened July 4, 1835, on which day the first boat came 
through from Westfield to Northampton, drawn by four gray horses. It 
arrived about 4 o'clock in the afternoon. The company was chartered in both 
states in 1836, and continued to do business till 1847. The line of the canal 
at Northampton was along what is now State street, connecting with the river 
just above the bridge. The present Northampton and New Haven railway fol- 
lows substantially the route of the old canal. 

While all this was in progress, the advent of the railroad was heralded. But 
let us turn back a moment, and, of the many turnpike systems that were 
inaugurated, speak only of one, the Pontoosuc Turnpike Company, chartered 
in 1825, to Jonathan Allen. Lemuel Pomeroy, Joseph Shearer, Joseph Mer- 
rick and Thomas Gold, of Pittsfield ; Henry Stearns, (jf Springfield, and 
Enos Foot, of Southwick. They were granted the right of building a turn- 
pike through Chester, Middlefield, Becket, Washington, Dalton and Pitts- 
field, " which route presented, of all others, the most level passage from the 
Hudson to the Connecticut." as was subsequently reported by those in charge 
of the initial survey of the Western railroad. This turnpike was completed 
in October, 1830, and ultimately became, practically, the route of the West- 
ern railway — the Boston and Albany railroad of to-day. 

In the meantime the feasibility of building a canal from Boston to Albany 
was presented to the legislature, which was more seriously entertained after 
the successful completion of the Erie canal, in 1823, and in 1825 they 
appointed three commissioners and an engineer to ascertain if it were practi- 
cable. The commissioners were Nathan Willis, of Pittsfield, Elihu Hoyt, of 
Deerfield, and Henry A. S. Dearborn, of Boston, with Col. Laomi C. Bald- 
win, engineer. Several routes were tested, though their report, in 1826, 
favored a route across "Northern Worcester, up the Deerfield river, through 
the Hoosac mountain, and by the valley of the Hoosac river, to the Hudson, 
near Troy." 

As early as 1827 the feasibility of constructing a railroad on one of the 
above mentioned routes was agitated, though it was then contemplated that 
horse-power be used. Some idea of their conception of such a road may be 
derived from the following extract from a committee's report before the legis- 
lature on the i6th of January, 1829: — 

"It is found that the cost of a continuous stone wall, laid so deep in the 
ground as not to be moved by the effect of frost, and surmounted by a rail 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 95 



of split granite about a foot in thickness and depth, with a bar of iron placed 
on top of it, of sufficient thickness to form the track on which the carriage 
wheels shall run, is much less than that of the English iron rail, and that rails 
of this construction, so far as can be judged by experiments which have yet 
been made, possess all the advantages of durability, sohdity and strength." 

This impracticable idea was soon abandoned, however, as was also that of 
utilizing horse power. March 15, 1833, the charter of the Western railroad 
corporation was granted by the legislature to Nathan Hale, David Henshaw, 
George Bond, Henry Williams, Daniel Denny, Joshua Clapp and Eliphalet 
Wilhams and their associates, for the purpose of constructing a railroad from 
Worcester, the terminus of the Boston and Worcester railroad, to the line of 
the state of New York, with a capital limited to $2,000,000.00. The cor- 
poration was not organized until January, 1836, when the following gentle- 
men were made directors : John B. Wales, Edmund Dwight, George BUss, 
William Lawrence, Henry Rice, John Henshaw, Francis Jackson, Josiah 
Quincy, Jr., and Justice Willard. Maj. William Gibbs McNeil was engaged 
■ as chief engineer, and Capt. William H. Swift as resident engineer of the com- 
pany. The organization of the directors was Thomas B. Wales, president ; 
Josiah Quincy, treasurer ; and Ellis Gray Loring, clerk. 

The survey of the corporation commenced in April, 1836. Twenty miles 
of the road, commencing at Worcester, were put under contract in January, 
£837, and work was commenced on that section in the month following. In 
June of the same year the road from East Brookfield to Springfield was put 
under contract, and the work commenced upon the section in July. On the 
ist day of October, 1839, the road was opened to travel between Worcester 
and Springfield, and, on the 23d of that month, regular merchandise trains 
were established. Early in 1842 the whole line was completed through to 
the Hudson river, with the exception of fifteen miles within the state of New 
York, which was run on the track of the Hudson and Berkshire railroad. 
From the state line to Albany the road was nominally, at least, under the 
conduct of a New York corporation, with the name of the Albany and West 
Stockbridge railway. This section was opened for travel on the 12 th of Sep- 
tember, thus accomplishing the long looked for object. December i, 1867, 
the Worcester and Western railroads were consolidated, under the name of 
the Boston and Albany railroad. 

What is now the Connecticut River railroad was the next one built in the 
county, the enterprise coming about as follows : March i, 1842, a number 
of the citizens of Northampton and vicinity obtained a charter to build a rail- 
road from Northampton to Springfield, under the name of the Northampton 
and Springfield Railroad Company, with a capital of $400,000.00,. which was 
afterwards increased to $500,000.00. The original route was to cross the river 
at Mt. Holyoke and pass down on the east side of the Connecticut. Three 
years afterwards, several gentlemen of Greenfield, and their associates, 
obtained a charter for the Greenfield and Northampton Railroad Company with 
$500,000.00. These two companies were consohdated on equal terms July i8, 



96 HAMPSHIRE COUNTY, 



1845, taking on the present name of the Connecticut River Railroad Company, 
and with authority to change the route to the one now in use, from Spring- 
field, Mass., to South Vernon, Vt., a distance of fifty miles. The road was 
opened to Northampton in December, 1845, to Greenfield, November 23, 

1846, and through to South Vernon, January i, 1849. 

The only branch this road has in the county is the Mt. Tom railroad, 
extending from Mt. Tom to Easthampton, a distance of about three and three- 
fourth miles. While it was intended in all respects as a branch of this road, 
it was necessary to procure a separate charter and be constructed by an inde- 
pendent company. The first train of cars passed over the road on Thanks- 
giving day, 1 87 1. 

The New Haven and Northampton railroad, as it is now known, was the 
next road built after the Connecticut River. In 1846 the canal company 
obtained leave from the Connecticut legislature to construct a railroad on or 
near the line of the canal to Granby, Conn., and also a branch to CoUins- 
ville. This road was built by the New Haven and Northampton Company. 
The Farmington Valley Company obtained a charter and built a road from 
Granby to the Massachusetts state line. In 1852 the Hampden and Hamp- 
shire Company was chartered, with a capital of $175,000.00, to build a road 
from VVestfield to the Connecticut state line. The same year the North- 
ampton and Westfield Railroad Company was chartered with a capital of 
$200,000.00, for the purpose of continuing the road to Northampton. In 1853 
these two roads were united, under the name of the Hampshire and Hampden 
Company, with a combined capital of $375,000.00. The road was opened 
to VVestfield in 1854, and the following year to Northampton. On the first 
of July, 1862, all the above named roads were merged into one corporation, 
under the name of the New Haven and Northampton Railroad Company. 
The total cost of all the roads thus merged was $2,305,204.62. From New 
Haven to Plainville the road was opened in January, 1848; from Plainville 
to Granby, in February, 1850 ; from Granby to Northampton, in 1857 ; from 
Northampton to Williamsburg, in February, 1868. The extention to North 
Adams, over the Troy and Greenfield railroad, was opened July 13th, and 
to Turner's Falls, October 31, 1881. 

The New London Northern railroad, extending from New London, Conn., 
to Brattleboro, Vt., a distance of 121 miles, came into existence as follows: 
In May, 1847, the New London, Willimantic and Springfield Railroad Com- 
pany was chartered, and in May of the following year, 1848, was changed to 
the New London, Willimantic and Palmer Company. The road was opened 
through to Willimantic in September, 1849, and to Palmer in September, 1850. 
It was sold under foreclosure, and re-organized as the New London Northern in 
1 869. The Amherst and Belchertown Railroad Company was chartered in May, 
1851, and opened from Palmerto Amherst in May, 1853. October 14, 1858, it 
was sold under foreclosure, and re-organized as the Amherst, Belchertown and 
Palmer road, November 23d of the same year. In March, 1864, the road was 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 97 



purchased by the New London Northern Company, and extended to Miller's 
Falls in 1867. The Miller's Falls branch of the Vermont and Massachusetts 
road, extending to Brattleboro, was bought by this company May i, 1880. The 
entire line is leased for twenty years from December i, 187 1, to the trustees 
of the Central Vermont Railroad Company. The lessee assumes all respons- 
ibilities, and pays as rental $150,000.00 a yeai, in quarterly installments, 
with an additional $15,000.00 for every $100,000.00 of gross earnings in 
excess of $150,000.00. 

The Ware River railroad extends from Palmer to Winchendon, a distance 
of nearly fifty miles. The company was incorporated in 1868, and the sec- 
tion from Palmer to Gilbertville was built in 1870, at a cost of $250,000.00. 
The original company became embarrassed, and in 1873 a new one was 
formed, retaining the old name. The road was opened through during that 
year. April 1, 1873, the road was leased to the Boston and Albany Com- 
pany for a period of nine hundred and ninety-nine years. 

The Springfield, Athol and Northeastern railroad, extending from Spring- 
field to Athol, now a part of the Boston and Albany railroad system, was 
originally the Athol and Enfield railroad, chartered in 1864-65. The first 
portion of the road constructed was from Athol to a connection with the 
New London Northern road at Barretts, whence the company's trains ran to 
Palmer, four miles, over the New London Northern track. In 1872 the com- 
pany obtained a supplementary charter, changing the name of corporation 
to the Springfield, Athol and Northeastern Railrond Company, and author- 
izing them to build a line from Barretts to Springfield, about seventeen 
miles, which v/as constructed in 1873. It is now, as we have said, a part of 
the Boston and Albany system. 

The project which resulted in what there is to-day of the Massachusetts 
Central railroad, had its beginning away back in 1867, when a charter was 
obtained and a state loan of $1,000,000.00 granted, conditionally, for build- 
ing and operating a railroad from Williamsburg to North Adams, over the 
mountains, " up into Goshen and down into Cummington." The corpora- 
tion was organized at North Adams in September, 1868. While this project 
was in agitation, however, a proposition was started to build a road east from 
Northampton to Sterling Junction, thus making a connection with Boston 
and the Hudson river. December 22, 1868, a meeting was held at North- 
ampton, at which a committee of fifteen was appointed to secure the co-op- 
eration of the towns along the proposed route, and to obtain surveys. From 
this action resulted the charter. May 10, 1869, of the Central Massachusetts 
Railroad Company, with the right to build a road from Cambridge to North- 
ampton, a distance of one hundred and three and one-half miles, with a 
branch from Amherst to West Deerfield, thirteen and one-half miles. The 
road was put under contract in 187 1, and work was pushed vigorously from 
several points along the route till the panic of 1873 prevented the negotiation 
of its bonds, when the work stopped. October i, 1881, the road was opened 



C)8 HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



from Cambridge to Hudson, nearly twenty-four miles, and in December of the 
same year to Jefferson's, forty-four miles. July i, 1882, the company made 
default in the payment of interest then due, and the trustees under the mort- 
gage took possession of the property May 4, 1883. Operations were sus- 
pended May i6th,and the road was sold under foreclosure September i, 1883. 
It was purchased on behalf of the bondholders, who organized the present 
company, the Massachusetts Central Railroad Company, November 10, 1883, 
under a special act of the legislature. By the terms of the charter of the 
new company, preferred stock is to be issued dollar for dollar in payment for 
the mortgage debt of the old company, this stock to have entire control of 
the affairs of the company until such time as the road, shall earn two semi- 
annual dividends of four per cent, each in any one year. Common stock is 
to be issued share for share for the stock of the old company. It also author- 
izes the extension of the road from Bondsville to the New York state line, 
and the leasing to, or consolidation with, the Poughkeepsie, Hartford and Bos- 
ton road, or any other road connecting this line in Massachusetts or New 
York. In June, 1885, a special act of the legislature was passed authorizing 
the trustees to make a contract for the operation of the road and to issue cer- 
tificates of indebtedness to the amount of $200,000.00. November 7, 
1886, the road was leased to the Boston and Lowell Railroad Company for a 
period of ninety-nine years. It is confidently asserted that operations will be 
re-commenced at once, and work pushed rapidly to completion. 



CHAPTER X. 



Remarks Military — Revolutionary Records — Shays Rebellion* — 
War of 181 2-15 — Mexican War — War of the Union — Roster of 
Field, Staff and Company Officers. 

WHILE we devote this chapter to the military history of Hampshire 
county, it is not our purpose to enter into details, unless, perhaps, 
it be in the outline sketch of Shays Rebellion, an uprising whose 
history is inseparably connected with the history of Hampshire county. 
Neither is an extended sketch of the early Indian troubles, the French and 
Indian wars, and the wars with the mother country necessary, as the part 
each took, its sacrifices and losses, will be spoken of farther on in the work, 
in connection with their respective sketches. 



* For the remarks on this subject we are indebted to Rev. G. H. Johnson, of North 
Amherst. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 99 



None of the leading events of the great wars occurred in the county ; but 
its inhabitants were well up to the highest point of patriotism. Nothing, per- 
haps, could in a brief way give a general idea of the spirit displayed during 
the great war for independence than the following extracts from the town rec- 
ords of Northampton, viz. : — 

" Dec. 26, 1774. — The inhabitants met in pursuance to adjournment, and 
chose a committee of twelve persons to receive, preserve & convey such ar- 
ticles as sliall be contributed by the Inhabitants of this town for the relief of 
their suffering brethren in the Towns of Boston and Cliarlestown." 

" March 4, 1776. — At this meeting a Committee of Correspondence, In- 
spection and Safety was chosen, consisting of fifteen persons." 

*' Oct. 3, 1776. — The question at this meeting was put. Whether the Town 
will give their Consent that the present House of Representatives of the 
state of the Massachusetts Bay in New England, together with the Council (if 
they consent), in one body with the House, and by equal voice, should con- 
sult, agree on, and enact such a Constitution & Form of Government for this 
state as the said House of Representatives and Council as aforesaid on the 
fullest and mature deliberation shall judge will most coiiduce to the Safety, 
peace and Happiness of this State in all after succession and generations ; 
and it passed in the affirmative." 

" The Question was then put. Whether the Town would direct that the 
same be made Publick for the Inspection and perusal of the Inhabitants be- 
fore the ratification thereof by the assembly ; and it passed m the affirmative." 
" March 3, 1777. — The Town entered upon the consideration of the mat- 
ter which had been debated, viz. : what methods they would take to encour- 
age and facilitate the raising of this Town's proportion of men for the Con- 
tinental Army, and passed the following votes, thereon, viz. : — 

" That those persons that shall no>v engage in the service aforesaid, who 
belonged to Capt. Allen's and Capt. Chapin's Company the last year, both 
officers and privates, shall have full compensation for all losses by them sus- 
tained in cloaths and other articles, when such losses were unavoidable, and 
not through the negligence of those who sustamed them. 

" And as a further encouragement to them, or any other able-bodied men 
belonging to this town who will engage in the said service. 

" The town Voted that they and each of them shall receive from the In- 
habitants of the Town of Northampton the sum of fifteen pounds, which 
sum shall be paid to them several times, viz. : namely, five pounds before they 
shall march to the said Army, and five pounds more shall be paid them or to 
their Order in the month of April, 1778, and the other five pounds in the 
month of April, 1779. And, whereas, it was represented to the Town that 
some of the inhabitants have heretofore failed of doing their proportion in 
promoting the publick cause. 

"The Town voted that a large Committee should be appointed to examine 
and consider what persons in the Town have been so delinquent, and that 
the said Committee make out a list of such persons, with the sums affixed to 
their respective names which they judge it will be necessary for them to ad- 
vance, in order to their doing their full proportion with the other inhabitants 
of this town, and that those who are found delinquent as aforesaid, shall be 
required to pay the sum so affixed to their names, to such persons as the 
Town shall appoint to collect the same. 

'' The Town also voted that the sum of seventy pounds now in the hands 
of the Town Treasurer, being the Fines of Several persons who refused to 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



march in the last Draughts of the Militia, be applied to the payment of the 
bounty aforesaid, and that what further sums shall be necessary to make up 
the losses and pay the Bounty as aforesaid, shall be Assessed upon the Polls 
and Estates of the Inhabitants of this Town at such time as the Town shall 
order. 

" April 15, 1777, voted to increase the bounty to 30 pounds." 
Following immediately upon the Revolution, or rather growing out of it, 
was the memorable " Shays Rebellion." This uprising in Western Massachu- 
setts against the authorities of the state, in 1786, was not, however, strickly 
speaking, a rebellion ; that is, it was not prompted by any spirit of disloyalty, 
nor was it designed or plotted with the wish to overturn the government. It 
was the wild and lawless expression of discontent with harsh circumstances; 
the natural outbreak of those who were suffering and oppressed. Nothing 
more clearly shows the patriotic spirit of the people than their utterly 
exhausted condition at the close of the Revolutionary war. The credit of 
the government had long since gone ; the states were hardly in any better cir- 
cumstances; few individuals were out of debt. Business was more than pros- 
trated, with the exception of agriculture, it was well nigh destroyed. There 
was no demand for labor, and there was a continuous call for the payment of 
debts and taxes. In all probability the war debt of Massachusetts — includ. 
ing the debts of state and towns, bounties promised and arrears due to sol- 
diers and their families — averaged nearly, if not quite, fifty dollars for every 
man, woman and child in the commonwealth, or an average of nearly two 
hundred dollars for each family in the state.* The laws of that time had 
never contemplated such a condition of affairs, and were exceedingly unjust 
in their operation An insolvent debtor's property was divided among his 
creditors, not in equal proportion, but in the order in which their attachments 
of the property were levied. Consequently, those who were first to suspecj 
a debtor took all his property, and those less suspicious or prompt lost all their 
due. The debtor who could pay nothing was put into prison with the felons 
and villains of the day, and their families left to want and poverty. Under 
such circumstances the outbreak was far less a rebellion than the inevitable 
outcry of suffering and distress. Had it been real rebellion — had Shays pos- 
sessed either the courage or ability necessary for leadership — possibly the 
movement would have spread until the government was overthrown, and 
necessity had recalled the power of England to protect those who, after long 
war, had conquered her armies in battle. That such a result was feared even 
by Washington himself is evident from his correspondence, and how ripe the 
circumstances would have been for such a sad result, is evident to every stu- 
dent of history who can add to poverty, suffering, and injustice the elements 
of disloyalty at heart and of able leadership in rebellious purposes. Thank 
God the two last were lacking in the Shays Rebellion. 

The first organizer in the lawless efforts of the day was Samuel Ely, a 



* See article by John Fiske, in Atlantic Monthly for September, i386, p. 3S2. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



deposed clergyman who had come into Hampshire county from Somers, 
Conn. He was instrumental as early as 1781 in the gathering of conven- 
tions at which the grievances of the people were discussed and when lawless acts 
were suggested, if not encouraged. As the courts and lawyers were instru- 
mental in the foreclosure of mortgages, the distraining of personal property 
and the imprisonment of debtors, the popular outcry and rage was largely 
directed against the officials of law and justice. The first outbreak was at 
Northampton, in April, 1782, when Ely gathered a mob of sufficiently threat- 
ening aspect to disturb the sessions of the courts. For this he was arrested 
and tried ; and pleading guilty, he was sentenced to imprisonment at Spring- 
field. A second mob set him free; the ringleaders of this mob were arrested 
and imprisoned at Northampton ; a mob came down from Hatfield demand- 
ing their release, and they were finally liberated upon their promise to sub- 
mit to the decision of the general court in their case. The general court took 
no action concerning them, and the impression prevailed that there was 
no power able to suppress or punish such uprisings. Towns which had loy- 
ally devoted themselves to the support of the long war with England, became 
so sympathetic with the discontent of the times that delegates to the various 
conventions were not only chosen in open town meetings, but the town treas- 
urer was instructed to pay them out of the town treasury for time spent at 
these conventions and for the expense of traveling.* These conventions 
were held at Shutesbury, January 30, 1782; at Hatfield, in the following 
summer ; and at other towns in the county. The discussions and resolutions 
of these conventions ; the lack of any wise measures to prevent the growing 
evil; the continual increase of discontent and hardship; the passionate ap- 
peals of demagogues and idle theorists — all contributed to make matters 
worse instead of better. Many proposed remedies were considered in the 
lower branch of the general court, but the conservatism of the senate crushed 
the hopes of many a supposed panacea; forthwith the senate was denounced 
by the mischief makers and the ignorant, and there was a demand that the 
legislature consist of but a single house, which should immediately by its size 
and method of election represent the people. One favorite scheme for re- 
lieving the needs of money was the issue of paper money by the state. This 
had already been done recklessly in Rhode Island, North Carolina and South 
Carolina, more cautiously in Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York, while 
Maryland had failed to do so by the refusal of the senate to pass a house bill 
for this purpose, and in New Jersey the issuing of such money was delayed 
only a single year by the veto of Governor Livingston. In every state the 
value of such money had rapidly decreased, and when it was proposed that 
Massachusetts should follow their example, the movers in the matter calmly 
proposed that the law allowing the issue of the paper money should also regu- 
late its dechne in value, making it worth ninety cents on a dollar at first, 

*See publication of .Vmherst town records, page 87. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



seventy cents after a brief period, later fifty cents and finally nothing, when it 
would of course disappear from trade and commerce. This charming scheme 
failed of approval in the house by a vote of ninety-nine to nineteen. It was 
beheved to be the influence of Boston merchants and men of wealth which 
had killed this bill, and also another, making cows and horses a legal tender 
for debts. Forthwith the cry went out that the legislature ought not to meet 
in Boston, but in some place less exposed to the influence of conservative 
wealth. Finally, a convention which met at Deerfield recommended the gath- 
ering of a large and representative convention which should distinctly formu- 
late all the grievances of the people and demand their redress. This con- 
vention assembled at Hatfield, August 22, 1786, and there were present dele- 
gates from fifty towns of Hampshire county (as originally constituted) who, 
after a three days' discussion, " and upon mature consideration, deliberation 
and debate, " (as their preamble declared) voted that the following articles 
specified "grievances and unnecessary burdens now lying upon the people," 
which in their opinion were "the sources of that discontent so evidently dis- 
coverable throughout this commonwealth :" — 

ist. The existence of the senate. 

2d. The present mode of representation. 

3d. The officers of government not being annually dependent on the rep- 
resentatives of the people, in general court assembled, for their salaries. 

4th. All the civil officers of government not being annually elected by the 
representatives of the people in general court assembled. 

5tli. The existence of the courts of common pleas and general sessions 
of the peace. 

6th. The fee-table as it now stands. 

7th. The present mode of appropriating the impost and excise. 

8th. The unreasonable grants made to some of the officers of government. 

9th. The supplementary aid. 
loth. The present mode of paying the governmental securities, 
nth. The present mode adopted for the payment and collection of the 
last tax. 

12th. The present mode of taxation, as it operates unequally between the 
polls and estates and between landed and mercantile interests. 
13th. The present methods of practice of the attorneys at law. 
14th. The want of a sufficient medium of trade to remedy the mischiefs 
arising from a scarcity of money. 

15th. The general court sitting in the town of Boston. 
i6th. The present embarrassments on the press. 

The convention also recommended the towns to secure the election of such 
representatives as would favor the emission of paper money, "subject to 
depreciation," and favor also the calling of a constitutional convention for 
the purpose of securing desired changes in the constitution of the state. 
They asked each town in the county to petition the governor to call a special 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



103 



session of the legislature for the redress' of grievances, and recommended the 
people to " abstain from all mobs and unlawful assemblies until a constitu- 
tional method of redress can be obtained." They sent copies of these results 
of deliberation to Springfield for publication and to Worcester and Berkshire 
counties, where similar conventions were to be held, and adjourned after 
directing their chairman to call another convention whenever he deemed it 
best. 

Four days after this convention was the day appointed by law for the session 
of the court of common pleas at Northampton, also for the general sessions of 
the peace. A mob of fifteen hundred people took possession of the court- 
house and grounds and succeeded in preventing any session of the court, their 
desire being to prevent legal proceedings necessary for the collection of 
debts. This mob was followed by a proclamation from the governor against 
" all such riotous proceedmgs; " but the matter had now gone too far to be 
suppressed by proclamations. The courts were prevented from sitting in 
Worcester, Middlesex and Berkshire counties, as well as in Hampshire, and 
the whole condition of the state was threatening in the extreme. Anarchy 
and chaos seemed to have taken the place of law and order. 

Daniel Shays and Luke Day now came to the front as leaders of the upris- 
ing. The former was a resident of Pelham, a Revolutionary veteran, and a 
man of good address. He had fought bravely at Bunker Hill and shared in 
the campaign resulting in Burgoyne's surrender. The other leader was a 
native of West Springfield, noted for his proneness to make speeches. He 
too had served creditably in the Revolutionary war. His definition of liberty 
was thus given in a speech to his followers ; " If you wish to know what hb- 
erty is, I will tell you. It is for every man to do what he pleases, to make 
other folks do as you please to have them, and to keep folks from serving the 
devil." 

October 23, 1786, Shays sent word to the selectmen of each town in 
Hampshire county, requesting them to arm their militia, provide each man 
with sixty rounds of ammunition, and to have them ready to march at a mo- 
ment's warning. The uprising had now passed in the person of Shays beyond 
the mere acts of discontent and resistance to wrong and hardship, but it is 
doubtful if the discontented and restless people were ready even now to fol- 
low their leader into rebellion. Shays called a convention at Hadley. Belch- 
ertown voted not to be represented in this convention at first, but afterwards, 
by a vote of thirty-five to thirty-two, decided to send delegates. Evidently 
the movement was going farther than many cared to follow, and the Belcher- 
town town meeting foreshadowed the opposition to violent measures which 
indicated already the failure of the rebellion. 

The grand jury were to meet with the supreme judicial court in Springfield, 
September 26, 1786. Hitherto it had been the inferior courts whose sessions 
had been interfered with by mobs, these courts being the chief legal instru- 
ment of collecting debts. But now, fearing indictments for their lawless acts, 



I04 HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



the followers of Shays determined to prevent the sitting of the supreme court 
in order that no indictments might be found. In this they were measurably 
successful, for while the vigorous energy of Gen. WiUiam Shepherd, of West- 
field, and a small band of volunteers, and of the militia, enabled the court to 
go through the forms of business, yet, beyond the defaulting of a single case 
by reason of the non-appearance of a defendant, no business was done, and 
there was no report of the grand jury. A collision between Shays's followers 
and Gen. Shepherd's militia was happily averted, but the real success of the 
eftbrt of Shays to prevent the finding of indictments by the grand jury gave 
him and his followers an impulse to yet more desperate undertakings. For- 
tunately, the conservative, law-abiding spirit of the people began now to 
awake. The friends of government in Northampton and vicinity established 
the Hampshire Gazette, whose history we have given on another page, for the 
purpose of counteracting the influence of lawless tendencies. 

September 27, 1786, the legislature met in special session. The senate 
was in favor of vigorous action, but the house could not be brought to appro- 
priate money for the suppression of the law breakers, and the session accom- 
plished little in behalf of government. Shays and his followers were corres- 
pondingly encouraged in their lawlessness, while the friends of order and 
stability were yet more alarmed than before. On December 26th Shays 
came into Springfield at the head of about three hundred men and prevented 
the session of the court of common pleas appointed for that da3^ At last the 
patience of law-abiding citizens with such violent proceedings gave way to 
prompt and vigorous action. The merchants of Boston advanced the money 
which the legislature refused to appropriate, and the governor immediately 
issued orders for the raising and equipping of forty-five hundred men to 
enforce the authority of the state. Twelve hundred of these were to be 
raised in Western Massachusetts, under direction of Gen. William Shepherd, 
but the chief command of the army was entrusted to Gen. Benjamin Lincoln. 

As this sketch relates chiefly to the part taken by the present county of 
Hampshire in this "rebellion," it will suffice to state merely the result of the 
Springfield collision. General Lincoln moved with unexpected vigor and 
celerity in spite of the winter weather. He re-established the authority of the 
government at Worcester, pressed on to Springfield where Gen. Shepherd had 
posted his men for the defense of the United States arsenal. Shays's followers 
were in need of arms, to resist Lincoln's advance, and he made his plans for 
an attack upon the arsenal on the 25th of January, 1787. But Shays and 
Day did not co operate. The reaction from lawlessness had already begun, 
and the moment Gen. Shepherd ordered his single piece of artillery to be 
discharged into the ranks of the insurgents (a few discharges meant only as a 
warning and harmlessly aimed, had produced no good results) the mob broke 
and fled in terror. Only three were killed and one mo: t illy wounded, but 
the backbone of "Shays Rebellion" was thoroughly broken by that discharge 
of the government field-piece. Shays wanted to rally his men and renew the 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



^05 



attack, but it was in vain that he attempted so to do. The bubble of vanity 
had been pricked and it speedily collapsed. He retreated to Chicopee to re- 
unite his scattered forces, and on the way two hundred of his men deserted. 
Lincoln reached Springfield and joined his forces with those under Shepherd, 
and Shays retreated to Amherst, a town which was full of sympathy for him, 
and to which Captain BiUings, one of his subordinate officers, belonged. On 
the way they gave evidence of their utter demoralization by plundering even 
private houses and taking whatever they saw fit to lay hands upon, South 
Hadley being an especial sufferer in this respect. Lincoln hoped to intercept 
the retreat of the disordered mob at Amherst, but his troops, wearied with 
their forced march through the winter snows, failed to cut off the escape to the 
hills of Pelham. Amherst tradition reports that eleven loads of supplies sent 
to the insurgents from Berkshire county sympathizers reached Amherst just 
in advance of Gen. I,incoln's horsemen. The teams were hurried towards 
the Pelham hills, at whose foot a little guard of twenty men so displayed 
themselves as to give the impression of a large number of armed soldiers, an 
impression increased by their bold leader who rode towards Lincoln's horse- 
men and waved his hat defiantly as if challenging him to the contest. As the 
supporting infantry was three miles behind them, the horsemen dared not 
make an attack, and the wagons reached Shays without molestation. 

There was now a cessation of hostile efforts for some days. General Lin- 
coln's wearied troops, who had marched from Boston, rested in Hadley and 
vicinity, while Shays's followers were disappearing from the Pelham hills, 
seeking their own homes in full recognition of the failure of their efforts. 
Shays made several efforts to come to terms with the state officials, but they 
were not disposed to be lenient at this time. So numerous were the deser- 
tions from his "army," Shays determined to take them farther away from 
their homes, and on the afternoon of February 3d he started for Petersham, 
in Worcester county. Lincoln was watching his movements so closely that 
in spite of the efforts to deceive him he learned immediately of Shays's move- 
ment and its destination. His own troops started that evening for another 
forced march. Leaving Hadley at eight o'clock, they entered Amherst, 
turned north, and passing through North Amherst, they climbed the Shutes- 
bury hills and continuing in spite of the falling snow and the blustering wind, 
without either rest or refreshment, they completed a march of thirty miles in 
twenty-four hours, and came upon Shays and his men just as the latter were 
preparing breakfast. The surprise was complete, and the " rebels " were cap- 
tured ol- dispersed most effectually. Shays escaped to New Hampshire, but 
was unable to put forth any farther opposition to the legal authorities. He 
went from New Hamsphire to Sparta, New York, and there died in poverty, 
in 1825. Fourteen of his captured companions, who were considered leaders 
in the " rebelHon," were condemned to death, but were finally pardoned by 
the wise clemency of Governor Hancock. Among them were Henry Mc- 
Cullock, of Pelham, and Daniel Luddington, of Southampton. 



I06 HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



While the people of Hampshue county, in connection with most New Eng- 
landers, were from principle opposed to a second war with England and 
strongly advocated pacific measures, they were by no means lacking in pat- 
riotism nor tardy in responding to all calls made upon them. Governor 
Strong, of Northampton, was then governor of the state, and his wise, judi- 
cious course is well known as a matter of general history. The treaty of 
peace in 1815 was hailed with unbounded satisfaction. 

The war sentiment was the same during the Mexican war of 1847-48 — a 
regret that other measures were not used, but a willing response to the call 
for aid. The county furnished a regiment which performed well its part. 

From this time down to 1861 our country never echoed the clash of arms. 
But the sun arose that 12th of April morning upon a terribly fateful day. 
That first shot upon Sumpter sounded the death knell of hundreds of thou- 
sands of noble ones ; it cast a pall of sorrow over the broad land whose 
shadow even no.v is but partially hfted. Massachusetts immediately came to 
the recue, and side by side with her sister states took her place at the front. 
She sent 159,254 of her sons into the breach, a surplus of 13,492 over all 
calls. 

In i860, the year before the war broke out, the census reports show 
Hampshire county to have had a population of 37,822 souls, and a valuation 
of $17,737,649.00. According to the returns made by the selectmen in 1866, 
the county furnished 3,793 men, which is very near the exact number. Each 
town furnished its full contingent upon every call made by the president for 
men, and at the end of the war had a surplus over and above all demands, 
which^ in the aggregate, amounted to 344. The total amount of money ap- 
propriated and expended by the several towns on account of the war, exclu- 
sive of state aid, was $415,042.76. The total amount raised and expended 
during the war for state aid to soldiers' families, and which was afterwards 
repaid by the commonwealth, was $184,075.07, making the total expenditure 
$599,117.83. For the part each town furnished towards making up these 
large totals we refer the reader to the respective town sketches further on in 
this work. 

ROSTER OF FIELD, STAFF AND COMPANY OFFICERS. 

The following roster of those who went out from the county as commis- 
sioned officers, or who, enHsting as privates, were subsequently promoted to a 
commission, is compiled from the state adjutant-general's reports. Many 
officers not here recorded, who served in other divisions and went from 
other places, however, have made their home in Hampshire county since the 
war : — 

Abbott Hubbard M., of Northampton, age 23, 2d Lieut. 37th Regt., Oct. 
31, '63 ; ist Lieut., Sept. 23, '64; Capt., May 24, '65 ; mustered out as 
ist. Lieut., June 21, '65. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



107 



Allen William B., of Northampton, age 35, ist Lieut. loth Regt., May 19, 

'64; transferred to 37th Regt., June 20, '64 ; mustered out Oct. 18, '64. 
Bartlett Joseph F., of Pelham, age 21, 2d Lieut. 37th Regt., May 24, '65 ; 

transferred to 2d Regt.; ist Lieut. June i, '65 ; mustered out July 15, '65. 
Billings Henry P., of Hatfield, age 27, 2d Lieut. Co. K, 5 2d Regt., Oct. ii, 

'62 ; mustered out Aug. 14, '63. 
Bishop Willard L, of Northampton, age 25, 2d Lieut. loth Regt., Aug., '62 ; 

1st Lieut., Sept. 29, '62 ; Capt., Sept. 23. '63 ; mustered out July i, '64, 
Bissell Edwin E., of Westhampton, age 30, Capt. Co. K^ 52d Regt., Oct. 11, 

'62; mustered out Aug. 14, '63. 
Bliss George L., of Northampton, age 23, Capt. Co. G, 52d Regt., Nov. 19, 

'62; died of wounds at Port Hudson, La., June 16, '63. 
Bliss William, of Northampton, ist Lieut. 37th Regt., Aug. 27, '62; Capt., 

Dec. 5, '63 ; resigned as ist Lieut., Dec. 23, '63. 
Bond Nelson F., of Ware, age 22, ist Lieut. 31st Regt., Feb. 20, '62 ; Capt., 

April 15, '64 ; mustered out Sept. 9, '65. 
Bond Sylvester B., of Ware, age 22, 2d Lieut. 31st Regt., Jan. io,'63; ist 

Lieut., Dec. 4, '63 ; Capt., June 7, '65 ; mustered out as ist Lieut, 

Sept. 9, '65. 
Bradford Ansel K., of Plainfield, age 37, 2d Lieut. Co. E, 52d Regt., Oct. 

1 1, '62 ; ist Lieut., Oct. 23, '62 ; mustered out Aug. 14, '63. 
Brewster Charles H., of Northampton, age 27, 2d Lieut. loth Regt., Dec. 

5, '6 1 ; ist Lieut., Sept. 29, '62 ; mustered out July i, '64. 
Bridgman Edward, of Northampton, age 45, 2d Lieut. 37th Regt., Aug. 27, 

'62 ; ist Lieut., Jan. 29, '63 ; Capt., May 16, '65; mustered out as ist 

Lieut., June 21, '65. 

Bridgeman EUiott, of Belchertown, age 31, Capt. 31st Regt., Feb. 20, '62 ; 
Col., Oct. 9, '63. 

Bridgeman Malcolm, of Granby, age 28, 2d Lieut. Co. H, 5 2d Regt., Oct. 

II, '62 ; mustered out Aug. 14, '63. 
Brown Henry A., of Northampton, age 24, 2d Lieut. loth Regt., Sept. 29, 

'62 ; ist Lieut., Jan. 25, '63 ; mustered out July i, '64. 

Brown Martin V. B., of Belchertown, age 23, ist Lieut. 27th Regt., May 15, 
'65 ; mustered out July 26, '65. 

Chapin Samuel, of South Hadley, age 21, ist Lieut. 14th Battery, Lt. Art., 

Feb. 25, '64 ; mustered out June 15, '65. 
Chauncey Chauncey R., of Northampton, ist Lieut. 34th Regt., Aug. 6, '62 ; 

Capt., March 18, '64; mustered out June 16, '65. 
Clapp Egbert L. of Easthampton, age 25, 2d Lieut. 31st Regt., June 7, '64; 

mustered out Sept. 9, '65. 
Clapp Lewis, of Easthampton, age 40, ist Lieut. Co. K, 52d Regt., Oct. 11, 

'62 ; mustered out Aug. 14, '63. 
Clark Edwin C, of Northampton, age 34, 2d Lieut. 27th Regt., Oct. 16, '61 ; 

ist Lieut. Co. C, 52d Regt., Oct. 2, '62 ; Qr. M. Sergt., Nov. 21, '62; 

Qr. M., Oct. 2, '63; mustered out Aug. 14, '63. 
Clark James W., of Northampton, age 28, 2d Lieut. Co. I, 5 2d Regt., Oct. 

II, '62; mustered out Aug. 14, '63. 
Clark Luther A., of Northampton, age 23, 2d Lieut. Co. C, 5 2d Regt., Dec. 

I, '62 ; mustered out Aug. 14, '63. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



Clark William S., of Amherst, age 35, Maj. 21st Regt, Aug. 19, '61 ; Lieut.- 

Col., Feb. 28, '62; Col., May 16, '62; resigned April 22, '63. 
Cole George, of Hadley, age 27, Sergt.-Maj. Co. E, 2d Regt. Heavy Art., 

June 23, '64; 2d Lieut., March 29, '65. 
Conwell Russell H., of Worthington, age 21, Capt. Co. F, 46th Regt., Oct. 

15, '62; mustered out of service July 29, '63. 
Cook George E., of Amherst, age 23, 2d Lieut., Dec. 25, '63; died of 

wounds at Spottsylvania, May 12, '64. 
Dennison Ami R., of Amherst, age 26, ist Lieut. 27th Regt., Oct. 16, '61 ; 

Capt., Nov. 16, '62; resigned Feb. 16, '64. 
Dunham Andrew J., of North impton, age 24, 2d Lieut. 27th Regt., May 

15, '65; mustered out June 26, '65. 
Dyer Fordyce A., of Plainfield, age 21, 2d Lieut. Co. F, 46th Regt., Jan. 28, 

'63 ; ist Lieut. 2d Regt. Heavy Art., June 8, '63 ; died Oct. 26, '64. 
Edwards Charles L., of Southamoton, age 33, ist Lieut. 37th Regt., Aug. 

27, '62; Capt., April 5, '64; Maj., June 26, '64; mustered out as Capt. 

June 21, '65. 
Edwards Elisha A , of Southampton, age 36, Capt. 3 ist Regt., Feb. 20, '62 ; 

resigned Sept. 5, '62. 
Edwards Samuel F., of Southampton, age 21, 2d Lieut. Co. D, 52d Regt., 

Oct. II, '62; ist Lieut., Nov. 13, '62; mustered out Aug. 14, '63. 
Goodell Charles S., of Amherst, age 33, 2d Lieut. 36th Regt., Nov. i, '64 ; 

mustered out June 8, '65. 
Harris Erastus W., of Northampton, age 29, 2d Lieut. 37th Regt., Oct. 15, 

'62 ; ist Lieut., June 3, '63 ; mustered out June 21, '65. 
Hillman John R.. of Northampton, age 32, 2d Lieut. Co. C, 52d Regt., Oct. 

2, '62 ; ist Lieut., Dec. i, '62, ; mustered out Aug. 14, '63. 
Hinckley Henry R., of Northampton, age 24, 2d Lieut. 5th Regt. Cav., 

March 8, '64; resigned May 23, '65. 
Holden Daniel, of Ware, age 42, Capt. 34th Regt., Aug. 6, '62 ; resigned 

Nov. 8, '62. 
Hooker Edward D., of Westhampton, age 23, 2d Lieut. 37th Regt., May 24, 

'65; mustered out June 21, '65. 
Hopkins William S. B., of Ware, age 25, Capt. 31st Regt., Feb. 20, '62 ; 

Lieut.-Col., Dec. 24, '62 ; resigned April 14, '64. 
Howard Oscar H., of Ware, age 22, 2d Lieut. 2d Regt., May 21, '61 ; xst 

Lieut., Sept. 17, '61 ; Capt., Aug. 10, '62 ; Capt. in U. S. Sig. Corps. 
Howland John W., of Amherst, age 26, 2d Lieut, ist Regt. Cav., Jan. 16, '64; 

ist Lieut., Nov. 13, '64 ; mustered out June 26, '65. 
Jones George N., of Hadley, age 27, 2d Lieut. 37th Regt., Jan. 17, '63; ist 

Lieut., Dec. 24, '63; Capt., Feb. ist, '65; transferred to 20th Regt. 
Judd John H., of Easthampton, age 22, 2d Lieut. 27th Regt., Jan. 2, '6^ ; 

ist Lieut., May 17, '64; mustered out as 2d Lieut., March 21, '65. 
Kellogg Justin P., of Amherst, age 24, 2d Lieut. Co. G, 52d Regt., Oct. 11, 

'62 ; ist Lieut., Nov. 10, '62 ; mustered out Aug. 14, '63. 
Kirkland Charles H., of Huntington, age 34, 2d Lieut. Co. F, 46th Regt., 

June 9, '63 ; mustered out July 29, '63. 
Lawton Joseph W., of Ware, age 23, 2d Lieut. 27th Regt., Feb. 13, '62; 

killed March 14, '62. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. IO9 



Lewis William E., of Ware, age 23, 2d Lieut. 37th Regt., June 26, '65 ; mus- 
tered out June 21, '65. 
Lincoln Rufus P., of Amherst, age 23, 2d Lieut. 37th Regt., Aug. 27, '62 ', 

Capt., Oct. 15, '62; Major, July 27, '64; Lieut.-Col., March 4, '65 ; 

Col., May 19, '65 ; transferred to 20th Regt. as Lieut.-Col., March 4, 

'65 ; mustered out July 15, '65. 
Lilley Erastus V., of Huntington, age 32, 2d Lieut. 44th Regt, Sept. i, '64; 

ist Lieut. Nov. 25, '64; mustered out May 15, '65. 
Loomis Joshua A., of Northampton, age 24, ist I^ieut. 37th Regt., Aug. 27, 

'62 ; Capt., June 4, '63 ; discharged for disability, Nov. 19, '64. 
Lyman Justus, of Easthampton, age 29, 2d Lieut. 27th Regt., Feb. 17, '64; 

ist Lieut , June 5, '64; Capt., May 15, '65 ; mustered out as 2d Lieut., 

June 26, '65. 
Lyman Luke, of Northampton, age 37, Lieut.-Col. 27th Regt., Sept. 17, 

'61 ; resigned May 27, '63. 
Lyman Timothy P., of Goshen, age 27, 2d Lieut, ist Regt. Cav., Sept. 3, 

'64 ; ist Lieut., May 26, '65 ; mustered out June 26, '65. 
Marsh William R., of Northampton, age 33, Maj. loth Regt., June 21, '61 ; 

resigned June 14, '62. 
Montague George L., of Amherst, age 28, Capt. 37th Regt., Aug. 13, '62; 

Maj., Aug. 27, '62; Lieut.-Col, Jan. 17, '63; mustered out for disabil- 
ity, March 3, '65. 
Moody Marcus T., of Northampton, Capt. 37th Regt., Aug. 27, '62 ; Maj., 

Dec. 5, '63 ; mustered out for disability, July 26, '64. 
Morrill William C, of Northampton, age 22, 2d Lieut. 37th Regt., Dec. 5, 

63 ; ist Lieut., Oct. 7, '64 ; mustered out June 21, '65. 
Morse Horace F., of Southampton, age 29, ist Lieut. 31st Regt., Feb. 20, 

'62; Capt., Aug. 17, '63; mustered out Nov. 18, '64. 
Mott Abner R., of Ware, age 22, 2d Lieut. 21st Regt., Sept. 7, '64; trans- 
ferred to 36th Regt. : ist Lieut. Oct. 12, '64; mustered out June 8, '65. 
Munyan Alanson E., of Northampton, age 24, ist Lieut. loth Regt., Dec. 26, 

'62 ; died of wounds May 21, '64. 
Nichols Samuel E.,of Northampton, age 20, 2d Lieut. 37th Regt., Aug. 30. 

'64; ist Lieut., May 15, '65; mustered out of service as 2d Lieut., June 

21, '65. 

Page Seldon, of Hadley, age 34, 2d Lieut. 4th Regt. Heavy Art., Feb. 18, 

'65 : mustered out June 17, '65. 
Parsons Joseph B., of Northampton, age ;^t,, Capt. 10th Regt., June 21, '61 ; 

Lieut.-Col., July 20, '62 ; mustered out July i, '64. 
Perkins William, of Hadley, age 41, Capt. Co. H, 52d Regt., Oct. 11, '62 ; 

mustered out Aug. 20, '63. 
Policy George F., of Williamsburg, age 21, ist Lieut. loth Regt., May 6, 

'64; killed at Petersburg, Va., June 20, '64. 
Rust Charles S., of Easthampton, age 25, 2d Lieut. 31st Regt., April i, '63; 

ist Lieut., Feb. 3, '64; resigned as 2d Lieut., April 20, '64. 
Rust Fordyce A., of Easthampton, age 31, ist Lieut. 31st Regt., Feb. 20, 

'62 ; mustered out Nov. 18, '64. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY, 



Sagendorph Milton, of Ware, age 22, 2d Lieut. 31st Regt., Dec. i, '62; ist 

Lieut., Aug. 17, '63 ; Capt., Aug. 26, '64 ; mustered out as ist Lieut., 

Sept. 9, '65. 
Sampson Orange S., of Huntington, age 29, 2d Lieut. 21st Regt., Sept. 2, 

'62 ; ist Lieut., Oct. 30, '62 ; Capt., April 26, '63 ; killed at Poplar 

Grove Church, Va., Sept. 30, '64. 
Shaw William, of Belchertown. age 42, ist Lieut. Co. H, 46th Regt., Oct. 15, 

'62; mustered out July 29, '63. 
Shaw William H., of Cummington, age 29, 2d Lieut. 37th Regt., March 4, 

'65 ; mustered out June 21, '65. 
Sheldon Flavel R., of Southampton, age 32, 2d Lieut. 37th Regt., June 27, 

'64 ; ist Lieut., March 4, '65 ; mustered out June 17, '65. 
Shumway Solomon C, of Belchertown, age 53, 2d Lieut. 21st Regt., Aug. 21, 

'61 ; resigned May 19, '63. 
Shurtleff Flavel, of Northampton, age 32, 2d Lieut. loth Regt., June 21, '61 ; 

ist Lieut., Dec. 5, '61; Capt., July 31, '62; mustered out July i, '64. 
Skinner J. Leander, of Amherst, age 23, 2d Lieut. 27th Regt., July i, '62 ; 

ist Lieut., May 29, '63 ; Capt., Sept. 29, '64 ; mustered out as ist Lieut., 

Dec. 31, '64. 
Sloan Timothy W., of Amherst, age 34, Capt. 27th Regt., Oct. 16, '61 ; re- 
signed Nov. 15, '62. 
Smith Charles P., of Northampton, age 25, Capt. 27th Regt., June 4, '63 ; 

died of wounds May 21, '64. 
Smith James W., of Hadley, age 25, ist Lieut. 34th Regt., Aug. 6, '62 ; re- 
signed July 26, '63. 
Smith H. Walworth, of Northampton, age 37, 2d Lieut. 4th Regt. Cav., Jan. 

19, '64 ; ist Lieut., Oct. 13, '64; Capt., April 7, '64; mustered out 

Nov. 14, '65. 
Spaulding Mark H., of Northampton, age 34, ist Lieut. 27th Regt., Oct. 16, 

'61; Capt. Co. C, 52d Regt., Oct. 2, '63; mustered out Aug. 14, '63. 
Spear Asa A., of Amherst, age 21, 2d Lieut. Co. C, 52d Regt., Nov. 10, '62; 

mustered out Aug. 14, '63. 
Stearns Frazar A., of Amherst, age 21, ist Lieut. 21st Regt., Aug. 21, '61; 

killed at Newbern, N. C, March 14, '62. 
Stockwell John W., of Northampton, age 24, 2d Lieut. 37th Regt., April 5, 

'64; ist Lieut., Oct. 13, '64 j mustered out June 21, '65. 
Storrs Samuel J., of Amherst, age 25, Capt. Co. G, 52d Regt., Oct. 11, '62; 

Lieut. Col, Oct. 13, '62 ; mustered out Aug. 14, '63. 
Taylor Lucius E., of Chesterfield, age 32, ist Lieut. Co. I, 52d Regt., Oct. 

II, '62 ; mustered out Aug. 14, '63. 
Tileston Charles E., of Williamsburg, age 31, Capt. Co. I, 5 2d Regt., Oct. 

II, '62; mustered out Aug. 14, '63. 
Tower Elisha C, of Worthington, age 27, rst Lieut. Co. K^ 46th Regt., Oct. 

22, '62; mustered out July 29, '6^. 
Tyler Mason W., of Amherst, 2d Lieut. 36th Regt., July 30, '62 ; ist Lieut. 

37th Regt., Aug. 13, '62; Capt., Jan. 17, '63; Maj., March 4, '65; 

Lieut.-Col, May 19, '65 ; Col,, June 26, '65 ; transferred to 20th Regt. 

as Maj. 



HAMPSHIRE COUNTY. 



Ward William W., of Worthington, age 23, Com.-Sergt. 52d Regt., Oct. 14, 

'62 ; mustered out Aug. 14, '63. 
Warner Almon M., of Plainfield, age 19, 2d Lieut. 37th Regt., June 7, '65; 

mustered out June 21, '65. 

Wells William L., of Northampton, age 29, 2d Lieut. 2d Regt. Cav., Dec. 

18, '62; died July 26, '63. 
Wetherell James H., of Northampton, age ^;^, ist Lieut. loth Regt., June 

21, '61 ; Capt., Sept. 8, '62 ; died of wounds June 20, '64. 
Whitney Edward A., of Northampton, age 19, Qr. M. Sergt. 5 2d Regt., Oct. 

2, '62 ; mustered out Aug. 14, '63. 
Whitney Henry M., of Northampton, age 19, Sergt.-Maj. 5 2d Regt., Oct. 2, 

'62; mustered out Aug. 14, '63. 
Whitney Edwin, of Williamsburg, age 25, ist Lieut. loth Regt., Nov. 26, 

'62 ; mustered out July i, '64. 

Williams S. Alonzo, of South Hadley, age 29, ist Lieut. Co. H, 52d Regt., 

Oct. II, '62; mustered out Aug. 14, '63. 
Wright Frederick C, of Northampton, age 22, 2d Lieut. 27th Regt., Oct. 

16, '61 ; ist Lieut., Oct. 30, '62 ; died of wounds June 27, '64. 




112 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



GAZETTEER OF TOWNS. 



THE TERRITORY now known as the town of Amherst was originally 
the eastern portion of the town of Hadley. Religious dissensions in 
Connecticut caused the settlement of Hadley, and in 1659 and 1660 
the " ox-bow," which the Connecticut river makes just above the present city 
of Northampton, was occupied by families from Hartford, Weathersfield and 
Windsor^ Conn., who were dissatisfied with the tendencies atid decisions of 
their ecclesiastical authorities in Connecticut. Their situation was easily 
defended during the troubles with the Indians, and the town of Hadley 
probably suffered less in the Indian wars than any other town upon the 
river. As soon as there was sufficient growth of population to make the 
narrow limits of the first settlement insufficient for their accommodation, the 
more resolute began to look towards the east and the south for new homes 
and wider fields, and in a town meeting held March 4, 1700, it was voted to 
divide the common land east of the " new swamp," as the lowlands between 
the present towns of Amherst and Hadley were called. The town measurers, 
Capt. Aaron Cooke, Cornet Nehemiah Dickinson and Samuel Porter, were 
instructed to lay out these lands into three divisions, separated from each 
other by a highway forty rods in width, and to assign to each householder of 
Hadley one fifty-pound allotment, and to each unmarried man, and to parents 
for each son between the ages of sixteen and twenty-one, one twenty-five 
pound allotment. This vote was carried out by the town measurers and gave 
to the new settlement the general outline which, in the essential features, it 
still retains. The two broad highways separating the three divisions became 
the West street and the East street, respectively, between which and on either 
side of which the town home lots were located ; while from near the old 
church, in the broad front street of Hadley, another highway running east 
" goeth over New Swamp and runs down to Foot's Folly." This highway 
doubtless corresponded very closely with the present highway in its northern 
division, for it passed through the present center of Amherst, a little north of 

Note. — For this sketch of Amherst we are largely indebted to Rev. George H. John- 
son, of North Amherst. 



TOWN OF AMHERST. H3 



the present location of the Amherst House, and ended near the place where the 
second parish church now stands, in the East street. Upon these three 
highways still fluctuates the main part of Amherst's business and pleasure, 
and mainly around them are still the homes of the town, in spite of the large 
number of highways which have since been opened. Each of these highways 
was originally laid out forty rods in width, enabling the traveler to go around 
mud-holes and steep ascents without trespassing on private land. One other 
highway of great importance in the days of stage traveling, but of much less 
account in these days of railroads, was situated at the extreme southern limits 
of the town, and was known as the "Bay Road,' because it led eastward 
through Brookfield and on to Boston and the towns on Massachusetts bay. 

In April, 1703, the town measurers recorded their assignments of land in 
these three divisions as made by drawing lots, and the student of history may 
still find upon the Hadley records, and in older histories, the names of those 
who received lots of land, and also the location and measurement of the lots. 

The first division, located nearest to the Hadley settlement, was two hund- 
red and forty rods in width, east and west, and extended from the Bay Road 
on the south to the Mill river in North Amherst, being 1,961 rods in length. 
This was divided into sixty lots with spaces for two additional highways par- 
allel to the one from Hadley to " Foot's Folly." The land comprised in this 
division amounted to 2,760 acres. 

East of this division and separated from it by the West street, lay the sec- 
ond division, including the land now forming the very heart of Amherst. Like 
the first, this division was 240 rods in width, with allowance for the extension of 
highways corresponding to those in the first division. Beginning at the Bay 
Road, in the south, this division ran north only 1,674 rods and was thus 
nearly three hundred rods shorter than the first ; a town lot of sixty acres 
was reserved in this, and its thirty-seven lots comprised 2,343 acres. The num- 
ber of inhabitants entitled to land in this division of the commons appears to 
have been ninety-seven, and the measurers ceased to lay out lots in the second 
division when each of those entitled had received his portion ; this accounts 
for the second division being so much smaller than the first. 

Still further east and separated from the second division by the East street, 
was the third of the three divisions ordered by the town. The lots in the 
first two divisions were evidently meant to be home lots, but those in the third 
division were as clearly not for homes, but for cattle, etc. The third division 
was two miles in width instead of being 240 rods as the others were. Its 
length north and south was 1,971 rods and it contained 7,884 acres, divided into 
ninety-three lots. In this division was included a part of the land north of 
Mill river, now forming the extreme northeastern limit of the town. Each 
citizen of Hadley of the requisite age received a lot in either the first or sec- 
ond division for a home, and also one in the third division for his cattle and 
meadow land. The town measurers had no compass to aid them in laying 
out these divisions. The first person who owned a compass in this vicinity 



114 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



was Timothy Dwight, of Northampton, grandfather of President Dwight of 
Yale college, and he was not born until 1694. Nearly forty years after the 
town ordered this division, a more accurate survey showed that the measurers 
of 1 700-1 703 had begun with a base hne too far to the east, and in conse- 
quence had encroached upon the " equivalent lands " (now in Pelham and 
Belchertown) to so great an extent that nearly three thousand acres of 
land in the third division was beyond the outermost hmits of Hadley. 
Those who lost lands by this correction of the survey, were afterwards com- 
pensated with lands situated farther north, called " Flat Hills," and adjoining 
the border of the present town of Shutesbury. It is a singular coincidence 
that the "equivalent lands" thus encroached upon by these early surveyors, 
were the lands which had been assigned by the province of Massachusetts to 
the province of Connecticut, in recompense for an error of location, whereby 
the southern boundary of Massachusetts was extended so far to the south as 
to include over an hundred thousand acres of land, and a large part o( the 
towns of Suffield, Enfield and Woodstock, which rightly belonged to Connect- 
icut, but owing to inaccurate surveys were long supposed to be in Massachu- 
setts. 

Of the ninety or more persons who thus became the first proprietors of 
the present town, very few ever occupied their lots in person. The French 
and Indian war of Queen Anne's reign broke out in 1703, the very year of 
the completion of this division, and raged until 17 13. Deerfield was burned 
February 29, 1704, and all exposed places became unsafe for inhabitants and 
of slight value to their owners. A few inventories of estates taken during 
this war showed that the lots thus assigned were valued at one shilling per 
acre in the first and second divisions, and at four and sixpence per acre in 
the third division. After the close of the war this land advanced in value, 
and the best lots were considered worth three shillings per acre ; while after 
settlements began to be made the most desirable lots were worth from six to 
ten shillings per acre in proclamation money, six shillings of which would be 
a dollar. In the depreciated province bills the value would be apparently 
much higher. 

Surface. — The town presents an uneven surface, being diversified by wide 
ranges of broken upland, and low level reaches, some of which are swampy. 
The village itself occupies a wide flattened ridge of considerable extent from 
north to south, with Mt. Pleasant at the north and the elevation occupied by 
the college buildings as prominent features. A large tract of wet land in 
the southeastern portion of the town is known as " Laurence Swamp." The 
Holyoke range forms the town's southern boundary, while the hills of Pel- 
ham and Shutesbury jut over the eastern border. Northward loom the 
rugged prominences of Sunderland and Leverett, with Amherst's intervening 
" Flat Hills." Westward lie the broad and fertile intervals of Hadley. 

The only streams worthy of note are Fort river and Mill river. The for- 
mer rises in Pelham, enters Amherst about two miles south of the northeast 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 115 



angle thereof, flows southerly under the Pelham hills, and thence south of west 
across the town, passing the western bounds into Hadley, two and a half 
miles from the southwest angle. Mill river rises in the hills of Shutesbury, 
crosses the southeast corner of Leverett, enters Amherst a short distance 
west of the northeast angle, traverses the town in a general southwesterly 
direction, and thence into Hadley, across the south line of the 800 acres 
added to Amherst in 1814. 

First Settlers — It is not known when the first permanent settlements were 
made upon the lots laid out, as we have stated, but it was probably not far 
from 1725.* The first settlers from the mother town of Hadley, followed 
the course of the river and located in the present limits of South Hadley. 
So great seemed the peril of lonely dwellings to those who had grown up 
amid the alarms of the Indian wars, that tradition affirms that aged parents 
in Hadley wept in anguish, and prayed most fervently for Heaven's protec- 
tion upon the daring youths and their brides, who sought new homes on the 
south side of Mt. Holyoke ; but as peace continued and families increased, 
more and more were new towns built up. 

In 1730 the inhabitants upon these lots were sufficiently numerous to re- 
quire a burying place, and January 5, 1730, the town voted a little more than 
an acre of land for this purpose, which was duly laid out before the next 
March, " in the west highway adjoining Nathaniel Church's lot on the west." 
One hundred and fifty years and more after this laying out of the cemetery- 
it is still the burial ground of Amherst Center, although enlarged from its 
original size. In the year 1731 Hadley distributed among her citizens the 
" inner commons" or undivided lands within the present limits of Hadley, 
and in the records of this division the following persons are named as " East 
Inhabitants," /. e., as residing in the present limits of Amherst : — 
John Ingram, Sr., Richard Chauncey, John Cowls, 

John Ingram, Jr., Aaron Smith, Jonathan Cowls, 

Samuel Boltwood, Nathaniel Smith, Samuel Hawley, 

Ebenezer Kellogg, Ebenezer Dickinson, John Wells, 

Nathaniel Church, John Nash, Jr., Joseph Wells, 

Ebenezer Ingram, Ebenezer Scoville, Stephen Smith. 

Of these, the names in the first two columns are of those who came from 
Hadley, while those in the third column were from Hatfield. Only four of 
these eighteen names are found in the allotment of lands in 1703, viz. : 
John Ingram, Sr., John Ingram, Jr., Samuel Boltwood^ and John Cowls, 
(spelled " Cole," in 1703). The others must have acquired their land either 

*Tradition asserts that a man by the name of Foote came to Amherst in 1703, located 
just north of the present Second Congregational church, where, for a time, he lived the Hfe of 
a hermit. From this the section between the eminence on which the college buildings stand 
and the Pelham hills eastward took the name of " Foote's Folly Swamp ;" hence, the allu- 
sions in the early records to all this section of country in this vicinity as " Foote's Folly." 



Il6 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



by inheritance or purchase. In 1738, the assessors' records show that the 
following persons had been added to the population • — 

Joseph Clary, Nathan Moody, Zechariah Field, 

Jonathan Atherton, Pelatiah Smith, Joseph Hawley, 

Solomon Boltwood, John Perry, Samuel Hawley, Jr., 

Charles Chauncey, Moses Smith, John Morton, 

William Murray, Ebenezer Williams. 

The first nine of these came from Hadley, and those in the last column 
were from Hatfield, except Williams, who came from Deerfield. 

The assessors' records for this year, 1738, also show that there were in the 
homes of those above named thirty-five taxable polls, a few householders 
having sons who were of age, and that their property consisted of forty-nine 
horses, thirty-nine oxen, fifty-two cows and three hundred and fifty acres of 
improved land, of which Ebenezer Kellogg owned forty-eight acres, or more 
than twice as much as any other person. There were also forty-three acres 
of improved land belonging to six non-residents, making three hundred and 
ninety-three acres of improved land. These persons and this property were 
assessed lor the first ;i^ioo due the minister as toUows : 35 polls, 25s. 6d. 
each, ;!^44 12s. 6d. The property was assessed at one shilling per pound 
and valued at ^1,101 iis. 6d., making ^^55 is. 6d. 

Of the thirty two who thus became the first settleis of Amherst, John Wells 
soon removed (probably to Hardwick) ; Joseph Wells, his brother, removed 
later to Sunderland ; Aaron Smith, Nathaniel Church and John Perry had 
also left by 1745, and Ebenezer Scovil died in 1731, aged twenty-four, and 
Ebenezer Ingram in 1735, aged thirty-two; John Ingram, Jr., died in 1737, 
Zechariah Field in 1738, and Samuel Boltwood, in 1738. Each of the last 
three left families, who remained m Amherst. Jonathan Atherton died in 
1744. 

From 1739 to 1745 there were added to the list of householders thirty-four 
names, and from 1745 to 1763 Judd's History oj Hadley, page 425, records 
the names of sixty-nine more who had made settlement in Amherst. Of the 
one hundred and three names added between 1739 and 1763, twenty bore 
the name of Dickinson, and most of them left families, making the name of 
Dickinson the most numerous of any in town, and such it still continues. 

The subsequent increase of population may be shown by extracts from the 
census tables, as follows : Colonial census, 1776, 915 inhabitants ; the United 
States census of 1790, 1,233; ^^0°. i.SS^; 1810, 1,469; 1820,1,917; 1830, 
2,631; 1840, 2,550; 1850, 3,057; i860, 3,206; T870, 4.035; 1880, 4,298. 
The state census reports in 1855 give 2,937; 1865, 3,415; 1875,3,937; 
1885, 4,199. 

Incorporation and Names. — The first name applied to that part of Hadley 
now known as Amherst, in any records now extant, is that of "New Swamp" 
and " Foote's Folly Swamp " ; but as people began to reside here these names 
gave way to " Hadley Farms,"' " East Farms" and "East Hadley." In June, 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 



117 



1734, John Ingram headed a petition to the general court that East Hadley 
might be incorporated as a separate precinct. The mother town not hking 
to have its property subject to " the minister's rate " decreased, sent an agent 
to Boston to oppose the granting of this petition, and it failed for the time. 
In December, 1734, the petition was renewed and granted by the general 
court December 31, the record stating its boundaries thus: "The precinct 
being of the contents of two miles and three-quarters in breadth, and seven 
miles in length, bounded westerly on a tract of land reserved by the town of 
Hadley to lie as common land forever, southerly on Boston road, easterly on 
equivalent lands, and northerly on the town of Sunderland." The name con- 
ferred by this act was "Hadley Third Precinct," the second precinct (now South 
Hadley) having been formed after the failure of two previous attempts in 
1732. The term "precinct " was nearly equivalent to " parish " in our day. 
The laws required every one to pay a tax for the support of the Gospel ordi- 
nances proportioned to his property, and this tax was levied by the original 
church upon all the inhabitants of the town. Thus the " East Inhabitants " 
paid their proportion of the salary of Rev. Mr. Chauncey in Hadley until 
their incorporation as a precinct released them from this requirement, at the 
same time that it laid upon them the new requirement of supporting a 
" learned orthodox" minister by themselves. In 1753 the second precinct 
having been incorporated as the district of South Hadley, " Hadley Third Pre- 
cinct " became " Hadley Second Precinct," by which name it was known until 
February 13, 1759, when Gov. Pownall signed the bill incorporating it as 
a district. The general court had left the name of the district blank in the 
act of incorporation, the privilege of bestowing names upon the new districts 
being one of the perquisites of the colonial governor. In signing the bill 
Gov. Pownall complimented his friend. Gen. Jeffrey Amherst (who had just 
been appointed by George II. to the command of the expedition against Louis- 
burg), by naming the new district " Amherst" in the bill. The success of the 
campaign against Louisburg (the French stronghold upon Cape Breton island) 
and the subsequent rapid promotion of Gen. Amherst (afterwards made Lord 
Amherst for his military success) contributed, no doubt, to the popularity of 
the name among the inhabitants of the new district. Amherst was now 
politically, as well as ecclesiastically, independent of the mother town of 
Hadley ; except that the district could not send a representative to the legis- 
lature, that right being jealously reserved for towns. In all other respects the 
district enjoyed all the advantages of a town. The plan of restricting the 
right of representation was not of colonial origin, but was enjoined upon the 
colony by Great Britain, and when the revolutionary feeling overcame the 
love for the mother country, this restriction was removed, not indeed by law 
until 1786, when all districts incorporated before January i, 1777, were 
declared towns. But practically the requirement of the government of Great 
Britain was done away with in 1774, when the provincial congress, which met 

successively at Salem, Concord and Cambridge, admitted Mr. Nathaniel 
9* 



Il8 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



Dickinson, Jr., to a seat in their body as representative from Amherst. Two 
years later the district openly assumed the designation of "town," the district 
clerk for 1775-76 commencing his record of a meeting held January 24, 
1776, "At a legal meeting of the Inhabitants of the to7tm of Amherst quali- 
fied to vote in town affairs," and while all previous records speak of the dis- 
trict of Amherst, all subsequent records speak of the town of Amherst, and 
this revolutionary assumption of withheld rights was first officially recognized 
in the following legislative record: "In Council Aug't 27, 1776. Ordered 
that the Commissary General be directed to deliver to Mr. Simon Smith one 
hundred and twenty-five pounds weight of gunpowder for the town of Amherst, 
he paying therefor at the rate of 5s a It) to the said Commissary." 

Thus, Amherst was " Hadley Third Precinct " from December 31, 1734, 
until April, 1753, when it became "Hadley Second Precinct," until February 
13, 1759, when it became the "District of Amherst." Legally it remained a 
district until March 23, 1786, but in reality the district became a town in 
1776, and in accordance with this reaUty celebrated, in 1876, the centennial 
anniversary of its own (and the country's) independence. 

The original area of Amherst has been somewhat enlarged since the incor- 
poration of Hadley Third Precinct. In 1778 the town chose a committee 
" to take some measures for annexing the first Division of Inner Commons 
in the Town of Hadley to the town of Amherst." A year later the town 
promised Hadley to maintain " all roads and bridges within the bounds of 
S'd Land." In 1786 John Field and others whose lands lay within this 
division had petitioned the general court that they might " be Disannexed 
from the town of Hadley and annexed to the town of Amherst," and the 
town voted that the matter be referred to arbitrators mutually appointed by 
each town. This attempt to enlarge the area of Amherst at the expense of 
Hadley was a failure apparently, but in 1789 the farms of Silas Wright 
(father of the well known political leader of New York) and of three men by 
the name of Dickinson, were annexed to Amherst from Hadley. These men- 
lived on the road from Sunderland to Amherst, and all their business and 
church connections were in Amherst, and they deemed it a burden to go to a 
more distant place and meet those who were comparatively strangers at the 
town meetings. For the same reason the entire section of territory border, 
ing on the old road from Sunderland to Amherst, and comprising between 
700 and 800 acres of land, was annexed to Amherst by act of the legislature 
in 181 4. In 181 2 the southern boundary of the town was moved from the 
old " Bay road" to " the top of the mountain," between Amherst and Gran- 
by, thus increasing the town's area by about 1,700 acres ; much of it was, 
however, mountain land. 

One more addition to Amherst's territory was taken out of Hadley when 
the farm of Elias Smith, situated on the road to Hadley from x\.mherst, was 
annexed. The curious turn of this strip of land, measuring only sixteen by 
one hundred and fifteen rods, makes the traveler from Amherst to Hadley 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 



119 



cross the boundary line three times on a straight road, the Hne between the 
towns forming a huge letter Z at this point. This annexation was the 
result of private quarrels. Efforts have been made at various times to annex 
parts of Belchertown and Pelham to Amherst, but the town has refused to 
receive these additional lands. The present area of the town is a little over 
18,000 acres. 

Miscellaneous Items from the Early Records. — When Hadley Third Pre- 
cinct was incorporated, the year began March 25th instead of January ist; 
the first five precinct meetings being respectively dated October 8, 1735, 
November 25, 1735, December 25, 1735, March 10, 1735, and September 16, 
1736, But there were many authorities for beginning with January ist even 
then, and the months of January, February and March were often written 
with double dates; thus, the third annual March meeting of the precinct is 
dated " March y*^ 14th, 1738-9." It was 1738 for those whose year began 
the last of March, but 1739 for those whose year began in January. The 
discrepancies in the dates of ancient records arise often from such double 
standards. The English parliament enacted a law that after 1752 the new 
year should begin with January ist instead of March 25th, as previously, and 
the legal date soon became the customary one. The double dating passes 
out of Amherst's records with the recording of the precinct meeting held 
" Jana'r y® i8th, 1749-50" The March meeting of 1755 is, however, dated 
" March the 24th, 1754," but the next precinct meeting is dated "Janawr 
y® i2th, 1756," and the new custom was henceforth followed. The first month 
is spelled " Janawary" in 1761, which probably represented its pronunciation 
throughout New England. 

The early settlers seemed to have had hard luck about getting their pound 
built. In the March meeting of 1 743 they voted to build a pound, and appoint- 
ed a committee to do it. In 1744, 1746 and 1748 they passed similar votes and 
chose committees each time to carry them out. Deacon Ebenezer Dickinson 
was on all these committees, but why nothing was done is unknown. Finally, 
in 1750, the precinct voted ^-^19 los. for building a pound, instructed Ebenezer 
Mattoon to do the work ; "& to finish sd pound workman Like." This vote 
seems to have accomplished the desired object. 

Like her neighboring towns, Amherst permitted *' Hogs Rung & Yoakt 
Acording to Law to Run at Large." The time, at first unlimited, was after- 
wards limited by town votes. In 1763 the limit was "from the first of May 
to the first of September and after the middle of October till winter." In 
1770 it was " from y^ first of May to the middle of August." 

It was customary for the town to instruct its officers to hire bulls for the 
use of the farmers. In 1753 the assessors were instructed "to Hire foure 
Bulls for y*^ use of this precinct for y® space one yeare." In 1754 the pre- 
cinct appropriated jQ2>'^ old tenor for this purpose. In 1759 the selectmen 
were to hire six bulls; in 1760 the appropriation for this purpose was ;£Z. 

In the early history of Hadley, mention is made of licenses for the sale of 



I20 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



Jiquor. but the only mention of anything of tliis kind which I have found in 
the Amherst records is under date of March 28, 1775, "That this District 
Doth approve of Ehsha Ingraham as a Tavern Keeper and recommend it to 
the selectmen that they grant him their approbation for the same." 

Highways. — The first vote recorded on the records which does not relate to 
the meeting house, the minister, or the choice of precinct officers, is in relation 
to highways. March 10, 1735-36 " Voted that y*^ Highway work be done by 
heads and Teams, and y* a Team shall be Equal to a hand per day." The 
various sums allowed for highway work fluctuated as the value of money rose or 
fell, and may be judged by the following votes passed by the precinct : In 1747, 
eight shillings per day; 1759, sixteen shillings per day from .'\pril to October, 
twelve shillings the rest of the year ; 1762, two shillings per day in summer, 
eighteen pence in fall; 1764, in summer two shillings and five pence, in fall 
one shilling and eight pence; 1776, in summer two shillings and eight pence, 
in fall two shillings. In 1778 the town meeting voted to allow six shillings 
per day for work done the year preceding, but this year's work was to be 
paid for at the rate of fifteen shillings per day in summer, and twelve shiUings 
per day in the fall. The allowance was the same for a man or for a team, 
meaning oxen and cart. At first the amount of work to be done seems to 
have been left to the discretion of the precinct officers, most probably the 
assessors. No regular surveyors were chosen until after the incorporation of 
the district, in 1759. In 1765 the district appropriated ^30 for repairs on 
highways; in 1776 the appropriation was ;^6o ; in 1784 it was ;^7o. In 
1760 a county road was laid across the land of Jonathan Dickinson, and the 
town subsequently voted him four and three-fourths acres of town land as a 
compensation for damage to his estate. In 1774 the town ordered the town 
highways to be put in repair equally with the county roads, which indicates 
that previously the latter had been superior. Most of the town highways were 
laid out and recorded only a short time prior to the Revolution, and a large 
space of the town records for these years consist of the reports of the select- 
men defining the limits of these roads. The great breadth, forty rods, of the 
original highways was first contracted in 1754, when the West street was re- 
duced to twenty rods in width and the East to twelve. In 1788 both were 
narrowed to six rods, and the town disposed of the remaining lands. It must 
be remembered that these highways were not broad, leveled streets, like those 
of the present day, but were simply winding paths trodden by the feet of man 
and beast, very seldom cut by a passing wheel, except those of the rude ox- 
carts of the early settlers. Carriages came in general use after the Revolu- 
tionary war. The assessors' records show that so late as 1791 there was but 
a single carriage in the town of Amherst. This was a " fall-back chaise," 
owned by Simeon Strong. The first one-horse wagons made in this vicinity 
were made by Mason Abbe, of Amherst, after the year 1800, and it was 
twenty years later before they came into general use. Previous to the Revo- 
lutionary war almost all travel was on horseback, the men taking their wives 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 



behind them upon a piHion. There are a few yet living who remember the days 
when the people came to church from long distances in this manner. Rude 
sleds were the first vehicles drawn by horses in Hampshire county, the first 
one, so far as known, belonging to Timothy Eastman, Jr., of Hadley. It is 
mentioned in the inventory of his estate in 1733, and is valued at five shil- 
lings. It was hardly more than a large box with runners beneath it and 
boards across the top of it for seats. Shortly before the Revolutionary war a 
few of the more wealthy had vehicles which somewhat resembled a sleigh, but 
sleighs did not come into general use until the beginning of the present cen- 
tury. Goods from Boston were brought around by water and up the Con- 
necticut river to Springfield, although goods of small bulk were sometimes 
brought from Boston to the Connecticut river on horseback. 

In the year 1767 Simeon Smith, of Amherst, who lived upon the Bay road 
in the south part of the town, carried out his scheme of giving the people in 
this vicinity regular communication with Boston. With a large two-horse 
wagon he drove down and back, carrying produce and returnmg with goods 
for the traders, and with large quantities of New England rum for the gro- 
cery stores. He continued this business until the breaking out of the war, 
in 1775. His load probably seldom exceeded a ton's weight. His wagon 
was a rarity in this vicinity, although the Dutch in New York had been using 
two-horse wagons all the eighteenth century. In this connection it may be 
said that hearses for the conveying of the dead to cemeteries were not in 
common use in the vicinity of Amherst until about the time when stoves were 
placed in the churches. The town of Hadley had no hearse until 1826, and 
other towns about the same time probably. It is said that when Deacon 
Ebenezer Mattoon died, February, 1767, the snow was so deep on the ground 
that it was proposed to draw his body to the burying-ground (which was two 
miles away) upon a hand-sled ; but when this was made known to his pastor, 
Mr. Parsons, the reverend man cried out in horror : " Such a saint as Deacon 
Mattoon to be dragged to his grave like a dead dog !" and then, putting into 
his word all the authority possessed by the clergy of that day, he said, "Never !" 
And the bearers were obliged to put the coffin upon their shoulders in accord- 
ance with the custom of the day, and tread their weary way to tlie distant 
burying-ground through the snow. 

The Revolution. — The ravages of war have never disturbed the peace of 
the fields of Amherst, but the town has never lacked for patriotic sons, will- 
ing " to do, to dare, to die " in defense of their homes and their country. 
Two French and Indian wars raged after the settlement of Amherst, the first 
from 1744 to 1748, the second from 1754 to 1763. In both, men from Am- 
herst went in quest of the foe into territory now belonging to New Hamp- 
shire, Vermont and New York ; some also joined the expedition which, in 
1745, captured Louisburg, but their names have been lost. These smaller 
wars proved a fitting school for the sterner strife of the Revolutionary war, 
and some of the younger participants in the war of 1754-63 proved excel- 



122 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



lent veterans in the strife with the mother country. Reuben Dickinson, the 
captain of the Amherst minute-men in 1775-76, had been a sergeant in the 
expedition against Crown Point in 1755, and was one of the most influential 
men in Amherst in the trying days of the Revolution. 

The first allusion to the break with England upon the town records is the 
vote passed January 26, 1774, "to Chews a Com'tee of Corrispondence to 
Refer with the Com'tee of Corrispondance in the Town of Boston." This 
committee, Reuben Dickinson, Joseph Williams, Moses Dickinson, Jacob 
McDaniel and Nathaniel Dickinson, was instructed to prepare a letter to be 
read in the next meeting. This letter was adopted by the town at the March 
meeting, and despite its length is worth reproduction, to enable us to see the 
spirit of the fathers of 1776. It reads as follows : — 
'■'■To the Bespectable Committee of Correspondence in the Town of Boston : — 

"Gentlemen: We think it needless to Recapitulate all those grievances 
which we suffer in Common with our opprest Brethren and Neighbors. Suf- 
ficient to Say that tho' we have been long silent we are not insensible of the 
oppressions we suffer and the ruin which threatens us or regardlis of the Di- 
abolical Designs of our Mercernary and Manevolent Enemies Foreign and 
Domestic and are ready not onley to risque but even to Sacrifice our Lives 
and Properties in Defence of our just rights & liberties at Present we are only 
Galled not subdued and think ourselves heapy in having such vigilant and 
faithfull gardians of our rights in the Metropolis on hoom we Can depend to 
Call on us in Season to unite with our suffering Countrymen in the Common 
Cause of America we hope and beg that you will still Preserve in that most 
Honorable & important Imployment of watching over us with the Same Care 
and Fidelity which has hiterto Distinguishd & greatly Dignified your Charac- 
ter in the Estimation of all who have a just sence of that best of Blessings 
Liberty & an Equal abhorrence of that tame submition which tends to En- 
tail on our Posterrity that worst of Curses Slavery. 

" Every Avenue to the Royal Ear seems to be blocked up by gross falsities 
& Designd misrepresentations of those from some of whom at Least we might 
have Expected better things but there is a King who Cannot be Deceived & 
who will not be mocked who has pointed out a never failing resource when 
Petitions and Remonstrances, Truth and justice are unsuccesfully opposed to 
Tironey and Oppression falsehood and Corruption & when you feel that im- 
pulse which will not brook longer Delay, the wisdum of the People will natu- 
rally write in the mode of the best Appeal, to which you most Distant Breth- 
ren Expect to be summoned unless preventd by a sudding unexpected & very 
favorable chandge of affears their are whom Justice forbids to live but whom 
we would spare to Convince the world we Despise their utmost hate & mali- 
cious Cunning, the colonies united are invincibly free & we doubt not you 
are convinc'd that the Preservation of that union outweighs every other Con- 
sideration and is at present our most Important Concern, while that is secure 
we have nothing to fear but may Laugh at all attempts to Enslave us we 
know of no punishment which can be Inflicted on those vilens in Exalted 
Stations adequate to their own reflections «& remorse accompanyd with our 
Neglect, Contempt & Detestation but at the same time should think our- 
selves happier if Everey banefuU Noxious weed (Jould by any means be Erad- 
icated from this our fair garden of Liberty, we Entirely approve & Concurr 
with you in every measure hitherto adopted & Conducted & return our grate- 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 1 23 



full thanks to the People of Boston & the Neighboring towns in a Perticular 
manner for the seasonable Indeavours & mandley opposition to prevent the 
Landing of the East India Companys teas which Plan we are Convinced was 
artefuUy Projected to open the gate for the admition of Tyrany & oppression 
with all their Rapacious followers to Stalk at Large & uncontrold to Ravage 
our fare & Dear bought Possessions. Every measure which shall appear 
Conducive to the Publick good we are warranted to asure you will always be 
approved and supportd by a Large Majority in this District and our [your] 
Continual Correspondence as Long as you shall think occation requires meet 
with Due respect & attention we are in behalf of the District very Respect- 
fully Gent'm your oblig'd & most hble servts." 

The following September the town chose a standing committee of corres- 
pondence and also three delegates to represent them in a convention at 
Northampton. In October the district voted unanimously to send a delegate 
to the meeting of the provincial congress at Concord, and then made choice 
of Nathaniel Dickinson, Jr., one of the foremost men in Amherst, in resisting 
the aggressions of England, a man whose earnestness of spirit and strong feeling 
caused him to forget the reverence then considered due to the meeting-house 
and the minister, and when his pastor, Mr. Parsons, persisted in saying in the 
pulpit, " God save the King," was provoked beyond all endurance, and spring- 
ing to his feet cried out, " You say God save the king ; but I say God save 
the Commonwealth of Massachusetts !" Mr. Dickinson was re-elected dele- 
gate the following year. 

Early in 1775 the town voted to purchase 150 pounds weight of powder 
and lead, and also flints, directing the assessors to levy a rate for this purchase 
immediately. They also directed that all province money still in the hands 
of the constables should be paid to Henry Gardner, of Stow, instead of 
Harrison Gray, who was probably commissioned in the king's name. The 
district voted to indemnify the constables against all loss incurred in obeying 
this vote — such money as was due and not yet collected by the constables 
was to be borrowed on the town's credit and forwarded to Henry Gardner at 
once — a vote which shows both the urgent need of money by the patriotic 
leaders in the opening war and also the willingness of the town to contribute 
such money. A committee of inspection was chosen whose main duty was 
to exert themselves in behalf of the cause of the colonies — rendering all 
possible assistance " in Causing the association of the Continental Congress," 
which congress passed, July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence. As 
a minor duty, this committee was instructed " to suppress all Peddlers and 
Petty Chapmen." Another committee was appointed to circulate a subscrip- 
tion paper for the relief of the poor of Boston and Charlestown. 

Thus Amherst showed her wiUingness to give both to the cause of freedom 
and to those who were suffering in that cause ; and also exhibited her fore- 
sight and breadth of information in declaring in favor of a united effort by all 
the colonies under direction of a continental congress. On May 4, 1775, a 
committee was appointed to provide stores for the support of the army at 
Cambridge, and a special town meeting held June 13, 1776, — three weeks 



124 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



previous to the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, " Voted, That 
should the Honorable Congress, for the Safety of the united Colonies in Amer- 
ica, Declare them Independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain, we, the In- 
habitants of the town of Amherst, solemnly engage with our lives and fortunes 
to support them in the measure, And that this Resolve be transmitted to our 
Representative in General Assembly as instructions to him." 

In 1778 the town recorded its desire for a new state constitution and chose 
a committee to confer with the neighboring towns about calling a county con- 
vention to urge on all the necessity of such a constitution. In 1779 the town 
instructed their representative to vote for the calling of a state convention for 
forming such a constitution, and it was adopted and went into effect in 1780. 
In 1779 the town voted ^434 los. "to Pay Bounties & Mileage to soldiers," 
and in 1780 ten thousand pounds was appropriated to pay lor beef for the 
soldiers, the price of beef being then more than four dollars per pound in the 
depreciated currency of the day. A committee appointed to see "how sol- 
diers may be best procured to serve in the Continental army," seemed to 
think the chief obstacle to enlistment was the poor credit of the continental 
treasury, and advised the town to offer each soldier who would enlist for three 
years in the war the sum of three pounds "hard money" per month, the sol- 
diers to assign their continental pay to the town which should thus incur the 
risk of the continental currency being redeemed. Or, if the soldiers should 
prefer, the town would guarantee to each soldier the sum of forty shillings in 
hard money per month in addition to their continental pay, the town to also 
promise each soldier two shirts, two pairs of stockings, and two pairs of shoes 
yearly "in case he fails of the same from the Continent or Stale." The town 
adopted these recommendations. A town vote of December 28, 1 780, making 
the town Uable for money promised to soldiers by individuals, speaks of the 
price of rye as being " fifty dollars per bushel." An assessment of ^460 in 
" new currency " for furnishing beef and grain to the army was voted at this 
time, and the next meeting voted that an unexpended balance of this money 
should go towards the purchase of horses for the continental army, and this 
appropriation was still further increased by the grant of the balance of school 
funds. Another purchase of beef was necessary in 1781, and the town treas- 
urer was obliged to borrow "hard money" to procure it. At this time the 
continental bills were accepted in trade at one cent on the dollar, and falling 
still lower the bills became absolutely worthless for a time and ceased to cir- 
culate. The lack of money was a greater obstacle to the success of Wash- 
ington's army than were the snows of Valley Forge and the armies of Great 
Britain. 

In 1781 the town was required to furnish a certain number of soldiers for 
three months. A committee was appointed to hire them, and were author- 
ized to hire them on whatever terms they could, the town engaging to pay 
whatever the committee should promise. This was the last requisition upon 
Amherst for soldiers, the surrender of Cornwallis, October 19, 1781, closing 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 1 25 



hostilities. Like other towns, Amherst was obliged to draft soldiers once or 
twice during the war of 1775-1781 ; the names of some who were drafted and 
of many who volunteered for service at this time are preserved for their chil- 
dren and succeeding citizens to read with pride and gratitude. 

Opposition to the Revolution. — The high degree of patriotic self-denial dis- 
played by the town of Amherst throughout the long war, was by no means 
the unanimous expression of the town's people. There were men of rank and 
wealth in Amherst in 1775, and such men, having the most to lose in any 
dubious undertaking, are generally found opposing violent and costly changes 
in government and in social customs. At the head of the Amherst Tories 
was the long loved pastor of the church, Rev. David Parsons, Capt. Isaac 
Chauncey, Lieut. John Field, and Ensign John Nash, who had received royal 
commissions through the colonial governor, Hutchinson, were early objects 
of suspicion to the eager Revolutionists. Simeon Clark, one of the deacons 
of the church, heartily supported his pastor in opposition to " the rebels " 
against roval authority; and among others the influential family of the Bolt- 
woods were prominent on the " Tory side." As early as the fall of 1774, 
there was a demand that all who held commissions from the king should 
renounce all authority derived from such commissions, and at a meeting of 
militia officers in Northampton, November 10 and 11, 1774, thirty-three, in- 
cluding the three Amherst officials, Chauncey, Field and Nash, renounced in 
writing all authority conferred by the royal governor. In addition to the 
militia officers the Revolutionists were suspicious of the justices of the peace 
of whom there were two in Amherst, Josiah Chauncey, father of Lieut. Isaac 
Chauncey, and Simeon Strong, the former having been appointed in 1758, 
the latter ten years later. Apparently Mr. Strong made no resistance to the 
patriotic demands, and after the war he regained his influence, and his high 
ability caused his election as state senator in 1793, and in 1800 his appoint- 
ment as one of the judges of the supreme court of Massachusetts. But Mr. 
Chauncey fared differently. The town records of May 4, 1775, have the fol- 
lowing account : " The town enters into the examination of Mr. Josiah 
Chauncey. Voted, Not satisfied with his answer to the charge laid against 
him. Voted, That s'd Chauncey should Burn all his Commissions he had 
ever received from the King, and also commit his Fire arms into the hands of 
the Select men of the District." The meeting adjourned for five days, when 
similar votes were recorded against John Nash. At this latter meeting the 
town " Voted that the Arms of Josiah Chauncey should be returned to him." 
It is said that Chauncey had given his commissions to certain leaders of the 
" Whigs " or Revolutionary party, by whom they were burnt in a public bon- 
fir3. But in April, 1776, Chauncey's son, Capt. Isaac Chauncey, was arrested 
and tried upon the charges of " insulting behavior " towards the committee 
of safety, and of being " an enemy to his country; " being convicted, he was 
confined in the jail at Northampton, whence he petitioned t,he general court 
for relief, but to no purpose. Upon his release he left his home secretly in 



120 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



the following August, and the committee of safety advertised their desire that 
the good people wherever he should be found would " secure him in such a 
manner that he may not have it in his power to injure America." A similar 
desire for the securing of Lieut. Robert Boltwood was expressed by the com- 
mittee, but it is not known that either of them were arrested or that America 
was injured by their escape from Amherst. 

On July 7, 1777, "the Selectmen exhibited to the Town a List of the 
Names of Such Persons as they supposed to be Inimical to the Interest of the 
United States, viz.: L't John Field, Eben'r Boltwood, Isaac Goodale, Will- 
iam Boltwood." The meeting adjourned for eight days, and then voted to 
erase Lieut. John Field's name from the list, but this vote was afterwards recon- 
sidered, and Elijah Baker was appointed to procure evidence against the 
accused parties. The meeting adjourned for four weeks, and then voted to 
strike out of the list the names of each one of the four in succession. Evi- 
dently the prosecution of these men did not seem wise to many who were 
strongly in favor of the Revolution. Yet so strong was the animosity felt 
towards the sympathizers with England, that not even the love and respect 
felt for the faithful pastor could secure him from much annoyance. In 1775 
the proceedings at a town meeting were suspended until a committee should 
go and request the attendance of Mr. Parsons, who had probably remained 
away because he could not favor the wishes of a majority of the town. On 
January 20, 1777, the town showed its appreciation of the religious work of 
their pastor by voting him his usual salary ; but they joined to this a vote 
expressive of their dislike of his political influence, and " Vot'd that the con- 
duct of the Rev'd David Parsons is not friendly with regard to the Common 
Cause," and appointed a committee of five to tell him so. It seems that in 
spite of the annual appropriation for the payment of his salary, Mr. Parsons 
was not able to get his full dues, for in 1778 the town, in the appropriation for 
his salary, instructed the assessors to pay him also the amount not paid him the 
year before. On January J3, 1780, the town " Voted that Mr. Abraham Hill 
be prohibited from Preaching in this Town in future," and a committee was 
chosen "to write to him concerning the matter." Mr. Hill was the Shutesbury 
preacher, and a very bitter Tory. Probably Mr. Parsons had exchanged with 
him, and he had not concealed his feelings concerning the action of the 
majority of the town, who had prohibited (March ir, 1778) "Persons not 
owning Independence on the Crown of Great Britain agreeable to the Dec- 
laration of Congress" from the exercise of the freeman's right of voting in 
town meetings. 

IVar 0/ 181 2-\Ci and 1861-65. — The war with Great Britain, 1812-15, 
was very unpopular throughout New England, and immediately after the dec- 
laration of war, June 18, 1812, steps were taken to hold a convention of 
Hampshire county towns to give expression to the general feeling of regret 
that war had been declared. Fifty-seven towns in the present counties of 
Hampden, Hampshire and Franklin sent eighty-eight delegates to this con- 



TOWN OF AMHERST. I 27 



vention, which met at Northampton, July 14, 18 12. Amherst's representa- 
tives were Ebenezer Mattoon (Revolutionary veteran and ex-member of con- 
gress), Samuel Fowler Dickinson (a prominent lawyer) and Simeon Strong 
(son of Judge Strong). It was an influential delegation which was sent from 
Amherst. The convention unanimously adopted a memorial praying that 
commissioners might be appointed for the speedy negotiation of terms of 
peace with Great Britain This memorial was addressed to the president of 
the United States. The convention also recommended the meeting of a state 
convention to give voice to the feeling of Massachusetts. Notwithstanding 
the unanimity of opposition to this war, the rumor of a contemplated descent 
upon the coast of Massachusetts by English forces showed the wiUingness of 
the people to defend their state, and when Governor Strong called out the 
militia the Connecticut valley sent two regiments of infantry and one of 
artillery to Boston. They were encamped for six weeks at Dorchester, where 
they were formally reviewed by the governor; but as apprehensions of attack 
passed away, they were soon released from duty and returned home. This 
was facetiously called " Governor Strong's war." 

In the civil war of 1861-65, Amherst had three hundred and fifty-two citi- 
zens in the Union army, and twenty-two in the navy. Of the three hundred 
and seventy-four, eleven were killed, fifteen died of wounds, thirty-two died of 
disease ; thirty-five others were wounded in the service. The military expenses 
of the town and individuals, in addition to regular taxes, were $46,237.27, 
of which the state refunded $1,641.27 '"to equalize bounties." 

Early Politics, — As already stated, Amherst was warmly in favor of adopt- 
ing a state constitution in 1778 and 1779. The first election under this con- 
stitution was held Monday, September 4, 1780, when Amherst cast her first 
vote for governor, " The Hon'ble John Hancock, Esq'r," receiving forty- 
three votes, and "The Hon'ble James Bowdoin, Esq'r," eight. These two 
men continued to be rival candidates for five years, Bowdoin apparently 
growing in favor with the Amherst voters as will be seen by the following : 
Hancock, in the respective years, received forty-three, fifty-seven, fifty-seven, 
twenty-eight, and thirteen, while Bowdoin received eight, nine, twenty-three, 
nineteen, and twenty-one. 

In 1785 John Hancock was not a candidate for the office, and James Bow- 
doin was elected governor. Amherst, however, favored the Hon. John 
Worthington, who received sixteen votes, to nine for James Bowdoin. In 
1786 Governor Bowdoin was re-elected, his opponent being Benjamin Lin- 
coln, Amherst giving Bowdoin twenty-three votes and Lincoln eleven, while 
John Hancock received one. In 1787 Hancock and Bowdoin were again 
rivals, and Amherst gave Bowdoin thirteen votes and Hancock eight, but 
the state went for ex-Governor Hancock. In recent years Amherst has been 
a strong Republican town at every election. 

In 1782 the town neglected to send a representative to the legislature, and 
for this neglect was fined by the general court. At the town meeting, held 



128 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



January 19, 1784, Simeon Strong, Esq., Nathaniel Dickinson, Jr., and Lieut. 
John Field were appointed a committee to secure an abatement of this fine. 
In 1786 and 1789 Amherst again failed to send a representative, as also in 
1795. In 1788 the town sent Daniel Cooley to the convention, which con- 
sidered the adoption of the proposed constitution of the United States. 
Mr. Cooley represented the wishes of the town, and probably of the western 
part of the state, when he voted against adoption. Fortunately, the major- 
ity of the convention was the other way. 

Schools. — In November, 1647, the general court of Massachusetts ordered 
that every town having hfty families should provide a school where children 
might be taught to read and write, and that every town with an hundred 
families should provide a grammar school whose master should be able to fit 
young men for college. These grammar schools were not for instruction in 
English grammar, which was not studied in these, but for teaching Latin 
grammar. This law was by no means a compulsory educational law, for it 
did not require that these schools should be free, and for many years they 
were supported partly by the town and partly by the parents. Free schools 
did not become general in Massachusetts until a century after the landing at 
Plymouth. It will seem very strange to those accustomed only to modern 
systems of education, that the early schools were attended by so few of the 
girls; if a girl was taught to read and to sew her education was considered 
complete, and at the time Amherst was settled probably not one woman in 
ten could write her name ; she could read the Bible, but what was the need 
of writing in days when the postoffice was unknown ? It was not considered 
to be a serious drawback that a man could not write his own name, although 
boys were generally taught to write on account of the need of signing busi- 
ness documents ; yet many a man of considerable social and business prom- 
inence signed his legal papers by " his mark " in the days before the Revolu- 
tion. No reader of the original records of any old town needs to be told 
that the spelling-book was not studied m these early schools ; every man 
spelled as he pleased, and often in the same sentence he would write the 
same word twice and spell it differently. 

The first vote on record concerning schools in Hadley Third Precinct is at 
a meeting held March 13, 1749, when a committee was chosen "to Hire 
three Scool Dames for three or four Months In the Summer Seson to Lame 
children to read; sd scools to be In the most convenient places." This 
meant that women were hired to receive children into their own homes, or 
some convenient room in a private dwelling, for instruction in the New Eng- 
land Primer. The town of Hadley having appropriated ^"6o for the use of 
the third precinct for school purposes, it was voted, April 9, 1752, that jQt^o 
•' be Improved to hire a scool Master att ye fall of y* yeare ; that the other 
therty pounds be Improved to hire Scoole Dames in the Summer." And a 
school committee of nine persons was chosen. In 1753 Hadley granted ^^20 
for school purposes, and the precinct appropriated ^4 in addition ; three 



TOWN OF AMHERST. I 29 



schools were to be kept in the precinct this year. The precinct appropriated 
^4 lawful money in 1754, and there is no mention of schools again until 
1759, when ^20 was appropriated. In January, 1760, the precinct voted 
^10 13s. 4d. lawful money for school purposes, and the following March 
£17, 6s. 8d. 

The first vote in relation to school-houses was January 5, 1761, when it 
was voted to build two school-houses at the expense of the district. The 
location of these buildings was not settled until the next December, when the 
number was increased to three ; the first to be placed " in the highway that 
leads to Pelham, near the place where Moses Warner's house formerly stood," 
(near the present centre of the town); the second was to be put '■ in the highway 
that runs east and west between Joseph Church and Jon'th Coles," (some- 
where near the postoffice in North Amherst) ; the third, in the highway south 
of Nathaniel Colman's lot, east of Plum brook, upon the hill, (on the road 
south of Mill valley in South Amherst). 

Probably the location of these school-houses was a matter of some dispute 
not easily harmonized, for the next meeting revoked the vote locating " the 
midle Scool-house," and the next meeting after this " Vo't to stop all Pro- 
ceedings Respecting the Scool-houses another year." In October, 1762, the 
district again voted to build three school-houses, and chose three committees, 
the first to determine " Where said Scool-houses shall be Set," the second "to 
wait on the aforsd Com'tt," the third " to Build the aforsd Scool-housses where 
the Com'tt apointed shall order." Curiosity can hardly refrain from won- 
dering what were the duties of that second committee. Apparently, however, 
even these committees failed to get the school-houses built, for in December, 
1 764, it was voted to build four school-houses, a " North," a " South," an " East- 
middle " and a " West-middle." Four committees of three each were chosen to 
locate these houses, and it was '" Vot'd that the District will abide the Determi- 
nation of the aforesaid Com'ttees." Four other committees of three each were 
to build the school-houses. This time the work was done, for January 6, 
1766, the meeting adjourned from the meeting-house "to the school-house 
which is near Landlord Warner's dweUing house." This school-house stood 
where Hunt's block now stands. There was, of course, no way for warming 
the meeting-house in those days, and the January day was probably cold, 
if the school-house was without a stove as well as the church ; probably its 
nearness to " Landlord Warner's " made " suthin hot " accessible to the 
chilled voters. 

The labor upon the school-houses was paid for by the day, the carpenters 
receiving 2s. 4d. for fall work, 2s. 8d. for summer work ; the laborers received 
2s. a day in summer, is. 6d. in fall, the last named sum being about equiva- 
lent to twenty-five cents. 

Apparently the " North " school-house was in the present " City " district, 
and the parents in " the West St.," by the present North Amherst church, felt 
aggrieved at this location, for in 1767 it was voted " to keep the scool one 



130 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



Month in the West St. North End," and the next year it was voted that " the 
North Scool to be kept one halfe the Time in the West Street." In 1771 it was 
" Voted that the Select Men Set up a new school at the North End of the 
District the space of six weeks in addition to the present school." In 1778, 
" Voted that a school be kept three months at the North school-house, 
also three months in the West St. in the Northern part of the town." But 
in January, 1779, ^^^ ^^^^ vote" in town meeting, after choice of moderator, 
was "That the money raised for the use of Schooling in the North part of 
this Town be expended in the North school-house." The controversy had 
its usual termination, for in January, 1786, the town voted " To Allow a rea- 
sonable reward to those Persons who built the school-house in the Northerly 
part of the Town on the road leading to Sunderland." 

The effort to accommodate North Amherst and "the City" in a single school- 
house was unfortunately renewed when the schools came to be graded, and 
while two schools were kept for primary scholars, the older children were sent 
to a cross street half-way between the two villages. As this location was con- 
venient for nobody, it had the merit of being impartial, at the price of remov- 
ing the children from all the salutary restraints of surrounding homes and 
people. In 1787 the town voted "to allow the people in the North East 
part of Amherst [now the City district] eighteen pounds in case they shall 
build for the town such a school-house as is built in the North West part of 
the town." Apparently the City people outdid their neighbors, for in 1788 it 
was '' Voted to allow thirty pounds for building the school-house in the North 
East part of the town." 

The first school of advanced grade in Amherst was taught by Josiah Pierce, 
who had been master of the Hadley grammar school for eighteen years. From 
1766 to 1769 he taught alternately in each of the middle school -houses, keep- 
ing a private school for older scholars in the evening. He was a graduate of 
Harvard college, and sometimes preached in neighboring pulpits during the 
absence or illness of the minister. Judd's History of Hadley says that his 
salary was thirty-two shillings ($5.33) and board per month. In 1772 the 
district voted " to Improve M'r William Gay Ballentine for six months " as 
master of the grammar school. Mr. Ballentine had been a classmate at Har- 
vard of the Rev. Mr. Parson's son, and came to Amherst to study theology 
with his classmate's father. In 1777 the stress of war caused the town to 
vote " to improve English Schoolmasters only," and the study of Latin ceased 
for a time. It is of course unknown to how great an extent it had been 
previously taught, but the fact that six Amherst boys are known to have 
been sent to college indicates that the master had some pupils in the dead 
languages. Nathaniel Dickinson, Jr.. and David Parsons graduated at 
Harvard in 177 1, Ebenezer Boltwood two years later, David Kellogg and 
Ebenezer Mattoon attended Dartmouth college, graduating respectively in 
1775 and 1776, and Aaron Kellogg graduated at Yale in 1778. Compared 
with other towns Amherst has always sent an unusually large number of her 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 13 1 



sons to college, many of whom have attained a high degree of distinction and 
usefulness. 

The early schools were of short terms, and the younger scholars attended 
but a single summer term in the year. More importance was then attached 
to home instruction, especially in manual labor, than has been customary 
since. In 1773 it was " Voted to allow five month schooling to each quarter 
of the town, in that part of the year when the Select men Shall Judg most 
profatable for the Inheabitants." "Voted to be at the Expence of twelve 
month schooling for grammar schooling in the Winter ceason." In 1780 
there was to be eighteen months' schooHng in the six schools or three months' 
at each school. The town passed a similar vote for the next year, and this 
was probably the length of the school sessions for many years. In 1778 the 
town voted " that the Persons who send scholars shall provide wood for the 
schools." Schools were sometimes dismissed because the supply of firewood 
was exhausted. 

The graded system of public schools now almost universal in the larger 
towns of Massachusetts was introduced into Amherst in i860. There was a 
bitter opposition to this system in town, and it was delayed for many 
years after its introduction in other parts of the state. Its working has not 
been altogether free from the criticism made at its introduction that it would 
prevent the sons of workingmen from obtaining the education which had for- 
merly been given during the winter terms when the older boys were not 
needed for farm work as they would be in summer. Still, the town's schools 
are an object of pride to the citizens who yearly expend nearly $10,000.00 
upon them. The number of school children reported by the assessors in 
1885 was 600. The appropriation of the town the same year was, for schools 
$8,800.00, and for school-books $2,000 00, making the average cost of the 
schools about eigheen dollars for each scholar. 

The high school has three courses of instruction, a classical, designed to fit 
young men for college, an English and Latin, chiefly taken by young ladies, 
and an English course in which the only foreign tongue studied is French. 
The two former courses require each four years for their completion, and the 
last is completed in three years. 

The school buildings are distributed in various parts of the town, the center 
village having two large brick structures, the high school on School street 
receiving the scholars of the grammar grades as well as of the high school 
proper ; the Amity Street school-house, containing the primary and inter- 
mediate grades. East Amherst district has one large school-house with 
rooms for the various classes of the respective grades below the high school. 
North Amherst has three sohool-houses, one of them having double rooms for 
the grammar and intermediate grades respectively ; the other two being both 
of primary grade, one in the " West Street " and the other at " the City." 
The more scattered population south of the centre village requires five small- 



132 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



er schools, called respectively "Mill Valley," "South Grammar," "South 
Green." South East" and " South West." 

Amherst College. — It was during the second war with Great Britain that 
Amherst academy, which was the stepping stone to Amherst college, was 
opened. Even before the Revolution a movement had begun for the estab- 
lishment of a college or collegiate school in Hampshire county, and as soon 
as the county recovered its prosperity after the financial disasters of that long 
war, the efiforts were renewed. Northampton was anxious to secure the honor 
of being an academic town, but the clergy of the vicinity seem to have favored 
Amherst from the commencement of the effort. Amherst academy was 
opened in 18 14. and formally dedicated in 1815, although it was not char- 
tered until 1 8 16, owing to opposition. Samuel Fowler Dickmson, Hezekiah 
W. Strong and Rev. Dr. Parsons were very instrumental in founding this 
academy. Dr. Parsons donated the land for the academy building, and was 
the first president of the board of trustees. The state made a conditional 
grant of half a township of land in the present state of Maine in aid of the 
academy, which flourished for several years, the number of pupils being at 
one time one hundred and eighty, one-half of them females. Mary Lyon, the 
well-known founder of Mt. Holyoke seminary, studied here in 182 1, and 
many others of note first climbed the hill of knowledge at this academy. The 
building occupied the present site of the Amity Street school-house, just west of 
the Amherst House. It was never endowed, and with the passing away of the 
need of academies, upon the introduction of a graded system of schools and the 
establishment of free high schools for advanced instruction, it lost its non-res- 
ident support and was finally swallowed up by the Amherst high school. 
The building was torn down in 1868 to make room for the new town gram- 
mar school building. 

It was through a charity fund that Amherst academy grew into Amherst 
college. An effort to raise money for the educating of promising but needy 
youth who wished to enter the ministry, revealed the fact that friends of the 
movement would subscribe more readily if the establishment of an institution 
of higher grade was contemplated. At the same time the desire for the 
removal of Williams college to a place of more convenient access seemed to 
be favorable to the project of a new college in Hampshire county. The 
friends of Williams college at first favored Northampton for the location of 
this institution, but as the legislature refused to charter a new institution, it 
became necessary to fall back upon the charter already obtained for Amherst 
academy. Fifty thousand dollars as a charity fund was quickly raised, and 
in 1820 the trustees of the academy began the erection of the first college 
building, Noah Webster delivering an address at the laying of the corner 
stone. Col. Elijah Dickinson had given the land, nine acres, the present 
location of the Amherst college buildings, and friends of the enterprise con- 
tributed both material and labor, and in September, 1821, a brick structure 
four stories high and 30 x 100 feet was completed. The trustees of the acad- 



TOWN OF AMHERST. i^x 

emy had already (May, 1821,) chosen Zephaniah Swift Moore as president of 
the "Charity Institution," as they called it, and he resigned the presidency 
of Williams college to accept his new position, bringing to Amherst a large 
number of his former pupils at Williamstown. The inauguration of the pres- 
ident and the dedication of the college took place September 8, 182 1, the 
ceremonies taking place in the First church, which was located near the site 
of the present college observatory. Noah Webster presided and Rev. Dr. 
Leland, of Charleston, S. C, preached the sermon. 

The college opened with forty-seven students, two of whom were suffi- 
ciently advanced to enter the senior class. There were two professors be- 
sides the president. The latter was to teach theology and moral philosophy, 
while the two professors, Rev. Gamahel S. Olds and Joseph Estabrook, were 
respectively assigned to the departments of mathematics and natural philoso- 
phy, and that of the Latin and Greek. The present '-North College" was 
erected during the presidency of Dr. Moore, and a president's house (now 
occupied by the Psi Upsilon society). At the first commencement, in 1821, 
there were two graduates, Pindar Field, who founded and superintended Am- 
herst's first Sunday-school, and E. S. Snell, afterwards professor. They re- 
ceived Latin testimonials that they had completed a regular college course, 
but could not receive degrees as the charter of the academy did not authorize 
the conferring of degrees. 

Dr. Moore's death (June 29, 1823), at the early age of fifty-two, was a se- 
vere blow to the college, but in the following October Rev. Heman Hum- 
phrey was installed as his successor, and the prospects of the institution ma- 
terially brightened when, in 1825, it finally succeeded in obtaining a college 
charter from the legislature. It is said that one of the questions of the pre- 
ceding political campaign was the granting of a charter to the college. Gov- 
ernor Eustis, the successful candidate, favoring, and his opponent being ad- 
verse to the granting of the charter. After an early measure of success, Dr. 
Humphrey's presidency became embarrassed by financial difficulties and a 
threatened split upon the question of slavery. He resigned in 1844, and 
was succeeded in 1845 ^Y ^^oi Edward Hitchcock, during whose adminis- 
tration the endowment funds of the college were largely increased and its 
prosperity permanently assured. Rev. William A. Stearns, the next presi- 
dent, was inaugurated November 22, 1854. During his presidency the college 
was the recipient of over $75,000.00 in donations, the officers of instruction 
increased from eleven to twenty-one, with a proportionate increase of the 
number of students. The new buildings erected in his administration, Will- 
iston hall, Walker hall, and the College church, were architecturally a great 
improvement upon those erected before. President Stearns died June 8, 
1876, and Prof. Julius H. Seelye was inaugurated as his successor May 24, 
1877. 

The college grounds embrace about thirty acres of land, to which five 

more acres is to be added by a purchase now being completed (August, 
10* 



134 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 



1886). In addition to the college buildings, technically so called, the vari- 
ous secret societies own a number of chapter houses, which are an ornament 
to the town, in addition to fulfilling their society requirements. The building 
used for the college library, recently enlarged and admirably fitted for its pur- 
poses, contains about 45,000 volumes. The new Pratt gymnasium enables 
the students to seek physical development, and affords a place of training for 
the various athletic exhibitions and contests, second only to the Hemingway 
gymnasium of Harvard college, and far surpassing the ordinary facilities of 
college gymnasiums. In its art museum and its collection of bird tracks 
named in honor of President Hitchcock, and its collection of Indian relics, 
the college offers unusual opportunities to the lovers of sculpture, of paleon- 
tology and of aboriginal remains to pursue their favorite lines of study. 
Amherst college was the first to admit the students to a share in the govern- 
ment of the college, and at present all cases of college discipline are referred 
to the "Senate," a body of students elected by their fellows and presided 
over by the college president. So successful has been this mode of solving 
many vexed questions relating to the government of college students, that in 
its essential features it has been adopted by nearly all of the larger colleges. 

Amherst college has ever been noted for its deep religious influence, and it 
has been said that no class has ever graduated from its halls without having 
passed through a revival of rehgious interest. In questions of educational 
methods, the position of the college was tersely defined by President Seelye 
at the commencement dinner in 1886, "Not as eager for changes as Har- 
vard, we are not as afraid of them as Yale." Prof. William S. Tyler has now 
held the professorship of the classical languages for fifty years, and in honor 
of this unusual event in college history the president of the institution at the 
commencement dinner of 1886, asked the alumni to respond to liis sentiment, 
"O king, live forever," and the heartiness of the ovation rendered spontaneously 
to the genial professor left no doubt of his popularity witli the many hundreds 
who have been taught no less by his character than by his learning. 

In 1885 -86 the college faculty consisted of thirty-two officers of instruction, 
and the students were classified as follows: resident graduates, 3 ; seniors, 
77 ; juniors, 74; sophomores, toi ; freshmen, 100; total number of stu- 
dents, 355. The total number of graduates from 1822 to 1881, has been 
2,614. Among the large number of Amherst's sons who have rendered dis- 
tinguished service to their fellow men may be mentioned as theological leaders, 
Profs. B. B. Edwards (1824) and George Harris (1866), of Andover Theo- 
logical seminary, and President R. D. Hitchcock (1836), of Union seminary. 
Prof. H. B. Hackett, of the theological seminaries of Newton and Rochester, 
was graduated at Amherst in 1830. The college has furnished the churches 
with a large number of gifted and consecrated workers, at the head of whom 
stand Henry Ward Beecher (1834), Bishop Huntington (1839) and Rev. 
Richard S. Storrs (1839). William Hayes Ward, the editor of The Inde- 
pendent, graduated in 1856. Ex-Gov. Bullock, of Massachusetts (1836), 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 135 



Horace Maynard, of Tennessee (1838), Galusha A. Grow, of Pennsylvania 
(1844), with others of Amherst's sons, have held high political offices. Francis 
A. Walker, president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, belongs to 
the Amherst class of i860, as does also George L. Goodale, the professor in 
charge of the botanical department of Harvard university. Two hundred 
and sixteen graduates of the college served in the Union army or navy ; 1,024 
have been ordained as clergymen, and 105 as foreign missionaries. 

Massachusetts Agricultural College. — In 1864 a second college was located 
in Amherst by vote of the trustees of the Massachusetts Agricultural college, 
which had been incorporated the year before by the state legislature, and was 
at that time " the only college in the United States designed exclusively for 
the education of farmers." The nucleus for the funds of this institution was 
the grant of public land given by congress in 1862, for the maintenance of at 
least one college in each state " to teach such branches of learning as are re- 
lated to agriculture and the mechanic arts." The state of Massachusetts re- 
ceived 360,000 acres of the public domain under this grant, one-third of 
which was appropriated to the institute of technology, in Boston. As an 
inducement for the location of the college within its hmits, the town of Am- 
herst donated $50,000.00 for the erection of buildings. The college bought 
383^ acres of land from six proprietors, and the institution was formally opened 
in October, 1867, when a class of thirty-three students were admitted. The 
college has never received such private bequests from friends as have sufficed 
to give other institutions a permanent endowment fund, and has depended 
mainly for its support upon the appropriations generously made by the state 
legislature. 

The total number of graduates is 245, non-graduates (those who have pur- 
sued a partial course) 406. Of the 650 whom this college has thus educated, 
221 are now engaged in business, and 175 are in agricultural pursuits of some 
kind. The presidents of the college have been Hon. Henry F. French, 1864- 
1866; Rev. Dr. P. A. Chadbourne, 1866-1867 ; Col. William S. Clark, 1867- 
1879; Charles L. Flint, 1879-1880; Levi Stockbridge, 1880-1882; Rev, 
Dr. P. A. Chadbourne, 1882-1883; James C. Greenough, 1883-1886; H. 
H. Goodell, 1886. 

The early success of the college was due in large measure to the active and 
energetic ability of Colonel Clark, who made the institution to be known not 
merely in this state, but also in far away Japan, whose agricultural college at 
Sapporo was modeled upon this, and organized by President Clark, who re- 
ceived a year's leave of absence to start the college, and which has ever 
looked to Amherst for gifted and energetic teachers. Colonel Clark is the 
only president who has held the office long enough to stamp his own personal 
influence upon the college, and much is due to his abihty as an organizer and 
his active energy as a worker. jThe presidency of Dr. Chadbourne from which 
much was hoped, was cut short in 1867 by the failure of his health, and again 
in 1883 by his untimely death. President Greenough in his brief adminis- 



136 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



tration accomplished a great deal for the college in securing the erection of 
new buildings, which were greatly needed. South college, the library and 
chapel, and the president's house and barn, together with the buildings of 
the experiment station will remain as the testimony to his usefulness in fur- 
thering the interests of the college, and of the confidence of the state's repre- 
sentatives in his administration. 

The funds of the college are the gift of land from the United States and 
a grant of nearly $150,000,00 by the state. In addition to the income of 
these funds the state has made appropriations for the various needs of the 
college amounting in all to $395,500.00. 

The grant of $10,000.00 for free scholarships, first made in 1883, is an- 
nually made in accordance with the law of April 16, 1886. In 1885-86, the 
college faculty consisted of twelve instructors and the catalogued students 
numbered, seniors, 11 ; juniors, 27; sophomores, 22; freshmen, 23; total, 
S^ — all but ten of whom were residents of Massachusetts. 

In connection with the college there is an agricultural experiment station, 
established in 1882, where experiments are continually being made in all 
branches of agriculture, reports of which are published and distributed for the 
benefit of the farmers of the state. Prof Charles A. Goessman, the college 
professor of chemistry, is the director of this station, whose board of manage- 
ment consists of seven persons, of whom the exofficio members are the gov- 
ernor of the state and the president of the college. 

Private Schools. — Mount Pleasant Institute, a private school for boys, was 
organized in 1846 by John A. Nash. The buildings erected especially for a 
school have a beautiful and healthful location on an eminence half a mile 
north of the village of Amherst. In 1853 the Institute was bought by Hen- 
ry C. Nash, and conducted by him until 1877. From that time to 1884 it 
did not exist as a school; but in 1884 W. K. Nash, son of H. C, took the 
school and is conducting it at the present time. 

Mrs. Williams's school for young ladies and misses is located on South 
Prospect street. Rev. R. G. Williams and Mrs. Williams have been engaged 
in teaching many years, and have been in charge of large institutions. Mr. 
Williams's health having failed, Mrs. Williams proposes to continue her life 
work in Amherst. The assistance of first-class teachers in every department 
has been obtained, so that pupils can have the very best instruction. 

Libraries. — The first pubhc library in Amherst was begun in 1869, when 
the North Amherst Library association was formed by public spirited citi- 
zens of North Amherst. Its first books were purchased by subscription, and 
although a public library, it did not become a free public library until 1876, 
when the town made an appropriation for the purchase of books for this 
library. For many years the town has annually appropriated $100.00 for this 
purpose, and the citizens of North Amherst add to this from year to year by 
their united efforts. The number of volumes at the opening of the year 1886 
was 1. 189. 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 137 



The library at the center village, now containing about four thousand vol- 
umes, the use of which is free to all citizens of the town, began in a book-club 
formed in 1872. The next year an association was formed, and a three 
days' fair netted over six hundred dollars for the purchase of books, etc. A 
small association at East Amherst united with this, and the library thus com- 
menced contained about 750 volumes. At present the town makes a small 
annual appropriation for the purchase of books, and the directors of the 
association secure additional contributions by fairs, entertainments, or sub- 
scriptions. The library both needs and deserves the generous gifts of the 
public spirited, which will erect a suitable building for its accommodation, and 
also increase its income and its power for good. 

BIOGRAPHICAL. 

Not far from 1745 there came to Hadley third precinct (now Amherst), 
Nathan Dickinson, a native of Hatfield, where he was born in 17 12. He 
brought with him his wife, Thankful Warner, and three children ; and March 
30, 1746, a fourth child was born to him at his new home in the third pre- 
cinct. His wife died soon after coming to Amherst, and he married Joanna 
Leonard, of VVestfield, and after her death he married a third wife, Judith 
Hosmer. He died in Amherst August 7, 1796, at the ripe age of eighty-four. 
Of his thirteen children all but four seemed to have lived to have families of 
their own. His oldest son and namesake, Nathan Dickinson, Jr., was about 
ten years of age at the time of his father's coming to Amherst, having been 
born in Hatfield in 1735. He married in Amherst, Esther Fowler, and died 
August 3, 1825, aged ninety years. Seven of his eight children were mar- 
ried, and one of them, Timothy, his oldest son, was graduated at Dartmouth 
college m 1785, and became pastor of the church in Holliston, where he 
died in 1813. 

Samuel Fowler Dickinson, son of Nathan, Jr., was born in Amherst Oc- 
tober 9, 1775. His father was a farmer in East Amherst, and his mother, 
Esther Fowler, was from Westchester, Conn. He fitted for college with 
Judge Strong, of Amherst, entered Dartmouth college at the age of sixteen 
years, and graduated in 1795. Though the youngest of his class he received 
the second appointment, the salutatory oration in Latin. After leaving col- 
lege, and teaching one year in the academy at New Salem, he completed the 
usual term of study in the law office of Judge Strong, and then established 
an office of his own in his native place. He early united with the West Par- 
ish church, and at the age of twenty-one was elected one of the deacons, an 
office which he held nearly forty years For fifteen years, from 1804 to 1818 
inclusive, he was town clerk, was frequently employed as the agent and ad- 
vocate of the town in litigated questions, and served in the legislature twelve 
years, in the house of representatives eleven,' and in the senate one, being 
chosen first in 1805. He was ranked among the best lawyers in Hampshire 



138 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



county, and might doubtless have had a seat on the judicial bench if he had 
continued the practice of his profession. But he was gradually drawn off into 
business for which he had a natural fondness, and he was still more deeply 
interested in religious movements, ecclesiastical affairs and educational enter- 
prises. With a large family to educate, and at the same time having at heart 
the general welfare, he, with a few others, established the academy of Am- 
herst, erected the building, furnished it with apparatus and other endow- 
ments — liberal for those times — sought far and near the ablest teachers that 
could be found, and spared neither time nor money to make it the ablest in- 
stitution of the kind in the Commonwealth. No one was more intrusted, 
none bore a more important part in the founding of Amherst college than 
Samuel Fowler Dickinson. The enlargement of the plan from a mere pro- 
fessorship in Amherst academy, into that of a separate collegiate institution, 
was owing expressly to his suggestion and influence. He was among the 
original board of trustees of both the academy and college. He was the 
chairman of the committee appointed by the board to secure a title to the 
land for the site of the college, to decide on a plan of the first building, to pro- 
cure subscriptions, donations or contributions for defraying the expense 
thereof, and then to prepare the ground and erect the building. With all the 
zeal and effort of numerous friends and benefactors in Amherst and the 
neighboring towns, the work of erecting this building would often have stop- 
ped if Mr. Dickinson had not pledged his private property at the bank to 
obtain money. He hesitated at no sacrifice of his time, property or personal 
service, in furthering the enterprise in which he was so deeply enhsted, even 
to his own impoverishment — indeed, his efforts for this may be considered 
the best part of his life work. Mr. Dickinson was a tall, thin man, plain in 
his dress and appearance, of prodigious bodily and mental activity and en- 
ergy, a famous walker, a ferocious worker, a born leader, a man of ideas and 
principles, of rare public spirit, strong religious faith and zeal, whose whole life 
was one of self-denial and self-sacrifice in the public service for education and 
religion, for the glory of God and the good of his fellow men. He died sud- 
denly of pneumonia, April 22, 1838, at the age of sixty-t.vo years. 

Edward Dickinson, oldest son of Hon. Samuel Fowler Dickinson, was born 
in Amherst, where he always lived, on the first of January, 1803; was edu- 
cated in the public schools of Amherst, and in Amherst academy, till he was 
prepared to enter college; was a member of the first junior class in the col- 
legiate institution at Amherst, although the other three years of his collegiate 
course were at Yale, where he graduated in 1823 with high honor ; studied 
law for two years with his father, and a third year in the then prominent and 
ably conducted law school at Northampton ; in 1826 opened his oflice in 
Amherst, and continued in active and successful practice to the time of his 
death. In 1835 he was chosen treasurer of Amherst college, and held that 
office from that time to the end of his life, although he had resigned the year 
before, and his son, William A. Dickinson, had been elected his successor. 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 



139 



In 1838 and 1839, and again in 1874 he represented Amherst in the legisla- 
ture ; in 1842 and 1843 he was a member of the Massachusetts senate; in 
1845 and 1846 he was a member of the governor's council, when George N. 
Briggs was governor, and in the years 1853 and 1855 he represented his dis- 
trict in congress, and held many other offices of trust by local election and 
executive appointment. He was of the old Whig party in politics, and never 
identified himself with any other, though acting in the main with the Repub- 
lican after the Whig as such had ceased to exist, and in the era of good feel- 
ing and patriotism which prevailed and came near doing away with party 
lines in the state, in 1861 he was nominatecl by the Republicans a lieutenant- 
governor on the ticket with Andrew, but declined the honor. 

As a lawyer he was sound, safe and the soul of uprightness. He hated 
pettifoggers and tricksters, beheved in his profession as a high calling, and used 
it to promote the ends of justice and good morals. Faithful to every trust, 
conscientious in the discharge of every duty, of rare public spirit — hke his 
father before him — the especial devotion of his life may well be said to have 
been Amherst and Amherst college. At home and abroad as well, he bore 
its banner proudly and defiantly aloft, and to no one citizen does it owe so 
much of its present local and foreign reputation for high position and charac- 
ter as to him. He led in every enterprise which promised to add to its 
growth, prosperity and attractiveness. He was especially conspicuous with 
labor and money in procuring the building of the New London Northern rail- 
road, and was hardly less prominent and influential in his endeavors for the 
construction of the Massachusetts Central line. It was for this that he con- 
sented to become a member of the legislature again in 1873-74. His labors 
and anxieties for its interests in connection with the tunnel, undoubtedly 
were the occasion of his sudden death, he having been stricken with apoplexy 
while making a speech on a bill relating to this matter before the house, just 
after noon, June 16, 1874. Thus, and even more, was his devotion to the 
college. No man ever watched or tended his own child, or his own property, 
with more personal, jealous care, than he did the institution he so long and 
ably eerved. 

He was a man " without fear and without reproach" — a man with the full 
courage of his convictions. His moral power made him always respected and 
felt, and commanded honor. In his state, and particularly in its western 
section, he long ranked among the few "first citizens," respected for his 
sturdy good sense and independence, revered for his spotless integrity and 
patriotic self-sacrifice to the public, and beloved by all who came near to him, 
for the simple truthfulness and chivalric tenderness that lay deep and broad 
in the base of his nature. His life and character were a rich legacy to the 
community in which he lived. 

William Austin Dickinson, oldest child of Edward, was born in Amherst 
April 16, 1829, and graduated at Amherst college in 1850, and at the Har- 
vard law school in 1854, when he was admitted to the bar in Boston. He began 



140 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



the practice of law in Amherst in 1855, and in 1873 was chosen treasurer of 
Amherst college, succeeding his father in that important trust. He married, 
in 1856, Susan H. Gilbert, of Greenfield. As a public spirited citizen, Mr. 
Dickinson has rendered much valuable service to his native town — one of 
the most conspicuous of his services being his work as president of the Village 
Improvement society, through whose efforts an unsightly " dumping spot for 
all refuse " in the very center of the village became transformed into the taste- 
ful common which is admired by all visitors to Amherst. Mr. Dickinson is 
well nigh invariably chosen moderator of the Amherst town meetings, a posi- 
tion for which he is well adapted, both by his legal knowledge and his firm- 
ness and decision of character. 

Walter Dickinson was born in this town May 2, 1784, married Lydia Dick- 
inson in 1806, and reared ten children, namely, Sylvester, Frederick E., Mar- 
quis F., Nathaniel A., Lydia E., Nehemiah O., Leander M., Amy S., Walter 
M. and Sarah M. Mrs. Dickinson died in 1828, and Mr. Dickinson survived 
her till 1851. Marquis F. resides on the farm which was first settled by his 
great grandfather, Nathaniel, about 1840, and is located on road 18. He was 
born in 1814, married Hannah S. Williams in 1838, and has reared ten chil- 
dren, namely, Maurice F., who is practicing law in Boston, Walter N., Lydia 
J., Amelia S., Roxy E., Asa W., Walter M., JuHa C, Hannah F. and Mary U. 

Azariah Dickinson was born April 13, 1753, married Mary Eastman, De- 
cember "22, 1785, and reared six children, viz.: Sarah L, Ransom, Austin, 
Daniel, Baxter and Hannah. He died August 31, 181 3. Daniel was born 
in Amherst, June 13, 1793, married twice, first, Louisa Adams, February 17, 
1 8 19, who bore him two children, Mary A. and Daniel A., and died March 

6, 1828. He married for his second wife, Fannie Eastman, June 25, 1829, 
and reared six children, viz.: Louisa, William E., Sarah T., George, Charles 
R. and Edward B. Charles R. was born October 16. 1837, Married Adelia 
M. Harris, August 16, 1865, and has four children, namely, Edwin H., Louisa, 
Laura A. and Raymond D. 

Abijah Dickinson, son of Ebenezer, was born on the homestead December 

7, 178 r, married Mary Stetson, October 26, t8o6, and had born to him five 
children, William E., Charlotte, Franklin, Samuel S. and E. Porter. Samuel 
S. was born February 12, 18 15, married Alzina Towne, March 27, 1839, and 
reared seven children, AbbyJ. (Mrs. Lewis Bartlett), Mary E., Samuel S., 
Emleyetta C, Alice A., John H. and Herbert S. 

Leander M. Dickinson was born August 20, 182 i, and Laura A., his wife, 
was born May 14, 1825. They reared five children, as follows: Lydia T., 
Julia A., Edward L., Mason A. and Frank N. The last mentioned was born. 
January 15. 1866, and resides on road i. Leander M. died November 7, 
1885. " 

Lieut. Enos Dickinson, son of Jonathan K. and Azubah (Coleman) Dick- 
inson, was born m Amherst, in the house in which he died, October 23, 1785. 
His father and mother died in the same house — his father at the age of 







(^(^^i!^c^^<_<.^^:^^ 



TOWN OF AMHERST. I4I 



eighty-five years, and his mother at the age of eighty-six years. He married 
Lois Dickinson, April 27, 1809, who died April 18, 1868, aged eighty-four 
years. ?Ir. Dickinson was a conscientious Christian and philanthropic to a 
marked degree. The " Dickinson .Nineveh Gallery " of Amherst college is 
an example of the latter trait in his character. He united with the First Con- 
gregational church in 181 6, and was one of the original founders of the Con- 
gregational church at South Amherst. 

Noah Dickinson, son of Johathan, was born in this town, February 18, 
1819, married Malah Bliss, March 17, 1857, and has had born to him four 
children, namely, Helen B., Frank B., Amy S. and May B. He resides on 
road 3 r . 

John Dickinson was born in Shutesbury, and married Lydia Eastman, of 
North Amherst. His son Zebina was born in Amherst, in 1778, married 
Mary Watson, of Lester, Mass., and had born to him ten children. His son 
William W. was born August 22, 18 10, married Mary L. Marsh, March 3, 
1840, and has had born to him four children, namely, Ellen R., Jane W. , 
Amy S. and Amelia. 

William L Dickinson was born on the homestead, on road 44, November 
7, 18 1 5, married twice, first, Vester Rankin, December i. 1836, who bore 
him three children, Willard R., Mary E. and Frank E. He married for his 
second wife Harriet N. Allen, August 7, 1845, and has had born to him three 
children, Hattie V., Sumner L. and Alice L. 

Jonathan Cowles was born in Sufiield, in 1703, married Sarah Gaylord, 
and reared ten children, viz. : Sarah, Oliver, Jerusha, Jonathan, David, Josiah, 
Eleazer, Reuben, Enos and Simeon. He died March 14, 1792. His young- 
est son, Simeon, was born in 1755, married Sarah Dickinson, February 12, 
1778, lived and died on the homestead, located on road 18, and reared nine 
children, viz. : Simeon, Jerusha, Orinda, Azubah, Lebina, Moses, Aaron, 
Sally and Eli. The mother of these children died in 1814, and Mr. Dickinson 
married for his second wife Polly King, who died in 1831. He also died in 1831. 
Simeon, Jr., married Charlotte Stetson, and reared eight children, as follows : 
Hiram, Esther, Nancy, Rufus, Amasa, Charlotte, Mary and Harriet. He lived 
on the homestead a few years after marriage, and then moved to Goshen, Mass., 
where he died in 1857, aged seventy-eight years. Moses, son of Simeon, 
married Chloe Dickinson, and spent his life on the homestead. He reared 
five children, namely, Henry, James, Ebenezer, Harriet and Marietta. Of 
these only two are Uving, Henry, who is a physician in Framingham, Mass., 
and James. Henry married Nancy K. Puffer, and has one child. James, 
who is living on the homestead, married Nancy Henderson, and has two 
children, Arthur Frederick and Mary Ellen. The former has married twice ; 
first. Bell Kellogg, and second, Lucia Kellogg. He is now a widower and 
resides at home. Mary E. married Willis Tuxbury, and has one son, 
James F. 

David Cowls was born August 11, 1741, built the house where his grand- 



142 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



son, Jonathan, now resides, and which is probably over one hundred and 
twenty-five years old. He married Sarah Eastman, and reared five children, 
namely, David, Sally, Joseph, Silas and Jonathan. The last mentioned was 
born December 2, 1781, married Esther Graves, April 16, 1807, and had 
born to him eight children, viz. : Justin, Erastus, Louis, Ira, Esther, Sarah, 
Ransom and Jonathan. The last mentioned was born on the homestead, 
May 4, 1822, married Sarah Dickinson, July i, 185 1, and has had born to 
him four children, namely, Walter D., Newton E., Abby G. and Sarah J. 
Walter D. is now one of the selectmen of this town. 

Ransom Cowls was born August 18, 18 18, married Sarah Gunn, August 
24, 1843, and shortly after marriage, located on the place where he now re- 
sides, on the corner of roads 5 and 6. He has had born to him eight chil- 
dren, as follows: Stephen, born January 15, 1845, died December, 1854; 
Francis I., born October 26, 1846 ; George C, Esther T., Albert R., born 
June 23, 1852 ; J. Edward, born July 8, 1857, and died December 18, 1865; 
Charles S., born June 14, 1856, died February 4, 1859 ; and Melville A. born 
November 1 1, 1859. 

Enoch Cowles was born January 29, 1802, married Julia Brigham, June 19, 
1825, and had born to him three children, Julia A., Enoch D. and Watson 
W. He died in April, 1883, and his widow died October 9, 1884. Enoch 
D. was born November 17, 1823, married three times, first, Belena B. Strick- 
land, in 1853 ; second, Frances Dickinson, and third, Mary Harrington. 
They reside in Easthampton, Watson W. was born November 26, 1834, 
married Elizabeth Howes, January 2, 1865, and has one child, Willie, born 
February 24, 1867. 

John Cowles came from England about 1640. was one of the original pro- 
prietors and settlers of the town of Farmington, Conn., and represented that 
town at the general court three sessions, and moved to Hadley, where he died 
in September, 1675. Clinton J., a descendant of John Cowles, was born on 
the homestead, in North Amherst, June 16, 18 10, married Sarah E. Sander- 
son, October 11, 1837, and has had born to him two children, Almon E. and 
Edson C. The former was born November 16, 1838, married Helen L. Gil- 
bert, July 4, 1859, and has one child, Estella, born January 23, i860. He 
resides on the homestead, and is engaged in farming. Edson C. was born 
June 12, 1847, married Ida I. Taylor, March 2, 1864, and lives in Iowa. He 
has three children, namely, John E., Mary I. and Ruth E. 

Chester Cowles was born in Granby, married Mary Bangs, and has reared 
four children, namely, William D,, Hettie, Frank C. and Samuel W. Mr. 
Cowles sold 106 acres of land to the Agricultural college about 1864. 

Nathaniel Kellogg was among the early settlers of Amherst, and died here 
October 30, 1750, aged eighty years. His son Ephraim died here March 16, 
1777, aged sixty-seven, and Ephraim, Jr., who died here January 29, 1815, 
aged seventy-three years. The latter had nine children, of whom John was 
the eldest, born here September 23, 1762. These were the ancestors of a 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 1 43 



large portion of the many who bear this name in Amherst to-day. Willard 
M. Kellogg, a great-great-grandson, now occupies the old homestead, on 
road 21, or East street, as it is generally known. The house now occupied by 
him was built by his grandfather, Daniel, about one hundred years ago. His 
father, Rufus, was postmaster about 1821, and had his office in this house, 
where the mail was brought once a week. Willard M. was born December 
29, 1810, married Elvira M. Marsh, of Hadley, and has had born to him 
eight children, as follows: Rufus, Willard, Rufus M., Catharine C, Charles, 
Mary, Esther M. and Joseph M. 

Eleazer Kellogg, son of John, was born here March 16, 1800, married 
Sally McCloud Roberts, December 30, 1824, and reared eight children — 
Julia A., Albert, Roxey, Esther, Elizabeth C, Charles H., Sally M. and John 
E. He served the town as selectman many years, and in the legislature in 
1836. Charles H., born May 7, 1842, married Mary W. Adams, of North 
Hadley, in 1868, and now resides on road 18. They have one child, Willie A. 

Thomas Hastings, grandson of Lieut. Thomas Hastings, who came to Am- 
herst from Hatfield about 1753, was born here February 6, 1782. He mar- 
ried Eunice Clark, November i, 1803. who bore him thirteen children, as fol- 
lows : Sophia, Mary, Marj', 2d., Lucy, Thomas, James, Henry, Harriet, 
Henry, William, Edmund, Lucy, 2d., Philomela. Uncle Tom, as he was 
called, was a farmer, a man of considerable genius and fond of writing verses. 
He died October 11. 1858, and his widow survived him till August 11, 1873. 
Their son Edmund now occupies the old homestead. He was born March 
4, 1822, married Minerva Lee, of Conway, May 23, 1849, who has borne 
him five children, Emma A., Mary Luella, Esther M., Abbie M. and 
Walter L. 

Ephraim Cushman was a soldier in the Revolutionary war, and was also 
a participator in Shays Rebellion. He died in North Amherst in 1832. His 
sons, Ephraim and John P., began business as paper makers in the " old mill " 
on the road to Still Corner, in 1835. In 1854 they obtained a patent from 
the government for a method of drying thick paper, whereby it was prevented 
from warping out of shape. In 1S57 the mill at the corner of the road to 
Leverett, below them, was burned, and the Cushman Brothers bought the 
rights of Jones &. Bradford, its former owners, and built, in 1859, the pres- 
ent red mill. In 1864 the firm was dissolved, and Ephraim Cushman, with 
his son, built a mill in "Factory Hollow " for the manufacture of printing and 
manilla paper, while John R. Cushman and his sons carried on the manufacture 
of leather board at the old mills, in which business he continued until the fail- 
ure of the firm, in 1880. Ephraim was born in Amherst, February 26, 1799 
married Wealthy Cutter in December, 1822, and reared six children, as fol- 
lows: Sanford C, born May 14, 1824, married Thankful Cook, and resides 
in Birmingham, Conn. J. Ephraim was born January 6, 1826, and married 
Elizabeth Rankin ; Susan B., born October 15, 1828, married W. V. Cutter, 
of Amherst; Wealthy A. was born December 4, 1830; John S., born Janu- 



144 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



ary 8, 1833, resides in Connecticut ; and Marshall B. was born September 23, 
1839, married twice, first, Josephine Bassett ; second, Hannah Gibbs, and 
resides in Washington, D. C. Mrs. Cushman died January 5, 1865. John 
Richmond Cushman was born at North Amherst, September 6, 1803, married 
Rhoda Crafts, of Whately, and had born to him ten children, four of whom 
died in infancy. Of those surviving, George H., the oldest son, and Edward 
P., the youngest, are in business in Lynn. The others are still residents of 
North Amherst. Mr. Cushman became a member of the North church in 
1839. At the time of his death he resided with his son Avery R. 

John E. Cushman was born in Amherst September 4, 1839, ^"^^ married 
Mary Wells, of Whately, Mass., September 14, 1876. He served in the late 
war, in Co. D, 27 th Mass. Vols., and lost his arm at the battle of Newbern, 
March 28, 1862. He now resides on road 4. 

Lucius Boltwood, son of William and Eunice Bolt wood, was born in Am- 
herst, March 16, 1792, and married Fannie Haskins Shepard, August 30, 
1824. He attended tiie town school of Amherst, the Grammar school at 
Hadley, and entered Williams college in 18 to, and graduated from there in 
1814. He read law with Hon. Samuel Fowler Dickinson, of this town, was 
admitted to the bar in August, 18 17, and immediately entered into company 
with his instructor. In 1820 he opened an office of his own. He was secre- 
tary of the corporation of Amherst college from 1828 to 1864, commissioner 
of the charity fund of the same institution from 1833 to 1866, and was presi- 
dent of the Amherst bank in 1835-36. At the time of his death, which oc- 
curred July 10, 1872, aged eighty years, he was the senior member of the 
Hampshire county bar. He reared nine children, of whom two are living, 
Lucius M. and Samuel. His widow resides in the house built by him in 

1835- 

Noah Smith was born in North Amherst, June 6, 1772, married Jerusha 

Cowles, of Amherst, February 20, 1806, and reared nine children, only three 
of whom are living, William, Spencer and Sally. Spencer was born in Am- 
herst, February 21, 18 r 9, married Martha B. Potwine, of South Amherst, 
January 21, 1844, and has had born to him six children, viz. : Joanna, born 
February 13, 1845; Atwell P., born July 26, 1847; Lucia M., born Febru- 
ary 17, 1850; William A, born July 11, 1852; Newton A., born May 10, 
1856, and Nettie B., born August 16, 1864. His father died October 27, 
1847, and his mother died July 10, 1858. 

Deacon Lyman Smith, son of Jonathan, and grandson of Noah, all na- 
tives of Amherst, was born in Amherst, November 10, 1801, and married 
three times; first. Electa Dickinson, May 25, 1825, who died April 25, 1859. 
She was the mother of seven children, as follows : Frederick A., Andrew A., 
who died in the army, Ellen Eliza and Eliza Ellen (twins), William W. H., 
Mary E., and Julia E., who was born September 3, 1834, and married Will- 
iam L. Roberts. Mr. Smith married for his second wife, Mary M. Emerson, 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 



M5 



who died March 30, 1879, ^^^ ^^^ his third wife, Jane E. Nye, November 24, 
1880. He resides on road 18. 

Cotton Smith was born in Hadley, April 7, 1787, and married Sibyl Smith. 
His son, W. W., was born in Amherst, June 2, 1S29, married Mary E., 
daughter of Daniel and Mary H. Cowles, April 13, 1858, and has had born 
to him three children, viz.: Mary H., born September 14, 1859 ; William H., 
born May 12, 1864 ; and Alice E., born May 8, 1870. 

Frederick Williams was born in Amherst, October 3, 1803, married twice, 
first, Caroline Howe, who bore him six children, viz. : Chester, William F., 
Elizabeth, who died in infancy, Solomon H., who died in 1868, Oren B.,who 
died in infancy, and Sarah E., who died in 1861. He married for his second 
wife, Corneha Dorman, April 3, 186 1. William F. resides on road 32. 

George Montague, son of Luke, was born in this town, September 14, 
1804, was engaged in mercantile pursuits until 1828, and was then connected 
with Mt. Pleasant Classical institution as accountant and instructor in book- 
keeping until I S3 1. He married twice, first, Mary A. Parsons, and second 
Sarah M. Seely, November 20, 1856. He has four children, George, William, 
Charles C. and Mary E. 

Willard Haskins was born in 1804, married Rebecca Howard, of Amherst> 
in 1827, and had born to him five children, namely, Esther C, who died in 
1847, Jonathan H., Henry W., Ira C, who died in 1835, ^"d James E. He 
died in 1834. Jonathan H. was born in 1830, married Louise Graves, of 
Hinsdale, Mass., and has had born to him two children, John W., who died 
in 1884, and Mary L., who lives at home. Mr. Haskins resides on road 18, 

Henry W. Haskins was born in this town November 14, 1833, married Har- 
riet Newell, November 30, 1854, and has had born to him five children as fol- 
lows : Hattie E., born February 24, 1857, married Willie E. Cushman ; Sarah 
E., born October 7, 1858, married Loren Shumway, November 3, 1881 ; Ida 
L., born June 23, 1864, married Erwin W. Andrevvs, October 5, 1883 ; Charles 
H., born July 7, 1869, resides in Springfield; and Esther L., born February 
24, 1876. Mr. Haskins is engaged as a contractor and builder, and resides 
on road 2. 

Simeon Clark, son of Increase, was born October 20, 1720, married Re- 
becca Strong, moved to Amherst, and reared twelve children. His son, Simeon, 
born in 1752, married twice, first, Lucy Hubbard, who bore him three chil- 
dren, and second, Irene Lewis, who bore him five children. Simeon, son of 
Simeon and Irene (Lewis) Clark, was born October 15, 1807, married Mvra 
Cowles, and reared nine children, namely, Juliette, Asahel L., Royal W., Zil- 
pha C, Edwin W., Emily M.. Emily A., Albert S. and Edwin W., 2d. He 
was justice of the peace thirty years, served as selectman, assessor and over- 
seer of the poor for many years. He was a deacon of the First church six- 
teen years. His wife died June 8, 187 1, and he died July 31, 1883, aged 
seventy-six years. His son, Edwin W., was born December 2, 1842, married 
twice, first, Louisa M. Kellogg, December 8, 1868, who died July 18, 1869, 



146 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



and second, Lizzie L. Henry, February 28, 1872. He has had born to him 
three children as follows: Walter Edwin, born April 13, 1874, and died July 
t8, 1875; Howard E., born November 17, 1876, and Fanny L., born July 
29, 1881, died January 8, 1883. 

William Smith Clark, son of Dr. Atherton and Harriet (Smith) Clark, was 
born at Ashfield, Mass., July 31, 1826, received his early education there and 
at Williston seminary, and graduated from Amherst college in 1848. He 
then returned to Williston seminary, where he taught the natural sciences 
from 1848 to 1850. He then went abroad, and for the next two years de- 
voted himself to the study of chemistry and botany at Gottingen, Germany, 
receiving from that university the degree of Ph. D., in 1852. On his return 
to this country, he was elected to the chair of chemistry, botany and zoology 
in Amherst college, performing the duties of that position from 1852 to 1858, 
and of the chair of chemistry alone from 1858 to 1867, when he resigned to 
accept the presidency of the Massachusetts Agricultural college. This, and 
the professorship of botany and horticulture, he held from 1867 to 1879. ^^ 
then became interested in the project of a " floating college," and being made 
president, bent all his energies during the years 1879 and 1880 to developing 
this scheme of uniting scientific study with a trip around the world. It was 
abandoned, however, on the sudden death of its originator, Mr. Woodruff. 
He subsequently engaged in mining operations ; and the last few years of his 
Hfe were spent quietly at his home in Amherst, vainly battling with the disease 
which had already sapped the foundation of his life. He died at his home, 
March 9, 1886, from an affection of the heart. He served in the late war as 
major and colonel. He married Harrietta Keopuolani Richards, daughter of 
Rev. William Richards, of the Sandwich Islands, and adopted daughter of 
Samuel Williston, of Easthampton, May 25, 1853. His children were as fol- 
lows : Emily W., who married Frank W. Stearns, of Boston ; Atherton, Fan- 
nie, who married William F. Stearns; Mary R., Eliza, Edith, Hubert L. and 
Bertha. 

George Nutting married Julia Hastings, in December, 1809, resided in 
Amherst, and had born to him nine children, namely. Eh, Julia, Judith, John, 
Mary, Maria, Anna, Harriet and Amelia. He held many town offices, and 
served as town representative in 1833 and 1836. He died in 1838, aged 
fifty-one years, and his widow died in 1883, at the advanced age of ninety-six 
years. 

Richard B. Bridgman was born in Amherst, January 27, 1817, and married 
Mary, daughter of George and Julia (Hastings) Nutting, March 22, 1843. 
He reared ten children, namely, Herbert L., Helen F., Raymond L., Arthur 
M., Loraine H., Mary L., Lauren A.. Gertrude L., Clara A. and Amy S. He 
was engaged as a farmer, and in 1852 located on the place, on road 44, where 
his widow now resides. He died July 27, 1882. 

Chester E. Marshall was born in Amherst, May 18, 17^4, married Orinda 
Cowles, and had born to him six children, viz.: Electa, Joseph E., Mary, 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 147 



Elvira, Sarah D. and Ansel C. The last mentioned was born August i8, 1816, 
married Lucy C. Palmer, December 12, 1861, and has had born to him two 
children, John F. and Mary E. The former married Nellie R. Kentfield, 
March 28, 1883. Mr. Marshall resides on road 2. 

Oliver M. Clapp, great-grandson of Persevered Clapp, who was one of the 
first settlers of Amherst, was born in this town, October 6, 1802, married 
Mary Ann Reed, May 10, 1826, and has had born to him three children, 
namely, Anna, Elizabeth and Charles D. 

Cyrus King was born in Amherst in 1804, married Miss A. Adams, and 
had born to him seven children, viz. : Woodbridge A., who was born April i, 
1832, married Sophia Slate, and has had born to him two children, Henry 
W. and Flora J. ; Clarence, who died at the age of six years ; Ebenezer A., who 
was born March i, 1839; Israel, Edward P., Ella C. and Emma C. Eben- 
ezer A. married Clara Hawley, April 11, i860, and has two children, Hattie 
J. and Frank A. Mr. King has served as selectman three years, and resides 
on road 38. 

Warren F. King was born in Shutesbury, Mass., October 30, 1835, mar- 
ried Catherine S. Cutter, October 6, 1864, and has one child, Herbert F., 
born September 18, 1865. Mr. King served in the late war, in Co. D, 27th 
Mass. Vols., and was confined as a prisoner in Libby prison. 

Isaac N. King was born in Amherst, September 12, 1841, married Mary 
E. Dickinson, December 20, 1864, and has had born to him two children, 
Homer C, born December 27, 1870, died February 9, 1877, and Mary A., 
born August i, 1878. Mr. King located on road 21, where he now resides, 
about 1864. 

Reuben Roberts was born July 26, 1805, and married three times, first, 
Mary Smith, of Amherst, who bore him four children, namely, William L., 
Manning, Catherine, and one child who died in infancy. He married for his 
second wife, Hannah Goddard, of Athol, Mass., August 4, 1841, who died 
July 13, 1850. She was the mother of four children, viz.: James B., Ann 
Janet, HoUis W. and Lizzie T. He married for his third wife Lydia D. 
Endicott, June 17, 1851, and had born to him two children, Mary E. and 
Catherine. James B. was born in North Amherst, October 8, 1843, married 
Lucy M. LTfford, May 13, t868, and has three children, Reuben, born Octo- 
ber 5, 1874, Esther L., born December 26, 1875, ^"^ Angle B., born April 
22, 1879. 

Lieut. Ebenezer Eastman was born May 31, 1749, married Mary Dickin- 
son, November 12, 1772, and served in the Revolutionary war, after v.'hich he 
settled down as a farmer. He died November 7, 1820, and his widow died 
March 16, 1825. His son Elijah was born in this town, March 13, 1777, 
married Rebecca Hall, October 24, 1802, and reared seven children, viz. : 
Elijah L., Caroline, William, Samuel, Austin, Zebina and Baxter. Austin 
was born on the homestead, October 5, 1812. married Mary Spear, October 
6, 1833, and has had born to him eight children, viz. : William E., Charles 



148 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



A., George H., Edgar E., Lyman A., Mary C, Martha E. and Willam N. 
Charles A. was born January 13, 1843, married Clara Wyatt, March 6, 1865. 
William N. was born December 6, 1858. married Eva E. Ward, December 
25, 1879, and has two children, Estella A. and Ethel H. Baxter, son of 
Elijah, was born January 9, i8r8, married Mary E. Bentley, and died De- 
cember 9, i860. His son Edward B. was born June 9, 1847, married Es- 
ther Wyatt, December 13, 1868, and has had born to him four children, viz. : 
Mary B., Fannie M., AUie T. and Lucia K. His mother resides with him 
on road 2. 

Horace Hawley was born in Amherst, March 16, 18 14, married Sarah A. 
Haskins, May 2;, 1840, resides on road 21, and has had born to him ten 
children, viz. : Mary A., Susan, who died February 21, 1846, Charles, Susan, 
Frank E., Laura, who died March 28, 1864, Adeline, Ellen, Herbert and 
Dwight. Frank E. was born January 27, 185 1, married Lucy A. Reed, 
March 31, 1875, ^"^^1 has one child, Alice L., born June 4, 1884. 

Henry Hawley was born in this town, October 25, 1842. married Mary 
Kellogg, June 2, 1869, and resides on road 21. He served in the late war, 
in Co. D, 27th Mass. Vols. 

Gideon S. Hawley was born in Floyd, N. Y., June 29, 1827, came to this 
town when an infant, and married Rachel H. Quance, November 26, 1852. 
He has had born to him seven children, viz. • William S., Mary M., who died 
in infancy, John J., Alice M., Henry E., who died at the age of five years, 
George L., and Edwin B., who died in infancy. He lives on road 21. 

William Ingram was born in this town. May 12, 1816, married Betsey S. 
Parker, and had born to him two daughters, Harriet L., born June 12, 1841, 
and Jennie B., born May 2, 1843. He died August 20, 1878. His daugh- 
ter Harriet married David Guertin, in i86o. The latter was born in Canada, 
and came to this town about 1854. He was engaged in the wholesale meat 
business for many years, in which he was very successful. He had born to 
him four children, two of whom are living, Albert, born June 6, 1865, and 
Solomon, born January 16, 1868. He died July 23, 1885. His widow con- 
tinues in itfC'-iMfflBies^iii ^ilch hetras engaged. ^ 

John Guertin was born in Canada in 1834, and came to this town when 
he was sixteen years of age. He married Lizzie E. Sears in i86o, and has 
had born to him three children, Edward A., Cora L., who married Frank 
Ingram, and Lena M. 

Zacheus C. Ingram was born in Amherst, September 17, 177 1, married 
Sarah B. Hastings, and reared eleven children, namely, Solomon B., Susan 
C, Caroline, Mary B., Robert, William, Aaron, Lucius, Albert B., Sarah B., 
who died in infancy, and Sarah. Lucius was born in this town, November 2, 
1823, married Lydia M. Brown, and has reared five children, namely, Eliza- 
beth M., Lucia, Albert B., Mary L. and an adopted daughter, Carrie C. Mr. 
Ingram is engaged in the manufacture of brooms, and resides on road 18. 

Jonathan Thayer was born in Weymouth, Mass., married Mary Dewey, 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 149 



and came to this town in 1806. He had born to him two children, Charles 
E. and Dwight R. The former died November 2, 1872, leaving a widow and 
one child, Herbert D., who resides in North Amherst. Jonathan died Feb- 
ruary 19, 1856, and his widow died five years after. Dwight R. was born in 
this town, October 15, 1842, married Emily Bishop, February 14, 187 1, and 
has reared five children, viz.: AUie R., Charles H.,. Pearly E., Mary E. and 
Katie M. 

Joseph W. Dana was born in this town, January 26, 1826, married Marion 
A. Nash, of Williamsburg, July i, 1846, and has had born to him seven chil- 
dren, viz.: Clarence W., Joseph L., Clara, who died December 7, 1858, 
Edward N. and George H. (twins), both of whom died in 1858, Minnie L. 
and Herbert N., who died in 1871. Mr. Dana is engaged in farming, and 
resides on road 47. 

Austin Loomis, son of Thomas, was born in Bolton, Conn., June 19, 1789, 
married twice, first, Hannah Dickinson, February 2, 1820, and second, Mary 
A. Russall. He came to Amherst about 1733, and located on the place 
where his son Austin D. now resides, on road 3. The latter was born here 
September 4, 1828, married Martha Newell, May 25, 1854, and has had born, 
to him five children, namely, Francis E., Nellie F., Charles E., Harriet N. 
and Herbert R 

Sarah S. Loomis, widow of John M., was born in Irving, Mass., September 
13, 1821, married Mr. Loomis October 25, 1843. They have had three chil 
dren, namely, Marietta, born February 14, 1847, George M.,.born September 
18, 1849, died August 34, 1885, and William B., born October 25, 1857. 
Mr. Loomis, who was born March 21, 1823, died December 12, 1862. 

Emeline G. Elmer, daughter of Joseph and Ester Douglass, was born in 
Amherst, October 31, 183 1. She was married twice, first, to Benjamin Wright, 
and second, to Charles Eimer. She is now a widow, and resides on road 45. 

Ptolemy P. Cutler was born in Amherst in 1837, and married Clara M. 
Hubbard, August 15, i860. He enlisted in Co. D, 27th Mass. Vols., as 
a private, was promoted to sergeant, was fatally wounded at the battle of 
ColJ JTSFbor, and died iTTfRe field hospital June 4, 1864. 

L. M. Hills, the pioneer designer, and successful manufacturer in the palm 
and straw hat trade in Amherst, was born in EUington, Conn., in 1803. He 
came to Amherst, Mass., in 1829, and commenced business in the manu- 
facture of palm hats. The first year his receipts were about $5,000.00, while 
those of the year 1871, were about $300,000.00, furnishing employment to 
over one hundred hands in the shops on the home grounds, and to probably 
six hundred hands at their homes in the vicinity. As a public man, Mr. 
Hills declined to accept political or town offices, but was first and foremost 
in all enterprises of a beneficial character to town and vicinity, which was 
evinced by his liberality and hearty interest. He was tendered and accepted 
the office of president 6f the First National bank of Amherst, at its organi- 
zation, which he held until his death, in 1872. He was also for a time, presi- 
11* 



15° 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 



dent of the Amherst and Belchertown railroad corporation. Many other 
public enterprises in the meantime received his hearty support and Hberal 
donations ; notably the Agricultural college and First Congregational church 
and parish, as also a fund given by him for poor working women in Amherst 
and Pelham. For several years before his death the sons, Henry F. and L, 

D. Hills, were associated with him in business, and seem not only to have 
acquired his business qualities, but also his untiring energy. 

Oliver H. Curtiss was born in Willington, Conn., March 30, i8ii, came to 
Amherst in 1839, and located upon the farm which he now occupies, on road 
38. He married Emily Hills, November 14, 1837, and has had born to him 
five children, namely, Clara, William (now deceased), Emily, Frank and 
Samuel. 

Nathaniel L. Harlow ivas born in Farley, Vt., July 2, 1816, married Har- 
riet Church, August 28, 1836, and came to Amherst in 1836. He has had 
born to him nine children, as follows : William F., Harriet N., Frederick, 
Henrietta, Julia A., Nathaniel, Norman, who died July 6, 1849, Sarah F., 
who died May 17, 1874, and Mary F. 

Stephen Puffer was born at Berlin, Mass., February 17, 1784, married 
Sally Fosgate, September 15, 1812, and had born to him five children, viz. : 
Reuben G., Sarah E., Stephen P., Charles A. and Gilbert F. Reuben G. 
was born June 16, 1817, came to Amherst about 1839, married Clarissa B. 
Johnson, December 7, 1842, and has had born to him seven children, viz. : 
Ellen Jane, Sarah E., Nancy M., Frank G., Clara B., Alice L. and Herbert 

E. Sarah E., daughter of Stephen, was born August 16, 1819, and married 
Joseph C. Hastings, December 7, 1842. Stephen P., son of Stephen, was 
born June 22, 1822, married twice, first, Eugenia C. Strickland, and has had 
born to him six children, three of whom are living, namely, Charles, F., Eugene 
O., Clarabel L. and Edward S. He married for his second wife, Martha 
Blodgett, May 28, 1872, and has had born to him one child, Estella C, 
born September 24, 1878. 

Jonathan Pierce was born in Shutesbury, Mass., November 3, 1814, mar- 
ried Johanna Kellogg, and came to this town about 1828. He reared two 
children, Nellie S., who was born January 2, 1838, married Roger P. Carlton, 
and died in i860 ; and James A. The latter was born in Amherst, May 24, 
1840, married Ellen J. Puffer, March 17, 1864, and has two children, F. 
Herbert, born June 29, 1867, and John E.,born October 11, 1869. 

Edwin H. Johnson, son of Hervey S., was born in Enfield, Conn., and 
came to this town when he was four years of age. He married Louisa Allen, 
and has had born to him two children, Frederick and May. 

Mrs. Susan A. Lamb was born in Vernon, Vt., August 9, 182 i, and came 
to Amherst in 1840. She was married twice, first, Charles H. Bangs, March 
28, 1866, who died July 30, 1873. She married for her second husband, 
George E. Lamb, February 18, 1875, who died June 14, 1878, Mrs. Lamb 
resides on road 2. 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 151 



Charles E. Hayward, was born in this town, September 23, 1S43, married 
twice, first, Loretta Field, January 20, 1869, who bore him three children, 
Lucius F. (deceased), Lucia B. and Carrie S. He married for his second 
wife Elizabeth A. Smith, and has had born to him one child, Afton S., born 
June 13, 1882. 

Dr. Israel H. Taylor was born in Pelham, Mass., commenced the practice 
of medicine in that town in 1842, and came to Amherst in 1851. He has 
had born to him two children, Helen M. and Abbie F. The former married 
Samuel Curtis, who is employed as a book-keeper in Hartford, Conn., where 
they reside. Abbie F. married C. F. Roper, who is engaged in the manu- 
facture of iron screws at Hopedale, Mass. 

Abraham Ball was born in Leverett, Mass., in 1783, married Martha Field 
in 1803, and reared ten children, namely, Sophronia, Martha, Havilla, Lu- 
cina, Clarissa, Edith A., Mary, Albert, Hoyt E. and Rhoda G. Hoyt E. mar- 
ried Mary Dodge, in 1847, and resides in North Amherst. Albert W. was 
born in 1820, married twice, first, Mary I. Messenger, in 1842, who died in 
1854, and second, Julia A. Kellogg, June t8, 1856. He has one child, Liz- 
zie J., born in 1867. They reside on road 18. 

Gideon Stetson was born in Randolph, Mass., May 22, 1791, married Clar- 
issa Henry, of Shutesbury, Mass., March 27, 18 16, and reared nine children 
as follows : Luther H., Charles T., Mary A., James, Maria, Jeanette E., Will- 
iam B., Adeline M. and John H. Luther H. married Olive F. Upton, of 
New Salem, Mass., and resides in Amherst. Charles married Emily Roberts 
in 1841, and died in 1858, leaving one daughter. James was born in 1823, 
and lives at North Amherst. William B. married Kate Beals, and resides at 
Leverett, Mass. John H. was born in 1829, married Eliza M. Pierce, and 
resides on road 18. 

Richard Baxter Hobart was born in Leverett, Mass., in 1822, married 
Mary E. Rowe, of Sunderland, Mass., May 10, 1843, and had born to him 
three children, namely, Mary L., Alice S. and Arthur E. Arthur E., the only 
one living, was born in Leverett, Mass., March 18, 1854, married Ida A. 
Ferry, January 3, 1877, and has had born to him two children, M. Almyra, 
born June 20. 1878, *and Edward B,, born February i, 1882. He came to 
Amherst from Granby in 1878, and resides on road 18. 

J. W. Hobart was born in Leverett, April 12, 181 7, married twice, first, 
Nancy Macomber, in 1840, and had born to him four children, namely, Nancy 
E., Charles H., Joshua and Ella E. The mother of these children died July 
24, 185 1, and he married for his second wife, Harriet Macomber, a sister of 
his first wife, March 29, 1853, who bore him five children, viz. : George F., 
WiUie C, Lucia B., Ellen M., who married Frank E. Spear, of this town, and 
Mary S. George F. was born August 19, 1854, married Lottie Fortune, Oc- 
tober 5, 1880, and has one adopted child, Mary V., born February 18, 1885. 

Franklin C. Willis'was born in Boston, in 1810, married Tryphosa M. Gunn, 



152 TOWN OF AMHERST, 

in 1838, and came to this town about 1846. He has one child, Flora E., who 
married William I. Marsh, and resides with her father on road 18. 

Lewis G. Cummings was born at Royalston, Mass., May 10, 1807. and 
came to this town in 1863. He married Lorinda Buss, of Dover, Vt., Oc- 
tober I, 1833, and has had born to him six children, viz. : Martha A., who 
married Edwin J. Fisk, of Upton, Mass., (deceased), Sarah J., who died in 
1840, Gusta M., George, ist, George, 2d, and Atta L. 

Lewis A. Bartlett was born in Shutesbury, Mass., June 16, 1832, came to 
Amherst about 1853, and married Abbie P. Dickinson, September 3, 1862. 
He has had born to him two children, Cora A., born December 23, 1865, 
a.nd Clayton A , born July 19, 1868. 

Charles Wiley was born in Sunderland, Mass., September 2, 1847, married 
Clara A. Cook, of Pelham, Mass., November 25, 1868, and has two children, 
Edward E., born November 5, 1869, and Nettie C, born December 25, 
1871. 

H. A. Parsons was born in Enfield, Conn., December 20, i860, came to 
Amherst in 1878, is engaged in farming and in growing fruit, and resides on 
road 2. He married Hattie M. Harrington, April 5, 1882, and has two chil- 
dren, Albert, born June i, 1883, and Emma H., born August 15, 1885. 

John F. BiUings was born in Amherst, June 24, 1852, married Sophia 
Moore, May 10, 1881, and has one child, Samuel W., born May 12, 1884. 
He has a shop located on road 9J, where he carries on carriage painting. 
He also resides on that road. 

Leonard Marsh was born in Hawley, Mass., May 15, 181 1, married Louise 
Parker. November 27, 1834, and came to this town about 1869 and located 
upon the place where he now resides, on road 6. He has had born to him 
eight children, viz.: Jane A., who married Loren L. Ball, Theodore C, Albert 
E., Lucretia P., Joel W., Munroe P., William L and Achsah S. 

Stephen Matthews was born in Leverett, Mass., October 21, 1817, married 
Phebe A. Leonard, May i, 1850, and came to this town about 1856, locating 
on road 10. He has had born to him six children, as follows: Charles W., 
born January 21, 1852 ; Hattie E., born October 19, 1853, died March 25, 
i860 : Flora B., who died in infancy; Flora A., born March 31, 1858; John 
E., born March 17, 1863; and Albert A., born March 14, 1866. 

Dr. William Dwight was born in Windsor, Mass., and came to this town in 
1875. He married Ellen M. Clark, and has two children, Mary E. and Will- 
iam G. The former married Edward Perkins, of Hartford, who died in 1876, 
leaving two children, Henry A. and Edward E. William G. graduated from 
Amherst in 1881, and is associated with W. S. Loomis in the publication of 
the Transcript, a daily and weekly newspaper of Holyoke. 

Jeremiah Stockwell was born in Leverett, Mass., August 15, 1836, married 
Elizabeth Cummings in November, 1855, and has had born to him four chil- 
dren, Mary Jane, Nettie M., Charles L. and Hattie M. Mr. Stockwell served 
in the late war, in Co. D, 27th Mass. Vols. 



TOWN OF AMHERST. T53 



Henry Stearns was born in South Hadley, June 2, 1825, married Jeanette 
Edgarton, of Northampton, May 26, 1849, ^"^ came to this town in 1876. 
He is located on road 10, and is engaged in manufacturing hand-made har- 
nesses. 

J. C. Reed was born in Shutesbury, November 25, 1820, married Miss L. 
B. Cummings, April 16, 1845, and came to Amherst about 1845. In 1849 
he located on road 15, where he now resides. He has had born to him six 
children, viz.: Arthur, Martha M., Willie A., Lois B., Sarah L. and Seth J. 

Nathaniel Cook was born in Pelham, Mass., June 16, 1807, married Bertha 
Ward, and has reared twelve children, viz.: Sarah, Horace W., Henry, Rose, 
Theodore, Smith, Elmyra, Fenner, Elisha, Delphia, Hattie and Mary, all of 
whom are living excepting Sarah, who died in April, 1885. Mr. Cook resides 
in Pelham. Horace W. was born in Pelham, September 10, 1836, married 
Mary N. Stetson, March 4, 1863, and has had born to him three children, 
namely, Charles S., born December 10, 1863, Emily R., born December 18, 
1871, and H. Ward, born September 14, 1873. 

Charles E. Wilson was born in Buckland, Mass., February 3, 1852, married 
Lydia Dickinson, May 3, 1876, and came to this town in 1879. ^^ has had 
bora to him two children, Minnie A., born December i8, 1878, and Caroline 
M., born September 7, 1884, and lives on road 21. 

Charles A. Hyde was born in Amherst, March i, 1831, married Harriet A. 
Dickinson, January 14, 1869, and has two children, Esther R., born Novem- 
ber 13, 1872, and Charles D., born September 29, 1876. He lives on road 21. 

Leprelate Dean was born in Attleborough, Mass., June 22, 18x2, married 
Harriet E. Whitaker, January 26, 1834, and came to Amherst in 1857. He 
has had born to him eight children, as follows: Ellen B., who married Lans- 
ford Gates, and died June 19, 1871 ; Everett L., Mary E., who married Wil- 
lard Kellogg; Harriet A., who married William Benton; Ann Jeanette, 
Mineva A., Herbert A. and Abbott L. 

William F. Goodale was born in this town, February 6, i860, married Hat- 
tie Robinson, of Pelham, Mass., May 10, 1883, and has two children, Austin 
A., born February 6, 1884, and .\nna B., born February 6, 188^, < X, 

Charles A. Shaw was born in Northampton, April 30, 1846, married Fannie 
R., daughter of Edward Bridgman, November 15, 187 i, and has had born to 
him three children, viz. : Frederick B., born April 16, 1876, Ethel E., born 
February 11, 1879, and Charles H., born March i, 1883. He came to South 
Amlierst about 1861, is postmaster, is engaged in mercantile business, and 
has a saw-mill located on road 55. 

Edward P. Pomeroy, son of David and Mary (Atkinson) Pomeroy, was 
born in Hadley, August 16, 1829, married twice, first, Amelia Clapp, who 
was the mother of Edward E. He was engaged in farming and broom man- 
ufacturing, and lived on road 44, where Edward E. now lives. He died May 
17, 1884. Edward E. was born in this town, August 7, 1859, and married 
Flora I. Nevvgeon, of New Haven, December 25, 1865. 



154 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



John White was born in New York city in 1838, and came to this town 
when he was only seven years of age, his father being the first Irish settler in 
the town. He married Bridget Duley in 1856, and his children are as follows : 
Thomas F., John, Mary A., Peter W., George H., Matthew, Kate E., James 
and Martha V. 

J. Eugene Sanderson was born in Franklin county, April 22, 1824, married 
Martha Pomeroy, of Chesterfield, in 1845, and came to this town in 1878, 
locating on road 53. He has reared six children, viz. : Ella F., who married 
Henry Chapin (deceased), Lillian M., who married Newland Merritt (de- 
ceased), Hattie P., who married Willis H. Maxson, and resides in Michigan, 
Mary, Arthur J. and Walter E. 

T. M. Armstrong was born in Windham, Mass., November 3, 1831, and 
married Mary Frances, daughter of Hiram H. and Mary (Dickinson) Allen, 
He came to this town from Montague about 1855. Hiram H. Allen, father 
of Mrs. Armstrong, was born in Bakersfield, Vt., and came to Amherst 
about 183 1, clerked for Sweetser & Cutter five years, and then started in 
business for himself at South Amherst, in the store now occupied by Charles 
A. Shaw. He died at South Amherst in 1851. 

Roswell Howard was born in Washington, Vt., October 30, 1802, and 
moved to this county with his parents when about a year old, they locating in 
Hadley. When eleven years of age his father died, and he came to Amherst 
to reside with his grandfather, Zichariah Hawley. When about eighteen 
years of age he went to work for his uncle, Chester Hawley, at the brick mak- 
ing business, and has worked at that trade ever since. The brick-yard he 
now carries on, at the age of eighty-four years, he has conducted since 1835, 
and is the only brick m.inufactory in town. He married Fanny Hawley, 
August 29, 1824, who died June 30, 1862. The only one of his six children 
now living is Mrs. John Goodale, of this town. 

Mrs. Lucy Crossett, widow of Samuel, was born in North Brookfield, 
March 28, 1786, and was the only child of Joel and Ruth Abbott. She came 
to this town about eighteen years ago on a visit to Dr. Taylor's. She met 
with an accident by faUing down stairs, and was unable to return to her home 
in Prescott. She now resides on High street. She married Samuel Cross- 
ett, May 25, 1805, who died June 13, 1850. Five of their thirteen children 
are living. Mrs. Crossett is now over one hundred years of age. 

Rev. George E. Fisher is a native of Harvard, Mass., graduated from Am- 
herst college in 1846, and from the Andover Theological seminary in 1849, 
He was pastor at Rutland, Mass., from 1850 to 1852, at North Amherst from 
1852 to 1858, at Greenville, N. H., from 1859 to 1862, at Ashburnham, 
Mass., from 1863 to 1867, at South Hadley Falls from 1867 to 1878, and at 
East Amherst from 1879 to 1886. He "removed to North Amherst in 1885. He 
was a member of the general court of Massachusetts in 1867. He married 
twice, first, Harriet B. Holt, of Amherst, May i, 1850, who died in August, 
1858, and second, Ellen E. Kellogg, of North Amherst, September 7, 1859. 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 1 55 



Rev. Charles Crombie Bruce, M. A., son of Charles F. and Mary E. Bruce, 
was born in Peterboro, N. H., February 5, 1854, prepared for college at Ap- 
pleton academy, New Ipswich, N. H., graduated from Amherst college in 
1875, and from the Andover Theological seminary in 1878. He was or- 
dained over the First Congregational church at Rowley, Mass., July 2, 1878, 
installed over the Congregational church in Haydenville, Mass., December 7, 
1882, and was acting pastor of the Congregational church in South Deer- 
field, Mass., from January 23, 1885, to August i, 1886. He married Laura 
Bassett Green, March i, 1874, and has three children, Josephine, Annie E. and 
Martha P. He has resided in Amherst since September i, 1884. 

Edward Tuckerman was born in Boston, December 7, 1817. He passed 
his youth in the same city, fitting for college at the Boston Latin school. He 
graduated from Union college, Schenectady, in 1837, and afterwards gradu- 
ated successively from the Harvard Law school, the regular academic depart- 
ment of Harvard university, and the Harvard Divinity school. Throughout 
his life, which ended March 15, 1886, he retained his interest in the subjects 
indicated by the above university courses, and for a time (1854-58) occupied 
positions as lecturer on history in Amherst college. But his life was mainly 
devoted to botanical investigation, more particularly to the investigation o^ 
the difficult order of Lichens. In May, 1854, he married Sarah Eliza Sigour- 
ney Cushing, of Boston, and the same year they removed to Amherst, where 
Mrs. Tuckerman still resides. Prof. Tuckerman 's most important works are 
his Emimeratio Alethodica Caticum Quattmda?n, the elaboration of the diffi- 
cult genus Potamsgeton, the Synopsis oj the Lichens of New Efjgla?id, Lich- 
£nes A?fiericance Septentrionxles Exsiccati, and finally his Genera Lichenum 
and Synopsis of North American Lichens, Part L The latter two embody 
the results of long and assiduous critical study by one whose genius as a 
systematizer is unquestioned, and they will secure for their author the grate- 
ful remembrance of all who shall hereafter tread the maze of American 
lichenology. 

VILLAGES. 

There are three post villages in the town at present. The Amherst post- 
office is located in the largest and most important of the villages, and is near 
the town's geographical centre. This village is on an elevation of land which 
includes the site of Amherst college and the common — a pretty stretch of 
green beneath stately elms lying in the very heart of the town, and which is 
under the care of a village improvement society. The village stores, public 
halls and hotels are on three sides of this common, Amherst college and 
various club houses and residences completing the enclosure. The main 
street runs from this village to the Pelham line, passing through the East vil- 
lage, where is a Congregational church, a store, etc. 

The North Amherst postoffice is near the northern boundary of the town, 



156 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



and accommodates many of the residents in the adjoining extremities of the 
towns of Sunderland and Hadley. At the village is situated the North Con- 
gregational church, two stores and a neat brick school-house, containing also 
a public library. Mill river passes just above this village, on its way from its 
source in the Shutesbury hills to its place of deoiichure into the Connecticut 
river, just below the village of North Hadley. This river gives the town its 
principal water-power. Fort river, which rises in Pelham hills and enters the 
town's eastern limit about two miles below Mill river, flows in a southwesterly 
direction and empties into the Connecticut below the town of Hadley. A 
grist-mill upon this stream, where it crosses the West street, gives the name 
of " Mill Valley" to its vicinity, which lies between two ranges of hills south 
of the center village. 

The postofifice in South Amherst is on the East street, and was established 
in 1838 for the convenience of the farming population of this vicinity. There 
is a Congregational church here also, as well as a store and school-house, 
grouped about a village green. The town farm for the maintenance of the 
town's poor is in this village. The farm was purchased in 1837, and contains 
about one hundred and fifty acres. The buildings were burned by an incen- 
diary fire set by one of the inmates on the evening of January i, 1882, and 
were subsequently replaced by a new and much more convenient dwelling 
house and out-buildings. Henry C. Dickinson is the present warden, and 
his wife the matron. In 1885-86 there were twelve inmates of this institution, 
but the selectmen reported the whole number of those receiving town aid that 
year as fifty-three. 

In addition to the post villages there is a pretty village in the northeast 
corner of the town, known as "North Amherst City." There is a Methodist 
church, a brick store, and a group of clustered dwellings here. The North 
Amherst station of the New London Northern railroad is also in this village, 
and in the days during and succeeding the war, when business was driving at 
the paper-mills, upon whose wages this village depends, the place was quite 
thriving and successful. Of late years business has fallen off and the popula- 
tion and the value of real estate has somewhat decreased. 

BANKS. 

The Amherst Savings bank, largely through the efforts of the late I. F. 
Conkey, Esq., was incorporated April 15, 1864, and commenced business 
with a deposit of fifty dollars, on January 2, 1865. The second deposit, made 
on the following day, has never been withdrawn. At the end of the first 
year's business there was on deposit sixty-eight hundred and sixty-two dollars. 
The following statement, made on August i, 1886, will show how largely the 
bank has prospered during the twenty-one years of its existence : — 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 157 



Liabilities. 

Deposits $ 983,918.51 

Profit and loss 28,775.69 

Guaranty fund 23,270.15 

$i>o35.964-35 
, Assets. 

Mortgage notes $ 509,878.00 

Town notes 30,700.00 

Parish notes 4;733-55 

Personal notes 46. 1 75.00 

Collateral notes 3,200.00 

Bank stock 186,383.51 

City and town bonds 87,120.00 

Railroad bonds 85,000.00 

Real estate 1 5,000.00 

Deposits in banks on interest 62,000.00 

Cash on hand 5,774.29 

$1,035,964-35 
The officers of the institution are E. F. Cook, president ; C. S. Carter, 
treasurer ; and F. A. Hobbs, assistant treasurer. 

The First National Bank of Amherst was organized in January, 1864, with 
a capital of $51,000.00, which has since been increased to $150,000.00, with 
a surplus fund of $50,000.00. Leonard D. Hills is president of the institu- 
tion, and R. J. D. Westcott, cashier. The first president of the institution 
was Leonard M. Hills. 

INDUSTRIES. 

Roberts &= Co.'s mi/I. — The earliest manufacturing in Amherst was done 
in Rowe's paper-mill, at North Amherst. This mill was erected as early as 
1795. Soon after 1800 Rowe sold out to Roberts & Cox, and about 1809 
the firm became the Roberts Brothers. Reuben and Ephraim Roberts were 
both natives of East Hartford, Conn., and became influential and prominent 
citizens in Amherst. Reuben was one of the town's representatives in the 
legislature in 1835. Their mill was located just above the City, on Mill river. 
Rags for this mill were gathered through all the western part of the state, and 
the products of the mill were carried by teams to Albany for market. The 
early paper makers of North Amherst did all their work by hand, with the 
exception of reducing the stock to pulp, for which purpose rude machinery 
was employed. From 1795 paper of one kind or another has continued to 
be made at this place, the present proprietors being two brothers, Lowell and 
Manning Roberts, who succeeded their father, Reuben Roberts, Jr., the son 



158 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



of the Reuben Roberts who bought out the original owner, Rowe. The firm 
now manufactures straw and leather- board, turning out about one ton per day. 
D. Graves &= Co.'s sash, door and blind factory. — In i8og, or thereabouts, 
the first cotton-mill was erected in " Factory Hollow " at North Amherst, a 
short distance below the mill of the Roberts Brothers, and at a place where 
there is an excellent water-privilege. This mill, a three story wooden build- 
ing, was erected by Ebenezer Dickinson, a. farmer who lost all his property 
in an attempt to spin cotton yarn by machinery. Tradition avers that in 
his disappointment he vigorously " cursed " the Hollow, and subsequent mis- 
fortunes, neither few nor far between, have frequently been attributed to 
" Ebenezer's Curse." In 1S12 a company (at the head of which was Gen, 
Ebenezer Mattoon) put $10,000.00 into business in this mill, manufacturing 
cotton yarn and putting it out in families to be woven on hand-looms. No 
one of the company had any practical knowledge of the business, and every 
dollar of the capital was finally lost. One or two others undertook to revive 
the enterprise, but without any marked success. About 1835 Elnathan Jones 
obtained possession of the property and ran the mill until 1842, when it was en- 
tirely swept away by fire. The mill was re-built by Elnathan Jones and his broth- 
er Thomas, the latterof whom wasatone time owner of three mills on this stream 
and a manufacturer of Kentucky jeans. In 1850 "The Amherst Manufacturing 
Company" was formed, consisting of Edward Dickinson, L. M. Hills, G. 
Cutler, William Kellogg and others, with a capital of fifty thousand dollars. 
This company bought out Jones, but, like General Mattoon's company, they 
lost their capital and the property passed back into the hands of Jones, who 
sold it to Dana Wheelock. Not long after this the mill was again destroyed 
by fire. The next enterprise in this place was the hat-finishing business, un- 
der charge of L. M. Hills. His mills were washed away in the freshet of 
1863. Undismayed by this succession of calamities, Ephraim Cushman & Sons 
bought the water-privilege and erected a paper-mill, at which they manufac- 
tured printing and manilla paper. The company was financially ruined by the 
destruction of their mill by fire in 1873, the third disastrous fire on this spot. 
For some time the blackened ruins of the mill, its lofty chimney and huge 
boilers, were an unsightly object to the dwellers in the Hollow, but at last a 
new building was put up, in 1880, by the firm of Graves, Kellogg & Bangs, 
for making sash, doors, blinds and other articles of wood work. The business 
of this firm was originally organized in 1868, and they seem to have broken 
the "spell " of the "curse." They employ ten hands. 

Cushman s paper-mill. — The third mill on this stream was built higher up, 
above the Roberts Brothers' mill, by Peter Ingram, about 1830. It was a 
small woolen-mill and the enterprise was ruined in the disastrous days of 1837. 
New parties undertook to revive the business, but the mill was destroyed by 
fire. Jones & Bradford re-built it in 1845, and it was again burned in 1857. 
Thomas Jones, the senior proprietor, died from the eff"ect of excitement 
brought on by this fire. Ephraim and John R. Cushman, brothers, who had 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 1 59 



been engaged in paper making at a mill still higher up the stream, now called 
^' Cushman's old mill/' bought the water privilege and erected the present 
" Red mill/' just beyond "the City," in 1859. Ephraim Cushman sold out 
when he went into business in the Hollow, and J. R. Cushman & Sons con- 
tinued the business, which is now under the management of Avery R. Cush- 
man, manufacturer of straw and leather-board. He employs fifteen hands 
and turns out about two tons of goods per day. 

S. E. Harringion 6^ Sons wood-ivor king factory. — In addition to the two 
Cushmans and the Roberts mills near " the City " and the unfortuate mill at the 
Hollow, there was a fifth mill privilege on this stream in what is known as 
Westville, where the planing-mill of S. E. Harrmgton & Son now stands. 
Here the Westville Company (William H. Smith, George Cutler, Luke 
Sweetser and Thomas Jones) built a woolen-mill in 1852, and it was burned 
in 1858. William H. Smith and John Wiley then erected a paper-mill on 
this site, but this too was burned, and the privilege remained unused until S. 
E. Harrington moved here from Greenfield and put up his mill for working 
lumber, and took his son, Frank W., into partnership with him in 1882. 
They get out lumber for builders, such as cornices, moldings, window frames, 
etc., and do also a general jobbing business. 

Charles E. Hayward. — Eli Dickinson was the first manufacturer at South 
Amherst. His shop occupied the site of Hayward's present manufactory for 
children's wagons, and made wood faucets, on which he had obtained a 
patent. About 1835 J^^mes Kellogg bought the property and began making 
planes; in 1839 he moved the business to KelloggvUle, where it has been 
carried on for many years by WiUiam Kellogg. Hayward's manufactory was 
established in 1844, by C. & C. F. Hayward. In i860 the firm was changed 
to C. F. Hayward, and since 1865 it has been conducted by the present pro- 
prietor. 

WiUiam Kellogg s plane factory, on road 38, was established by James 
Kellogg, his father, as stated above, about 1835. He carried on the business 
until about 1867, when he retired and the manufactory was taken by his son 
William, who still carries on the business. When the shops are in full opera- 
tion they give employment to twenty men and turn out about $10,000.00 
worth of goods, all kinds of carpenter's planes. 

A. J. Robinso7i s factory. — The site now occupied by Mr. Robinson's man- 
ufactory for children's carriages was first used by Luther Fox, who manufac- 
tured wood faucets. Afterwards Ebenezer Nutting and others made planes 
there. 

Levi E. Dickinson' s wood-work factory. — Mr. Dickinson commenced busi- 
ness in a saw-mill at North Amherst, in 1872, doing all kinds of job work. 
He introduced the box-making business in 1873. Ii^ 1879 he removed to 
Amherst, building a factory fitted up for all kinds of job work, the manufacture 
of house finishings, etc., also all kinds of box-work. He began making boys' 



l6o TOWN OF AMHERST. 



tool-chests and tools in 1882, and has facilities for making from 500 to r.ooo 
chests a week, according to size. 

The Hills Manufacturing Co. — Near the depot the first business enterprise 
was the palm leaf shop of L. M. Hills & Son, which was opened in 1856. The 
site of this mill, which was destroyed by fire in 1880, is still occupied by the 
Hills Manufacturing Company, incorporated 1878, (Henry F. Hills, prest.), 
which employs about two hundred and fifty hands. The material used by 
this company comes from nearly all parts of the world. 

Henry £>. Fearing ^ Ci?., whose first mill was destroyed by fire at the 
same time with Hills's shop in 1880, have now a substantial brick mill, 
where straw hats are pressed and prepared for the market. This is also a 
large concern. 

Edward P. Dickinson s machine and blacksmith shop, on road 26. was 
established about 1835 by his father. Porter Dickinson, who died in October, 
1879. He manufactured hammers, forks and edged tools till the last fifteen 
yeare of his life, when he did nothing but general job work. His son suc- 
ceeded him in 1879, and in 1885 began the manufacture of builders' molding 
planes. 

Albert A. Thayer' s grist-mill -v^l^ purchased by him of the Northampton 
Savings bank in the spring of 1883. The mill is operated by water-power 
and has the capacity for grinding about one hundred bushels of grain per 
day. Connected with it is a saw-mill, which cuts about 200,000 feet of lum- 
ber per year. He employs six men when in full operation. 

A. W. Hairs carriage and wagon shop is located on road 9^. He has car- 
ried on a successful business in this place for the last eight years. He also 
does general blacksmithing, employing from three to six men. 

Stephen P. Puffer's gristmill, located on road 2, was established in 1838 
by M. F. and Sylvester Dickinson. Mr. Putter commenced operating the 
mill in i860. The mill is run by water-power, has three runs of stones, and 
capacity for grinding about three hundred bushels of grain per day. 

O. M. Clapp's marble and granite works was established by Chandler 
Sabin, about 1830. In 1850 Mr. Clapp bought out Mr. Sabin, and has con- 
ducted the business since. The shop is located on road 21. Mr. Clapp is 
now eighty-four years of age, and tiis son, Charles D., manages the business. 

S. B. Matthew's rope manufactory, on road 21, was established in 1876, by 
M. B. Mosier. Mr. Matthews took the business in April, 1886. The walk 
is 140 feet long. He also makes fish lines, window cord, garden lines, etc. 
Turns out about 100,000 feet of rope per day. 

Roswell H. Ho'cvarcT s brick yard, on road 38, was established by him in 
1836. He has since carried on the business, making about 500,000 bricks 
per year. 

Anthony B. Culler's bakery, located on Pleasant street, was established by 
him in 1880, he having moved from Main street, where he had been since 
1876. He has the capacity for turning out sixty loaves of bread per day. 



TOWN OF AMHERST. l6l 



aside from a large quantity of cakes, etc. Mr. Culver came here from Miller's 
Falls, and was the first to establish the bakery business in Amherst. 

Tfie Amherst Co-operative Association was established in March, 1S77. 
Previous to this time, for several years, the local grange had brought their 
goods on the co-operative plan, but at that time they concluded to start a 
store, and formed a stock company under the laws of Massachusetts. The 
stock was issued, 120 shares at $10.00 each. The first agent was F. M. Hub- 
bard, succeeded by George H. Dana, and W. G. Town, the present agent. 

J. L. Loveir s photograph gallery was established in 1850, by a Mr. Shum- 
way,whom ]Mr. Lovell bought out in 1856. In 1879 he took his son, Charles 
O. Lovell^ into partnership with him^ and the firm was thus J. L. Lovell &: 
Son till 18S5, when the latter went to Northampton to engage in the business. 
Mr, Lovell is a master of his profession ; was appointed chief photographer 
at the Lick Observatory. California, to take views of the transit of Venus. 

ECCLESIASTICAL. 

When the general court granted the prayer of Zechariah Field and others 
of the inhabitants of East Hadley, to form them into a precinct, it was upon 
the condition that they should build a meeting-house and settle a " learned 
orthodo.x " minister within three years. This permission of the general court 
being given December 31, 1734, a warrant was issued '"in His Majestie's 
name " for a first precinct meeting, which was held at the house of Mr. Zecha- 
riah Field, October 8, 1735., ^'hen the necessary officers having been chosen 
its first vote was to " Hiere a Menestor half a yeare." and Tohn Ingram, [r. . John 
Coles and Nathaniel Smith were appointed a committee to carry out this vote. 
Probably the East inhabitants had hired a minister for half a year before this, 
for in January, 1732, Hadley voted an abatement of one-fifth of the minister's 
rate or tax to such of them as had been at the expense of hiring a minister; 
and again. August 27, 1733, Hadley voted that if the East inhabitants should 
hire a minister for six months they should have an abatement of one-half their 
assessment for Rev. Mr. Chauncey's support at Hadley. But who the preacher 
or preachers thus hired were we have now no means of knowing. 

In the March following the first precinct meeting another meeting voted to 
raise ^^15 towards the minister's rate and that the remainder of the rate 
should come out of the non-resident money, so that there was probably a 
preacher that year. In September, 1736, the precinct again voted to hire a 
minister for six months ; and the next April it was voted "' to give Mr. David 
Parsons, Jr., a call to Settle in y^ ministry." They also '• voated for his set- 
tlement to give him tow Lots of Land that was Granted heretofore by the 
town of Hadley for the Settlement of the Gospel in this Precinct ; Voated 
2d, to give him Eeighty pounds y*^ first year & five pounds to be yearly added 
until it amounts to one Hundred ; Voated 3d, also towards Building a Dwell- 
ing House to set him up a frame forty foots in Length in Breth twenty-one 



l62 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



foots & two Storys high and Cover sd House and Build y*' Chimney and Cel- 
lor." Mr. parsons did not seem favorably disposed towards this call, for an- 
other meeting was held July 4, 1737, when a committee was appointed "to 
try to get more Lands for his Settlement," and in September following it was 
" Voated to Give Mr. David Parsons, Jnr, one Hundred and twenty pounds 
sallery." The offer was unsuccessful and Mr. Parsons went to Southampton 
to preach November 22, 1737, and the precinct voted to hire a minister for 
five months and to pay him forty shillings a Sabbath. In March, 1738, the 
precinct voted Jonathan Cowls " eight shillings for keeping Mr. Parsons upon 
the Sabbath and John Cowls five shillings for keeping Mr. Parsons' hors." 
This shows that Mr. Parsons had returned to Amherst from Southampton, and 
December 15, 173S, it was voted to raise one hundred pounds for Mr. Par- 
sons for preaching the year past. March 14, 1739, it was voted ''to get y® 
Ministers Lots laid out." On the 12th of July following, they renewed the 
call to Mr. Parsons, off'ering him two lots of land, one in the second division, 
the other in the third, and also ^175 "of money" towards building his house. 
September 28, 1739, another meeting voted that his salary should be 
^100 the first year, and that as the polls and estates of the parish 
increased his salary should increase accordingly until it amounted to ^160; 
but this increase was to come entirely from new families which might move 
into town. Following the record of this meeting in the town books is the 
following : — 

" Hadley 3d Precinct Septemb'r y*^ 28th 1739 • Complied with the Request 
of the Inhabitants of y^ third precinct in Hadley. 

"P'r me David Parsons, Jn'r." 

Mr. Parsons, who thus became the first pastor of Amherst, was born in 
Maiden, March 24, 17 12, was the son of Rev. David Parsons, of Maiden and 
Leicester, was educated at Harvard college, and first preached in Amherst, 
in November, 1735, six years after his graduation at college. The Harvard 
catalogue shows his place in his class of twenty-three members to have been 
the tenth. This place was determined not by scholarship, but in accord- 
ance with the aristocratic customs brought from England by the supposed 
rank and dignity of his family. Mr. Parsons's son (and successor in the Am- 
herst pastorate) graduated at Harvard in 177 1, and was ranked as the twelfth 
in a class of sixty-three members, showing that the family was one of some 
prestige among the early colonists. 

March 19, 1740, the precinct voted John Nash eleven pounds for providing 
for Mr. Parsons's ordination. The Boston iVeufs Letter, the paper of that 
early day, records the date of his ordination Wednesday, November 7, 1739. 
He continued in the pastorate until his death, January i, 1781. He was 
deeply loved by his people, as was shown by the continual increase of his sal- 
ary until it became the largest of any minister's in this vicinity, except that 
of Mr. Hooker at Northampton. It was also shown in the fact that his peo- 
ple continued to pay his salary, though after some delay in spite of his strong 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 163 



sympathy with the English arms during the Revolutionary war. Mr. Parsons's 
wife, Eunice, was the daughter of Gideon Wells, of Wethersfield, Conn. She 
was eleven years younger than her husband, and survived him fifteen years. 
They had eight children, two of whom died in infancy, and one, (the young- 
est son) died while a member of the junior class in Yale college in 1785, 
The oldest son graduated at Harvard college in 1771, and another son mar- 
ried and located in Esopus, New York. Two daughters were married, and 
one, unmarried, survived until 1839, when she died at the age of eighty-four. 

Value of Money. — The mention of Mr. Parsons's salary makes it necessary 
to speak of the fluctuating value of money in the colonial days. The origi- 
nal settlers brought with them English standards in money as in all other mat- 
ters. But in 1652 Massachusetts began to coin "pine tree" shillings and 
pence. These coins had a pine tree on one side and were made lighter than 
the English coins of similar name in the vain attempt to keep them from be- 
ing sent to England. The colonists would purchase Enghsh goods and were 
obliged to pay for them with the lighter coin, which were received by mer- 
chants at a discount of nearly twenty-five percent., twenty pine tree shillings be- 
ing valued at 1 5s. 6d. sterling. Commerce brought the money of other countries 
than Great Britain to Massachusetts, and the Spanish dollars especially seem 
to have circulated. These were first called "pieces of eight," because con- 
taining eight rials, the Spanish rial being worth about twelve and a half 
cents. They were worth 4s. 6d. apiece in English money, but in Massachu- 
setts they passed current at first for five shillings, and after 1672 they were 
made legal tender for six shillings. In 1704, by proclamation of Queen Anne 
regulating the value of foreign coins in the colonies, "pieces of eight," or 
Spanish dollars, Rix dollars (a German coin) and French crowns, of the value 
of 4s. 6d. each in England, were declared to be of the value of six shillings 
each in the colonies, smaller change being correspondingly fixed in value. 
This was already the Massachusetts value of these coins, but receiving thus 
the royal approval, the money came to be called " Proclamation Money." 
The value of money was still further unsettled by the issue of paper money, 
which began in Massachusetts in 1690, to meet war expenses. At first these 
"bills of credits " passed among traders at a httle more than two-thirds of 
their face value, but they finally rose to nearly par value. 

" Province bills" were first issued in Massachusetts Bay in 1702, the excuse 
for their emission being " scarcity of money and the want of other medium 
of commerce." The paper money increasing in quantity, values of course 
decreased accordingly. In May, 1736, the province bills were ordered to be 
equal to coined silver at 6s. 8d. per ounce. One pound in these bills was to 
be equal to three pounds in the bills previously emitted. Thus arose the 
distinction between " old tenor " and "new tenor;" the latter being three 
times as valuable as the former where the face of the bills was for the same 
amount. In November, 1741, a new supply of bills \^as issued in which one 
pound was to be equal to four pounds old tenor. These new bills were now 



164 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



known as "new tenor," and the bills of 1736 were sometimes called "middle 
tenor." It is therefore necessary to know the standard of value in estimating 
any accounts kept in the eighteenth century, and the modern reader needs 
to be on his guard against considering the pounds, shillings and pence of the 
days preceding the Revolution as so much sterling or English money. The 
precinct meeting of September 28, 1739, which fixed Mr. Parsons's salary at 
one hundred pounds with an annual increase until it amounted to one hun- 
dred and sixty pounds, passed the following votes : " This salary we propose 
to pay in province bills of the old tenor, or one-third so much in the 
new, which is to be the only fixed standard until the year 1741. Second, 
after the year 1741, the salary shall be paid in money, if any be pass- 
ing, or some commodity which shall be equivalent to mo.iey upon the 
footing money now stands ; that is to say, if the country makes good 
the credit of province bills agreeable to promise at the rate of six shil- 
ling and eight pence new tenor for one ounce of silver or twenty shil- 
lings old tenor the ounce ; then the above said sums to be settled by that 
standard. But if the country fails of their promise of the value of money 
above said, then the salary to be settled at the rate of twenty-six shillings the 
ounce, in old tenor, or a third part so much in new. The true intent of this 
vote is to set forth the value of money as it now stands and how it shall stand 
in all future payments." The precinct also voted to pay the salary annually 
in the month of March. In 1746 the precinct voted to give Mr. Parsons 
35s. the ounce for his salary, and the next precinct meeting chose a commit- 
tee to agree with their pastor upon the value of money, and a similar com- 
mittee was appointed yearly for some time. In 1750 their agreement is re- 
corded by a vote that the minister's salary shall be raised from 57s. 8d. the 
ounce to jQ^ the ounce. In 1754 voted "to add to the Rev'd Mr. David 
Parsons's salary for this year ninety-two pounds ten shillings old tenor." The 
same vote was repeated for the following year. In 1756 an addition of ;^i3 
6s. 8d. was voted, which was of course in new tenor. In 1757 the addition 
was £1$ "lawful money," or new tenor. In 1759, '60 and '61 the town 
made the entire salary for each year ;^66 13s. 4d. lawful money. At the 
proportion of three to one this was much more than the ;^i6o old tenor 
offered him in 1738 and as the proportion at this time was nearer four to one 
it shows both the increase of the ability of the people to pay and also their 
love for their pastor. In 1762 an addition of ;j^i3 6s. 8d. was voted to the 
usual ;^66 13s. 4d. making the entire salary jQSo, and in 1763 this sum for 
the pastor's salary was voted. The next year (1764) a committee of sixteen 
was appointed "to treat with the Rev'd David Parsons respecting the settle- 
ment of his salary." After interview with this committee Mr. Parsons ad- 
dressed a letter to the town proposing that his salary should henceforth be 
^80 lawful money and firewood or ^93 6s. 8d. without firewood. The dis- 
trict accepted the latter proposal apparently without opposition. Mr. Par- 
sons had stipulated in his letter that if money "should be so scarce as not to 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 1 65 



be a common sufficient medium of trade " then he would accept grain and other 
necessaries of life at the following rate: wheat 3s. yd. i far. per bushel and 
rye at 2s. 5d. per bushel. 

Mifiister's Fireiuood. — By the terms of Mr. Parsons's settlement he was to 
receive his firewood in addition to his regular salary. And even before his 
settlement the precinct voted " yt each head and teame be Improved to get 
firewood for Mr. Parsons." This was during the winter preceding his settle- 
ment. In 1742 it was voted that one load of wood should be valued at eight 
shillings and that the minister's wood should be proportioned upon polls and 
estates; that is, each one was to furnish wood according to his wealth, and 
that, as a basis of determining the amount due, each load should count as if 
a tax of eight shillings had been paid. In 1742 the precinct provided sixty 
loads of wood. To make sure that the minister lost nothing by carelessness, 
a committee was appointed "to observe y*^ loads. In 1743 the wood supplied 
to Mr, Parsons was seventy loads, the next winter it was eighty, and it had 
risen in 1749 to ninety loads, and in 1751 to one hundred loads. The his- 
torian of Hadley (Mr. Judd) declared, "I never found in any records a min- 
ister who consumed as much wood as Mr. Parsons." He estimates each load 
to have been from two-thirds to three-fourths of a cord. Usually the pre- 
cinct voted a sum of money for the procuring of this wood, the different 
sums appropriated indicating rather the fluctuating value of money than any 
change in the price of wood. In 1742 and '43 the wood was valued at 
eight shillings per load. In 1750 the value was three shiUings per load, the 
former price being in old tenor, the latter in new tenor or lawful money. In 
1763 the price was fixed at eighteen shillings per load, old tenor. In 1745 
the precinct appropriated ^40, old tenor. In 1747 Dea. Ebenezer Dickinson 
was given ;^36 for providing this wood ; the next year Nehemiah Strong sup- 
phed the wood and received /^5i. In 1749 the precinct appropriated ;^i 22 
I OS. for the minister's firewood while a year later the appropriation was ;^i3 
los. "lawful," thus bringing into sharp contrast the different values of old and 
new tenor. The town ceased to supply the minister's firewood in 1764 as 
recorded above. 

First Meeting House. — The first vote after choosing officers at the first 
precinct meeting was to hire a minister. The second was " to Build a Meat- 
ing House, forty-five foot in Length and thirty five in Bredth." There seems 
to have been quite a difi"erence of opinion as to the best place for locating 
this house of worship. The meeting which voted to build decided to " Set 
sd house upon the Hill East of Jno. Nash's House," and appointed a build- 
ing committee. The next month the precinct voted to change the location 
of the house and also chose a new committee. A month later a third loca- 
tion was assigned, but apparently little or nothing was done (although in 
March, 1737, it was voted to frame, raise and cover the meeting-house " this 
year ensuing "), for a special meeting of the precinct, held November 14, 1738, 
voted to set the house in the place designated by the first meeting held more 
12* 



1 66 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



than three years previously, October 8, 1735), and accordingly the first meet- 
ing-house was erected near the site of the present college observatory. The 
location being finally determined, rapid progress was made for a time. De- 
cember 15, 173S, the precinct voted nineteen pounds to Thomas Temple for 
framing the meeting-house, and three pounds seventeen shillings to Evene- 
nezer Kellogg ''for Rum & Sugar," which indicates that there had been " a 
raising." After this the work apparently dragged. A building committee 
was annually chosen, and in 1740 " y^ former Commity " was instructed " to 
go on wt y° work." In 1741 a committee was appointed to proceed in finish- 
ing the meeting-house " so farr as thay think best," and in March, 1742, the 
meeting house was "so farr" completed that a precinct meeting was held in 
it. March 25, 1743, it was voted to provide fastening for the meeting-house 
doors, and to secure the windows ; also " to Aaron Warner thirty shillings to 
sweep the Meeting House and to give a Signe when to go to Meeting for one 
yeare." A year later ten shillings old tenor was appropriated for sweeping and 
twenty-eight shillings old tenor ''to Sound y^ Signal." November 3, 1744, it was 
voted to finish the outside of the meeting-house. Six years later (1750)" Voated 
to provide Glass to Mend y* Meeting house windows," and December 2, 
1751, thirteen years after the raising, it was voted "to finish y^ Meeting 
House this yeare Ensuing," and a committee of five was appointed " to se sd 
House finished." Apparently the work was now accomplished for January 23, 
1753, the precinct appropriated ten pounds lawful money to pay for '' finishing 
the meeting house." 

An annual appropriation was required for sweeping the meeting-house and 
" to give y*^ signel when to meet upon y® sabbaths and Lectures." What this 
" signel " was is shown by the vote in 1746 " to Give John Nash forty shillings to 
sound y^ Kunk for this year." " V Kunk " was of course a conch shell, and 
the appropriation for blowing it varied as the value of money changed. In 
1748 it was twenty-eight shillings old tenor, the next year thirty shillings, the 
next forty shillings, while in 1750 it was two pounds fifteen shillings ; 
in 1751 it required ^4. in old tenor "to blow the Kunk," and fifteen 
shillings more to sweep the meeting-house. In 1752 the appropriation was 
ten shillings eight pence, while in 1754 it was seven pounds old tenor for 
sweeping and giving the signal. 

J*e7vs and Seating. — The first recorded mention of a pew in this meeting- 
house is m the vote of March 16, 1741, when it was " Voated to build a Pue 
for y*^ Minister's Wife, whare y*' Rev'd Mr. David Parsons Shall chuse." Pews 
were considered aristocratic, and their introduction into many churches was 
violently opposed by the common people, who sat upon benches in assigned 
seats during the services. November 3, 1744, the precinct voted to build two 
pews, one on the women's side and one on the men's side, and a limited per- 
mission to build pews at their own expense was given "'to sum particular per- 
sons." Probably this vote excited some feehng, for a month later both these 
votes were revoked. It was, however, voted to build pews round the sides of 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 1 67 



the meeting house, and four years later the meeting voted to raise one hun- 
dred pounds toward building pews. 

It is possible that this vote was not carried into efifect, for August 9, 1753, 
it was voted to make four pews "where the hind seats are," and the next 
spring Ebenezer Dickinson, John Nash, Jr., and Joseph Church were given 
" Liberty to Build a pue whare the two hind seats are, in the front gallery on 
the mens side upon thare own charge." March 20, 1759, five persons were 
allowed to build a pew " over the stairs in the gallery on the mens side, if it 
didn't hinder passing in the attics and up and down stairs," and December 
19, 1763, a limited permission was given to twelve men, six of whom wrote 
"Jr." after their names, to build a pew ''in the place of the two hind seats in 
the upper, Teer in the Gallery." This is the last recorded permission to indi- 
viduals to build pews in the old meeting-house. 

Amherst was no exception to the rule of heart-burnings, jealousies and diffi- 
culties caused by attempts to "seat the meeting-house." The attempt to 
assign persons to certain seats, an attempt apparently made in every one of 
the ancient churches, could not fail to provoke human nature into some mani- 
festation of dissatisfaction. The feeling in Hadley Third Precinct upon this 
matter is not recorded ; but that there was bitter feeUng no reader of the 
records of the town can doubt. The first vote on this subject was passed 
August 3, 1 749, when it was " Voated to Seate y* Meeting House, and to Seate 
y^ Males togethr and Females together, except y® two pues next y® East End 
the Pulpit. Voted 2*^ that the seators are Guided by the following Ruels, 
that is to say : by Age, Estate and Qualifications ; and for Estates to be 
guided by the Last year's List. Voted 3^ to Make Choise of five meat Par- 
sons to seat y® Meeting House." It was, however, three weeks later before 
the precinct proceeded to choose the " five meat Parsons " who should say 
where each individual should sit in the house of God. The next January the 
precinct voted to seat the meeting-house " ANue," and added four more to 
the committee of five appointed the previous August, instructing them to 
assign the seats according to "Estates, Age and Qualifications." By the first 
vote the choice of seats would go to the aged, by the new vote they were to 
be given to the heaviest tax payers, and which should have precedence, gray 
hairs or a large tax bill, was long a standing question in the precinct meet- 
ings. July 5, 1753, another seating was ordered, and a new committee 
chosen, who were to assign seats by " men's age, estate and qualifications." 
The next precinct meeting increased the committee from seven to eleven, but 
made no change in the rules, but the eftorts of the eleven did not apparently 
satisfy the town, for at the March meeting it was voted " that the Late 
Seators of the Meeting House to Consider if they Can Resonably make any 
alteration in seating the Meeting House," and a year later the same commit- 
tee were instructed to " Make Sum alterations," and the next precinct meet- 
ing voted " that the Seaters last made choise of — Make sum alteration whare 
sd seators think proper." In 1760 a committee to make a new assignment of 



1 68 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



seats was chosen, who was to give preference to age, but two years later a 
new committee was appointed and instructed to give precedence to estate. 
This assignment seems to have held for five years, and when a new committee 
was chosen for another seating (in 1767), no instructions were given them as 
to who should have " the chief seats in the synagogue." In 1771 voted " to 
make sum alterations in seeting of the Meeting Hous," and the warrant 
for the following meeting (March 5, 1771) includes an article "To see 
whether the District will accept of the report of the Com'tee Chosen to Seet 
the Meeting House," and also another " wheather the Destrict will Vote that 
Every Person Seated Shall Take their Seats where they are Seated & to be 
esteemed Disorderly if not & be Liable to Such a fine as the Court Judge 
Proper" — from which it appears that some who were dissatisfied with the 
action of the seaters, had refused to sit in their assigned places, probably 
crowding into seats which they preferred, to the great annoyance of those who 
were assigned there. This was by no means an unfrequent happening in 
other places. What action was taken under this article can hardly be now 
known from the brief entry in the clerk's records, " Voted to accept of the 
Com'tee report in the regulation of the seats in the Meeting Hous." The 
district had already voted " that all persons that had either Children or Pren- 
tices, or any under their care that have seats aseined them in the meeting 
hous, see to it that they take and keep their respective seats unless at any 
particular time they were for some speatial reason invited into an nother seat 
by the oner or oners of the same." In 1778 and again in 1780, the town 
ordered a re-seating of the meeting-house — both times the order of the town 
was to seat by age, estate and quahfications. The last term doubtless refers 
to titles and civic honors which a man may have received ; the man who had 
been appointed to some petty magistracy, or who had received a military title, 
or the degree of some college, seldom failed to claim precedence over his 
neighbor who lacked these "qualifications." 

Church Troubles, and a New Pastor and Church. — Before the Revolution- 
ary war broke out, Amherst was already of sufficient population and wealth to 
lead many to desire the formation of a new church. The "West Street" was 
seven miles in length and well filled homes along its entire length sent their 
representatives to the church in the center of the town, some of them travel- 
ing more than four miles each way on Sunday. In town meetings, when the 
north and south parts of the town were fully represented, they were often 
able to outvote those living in the center by a small majority. Those at the 
ends of the town wished that whenever a new meeting-house became neces- 
sary there might be two such built, one in the north part and one in the south- 
ern part of the town. They felt that as the center people had had the 
church in their midst for more than thirty years, it was no more than right 
that the people who had traveled for long distances each Sunday should now 
have their turn in living near the meeiing-house and let the Center take its 
turn in the Sabbath day's journey to the house of God, 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 169 



The first vote upon this subject in town meeting was taken January 13, 
1772, when the following vote was passed " to Take Sum Measures to divide 
the District into two Pearishes." Upon a similar vote at the following March 
meeting there was a tie vote and it was declared lost. It is not known 
whether this vote was upon some definite "measure to divide the district," 
or was simply upon a renewal of the proposition voted at tlie previous meet- 
ing, but clearly there was ground for much contention when those who clung 
so tenaciously to their opinions as our fathers were so evenly divided upon 
so important a question. The question came up again the next year and 
the district voted "to build two Meeting houses," and refused to grant the 
petition "of Sundry of the Inheabitants to be freed from the charge of Build- 
ing two Meeting Houses." Those who lived near the old meeting-house finding 
themselves in a minority now petitioned the general court (May, 1773) asking 
the court to decide if a division of the district was necessary, and if it was, to 
incorporate them into a new parish ; seventy of the people signed this peti- 
tion for a new parish in the very center of the district. The general court 
deferred action until the following year, when the opponents of this petition 
might present their case. Accordingly, the next town meeting voted that a 
committee should be chosen "to make answer" to this petition, and this com- 
mittee of seven were given discretionary power to do in this matter "as they 
shall think best for the town." At the same meeting the majority still fur- 
ther irritated the minority by voting "to Divide the District of Amherst by an 
East and west line from the Center of the Meeting house as it now stands." 
The town records depart from their usual brevity to inform us'that this vote was 
passed "by a large Majority." This would leave the inhabitants of the Cen- 
ter, whose life had been spent "beneath the eaves of the Sanctuary," on the 
extreme outside of two parishes. Evidently this vote provoked bitter feeling, 
and three weeks later (January 26, 1774) another meeting was held, at which 
the (outside) majority carried a vote to choose two agents to go to the 
general court and endeavor to get the consent of that body to the division of 
the district. They also voted that the town should pay the expenses of 
these men. The minority sent a vigorous protest to Boston, and the general 
court appointed a committee to visit Amherst and report what was the best 
thing to be done. Accordingly, another town meeting (March 14, 1774) 
chose a committee "to wait upon the Courts' Com'tee that is to Repare to 
Amherst to decide the dispute respecting the Division of Amherst." Still 
another meeting, May 23, 1774, voted to send Reuben Dickinson to Boston, 
to hear the report uf this committee and to "Conduct the affear as he shall 
think best for the town." They also voted "to furnish the agent with money," 
but as only seven pounds was appropriated for this purpose it can hardly be 
understood as furnishing a precedent for the amount of money sometimes 
expended in later days to secure a majority in some legislative bodies. The 
town records speak of no further action on this matter, and the excitement 
of the opening war with its discussions of great state questions were of evi- 



170 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



dent relief to those who seemed helplessly in the power of a majority, bent 
upon dividing the town through its very heart. Of necessity the question 
was postponed until it was seen what would be the issue of the war. 

Before the war closed the first pastor of the " precinct," " district " and 
"town" had "entered into his rest," dying upon New Year's day, lySr, a 
few weeks before reaching his sixty-ninth birthday. A town meeting held the 
week following makes no allusion to his death, but the March meeting chose 
a committee to settle with his heirs for salaries due. In May the town ap- 
pointed the selectmen a committee to provide a preacher, and in June, 1781, 
a meeting to consider church affairs passed several votes concerning '• the 
Resettlement of the Gospel Ministry and Ordnances." The town no longer 
took upon itself the decision of the whole question of procuring a pastor, 
but expressed their willingness " to concur with the Church in all proper 
measures," and to this end they chose a committee to act with this committee 
of the church giving them the following instructions : " that when occasion 
requires they shall confer with the committee of the Church and endeavor a 
union and harmony in all measures." They also directed this committee "to 
employ Mr. David Parsons to supply the Pulpit for the present." He was 
the oldest son of the deceased pastor of the church, and had been graduated 
at Harvard college ten years previous. 

In July, 1 781, the town voted to pay the executor oi the former pastor 
"the whole of the salaries Due to him on the first day of May. 1781, in gold 
or silver, with the interest due on the same." But in spite of this vote the debt 
remained unpaid, for in January, 1784, three years after their pastor's decease, 
the town " Voted, That the Treasurer call on the Constables to Pay the Debt 
Due to the Heirs of the Late Rev'd David Parsons for salaries, as soon as 
may be." Still the debt remained unsettled and apparently the executors 
brought suit against the town, for May i, 1786, the town voted to request the 
continuance until the next term of court of " the action brought by the exe- 
cutors of the Rev'd David Parsons, Dec'd, against the town." Still another 
meeting instructed the selectmen " to find how much is Due to the Heirs " of 
Mr. Parsons, and July 13, 1786, the town appropriated the sum of ^250 to 
pay the debts due to the heirs of the late pastor, which doubtless settled the 
matter legally if not satisfactorily. 

This long delay in settling a salary account was no doubt due in part to 
the difficulties which attached to all money transactions in the time of the 
failure of the Continental credit and the depreciated currency of the day. 
Still more was it due to the feeling that Mr. Parsons's iufluence against the 
country in the hour of war had forfeited some part of his claim upon the 
scanty resources of the patriotic and self-denying majority of his people; 
but doubtless the debt would have been paid in less than five years but for the 
complication of church troubles arising with his son and successor. 

We have already seen that the town had instructed its committee to hire 
Mr. Parsons's son to preach for a limited time. A special meeting called to 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 171 



take action in church matters was held September 13, 1781, and voted to 
hire Mr. David Parsons for three months longer. Another meeting to con- 
sider church atfairs was held December 17, when the committee was given " a 
Discretionary power in procuring a preacher " and "Directed as Soon as may 
be to procure a Candidate." January 7, 1782, the town voted Mr. Parsons 
'• five dollars per Sabbath for thirty-nine Sabbaths," which probably repre- 
sents the length of time he had supplied the pulpit. In April following 
there was another special town meeting to take action on church matters, and 
money was appropriated "to Pay Mr. Ely for his services," and Mr. David 
Parsons was invited to preach two months "on probation for settlement." 
Evidently Mr. Parsons was anxious to succeed his father, for that there was 
a decided opposition to his candidacy can hardly be doubted in view of the 
subsequent facts. June 17, 1782, the town " Voted, to Concur with the 
Church in their vote to give Mr. David Parsons an invi'tation to settle in the 
Ministry of the Gospel in this town." " Voted, to Grant him three hundred 
pounds for a settlement, to be paid in the following manner, to wit, one hun- 
dred pounds within one year after his settlement, and one hundred poun'is 
within two years after his settlement, and one hundred pounds within three 
years after his settlement ; also to grant him ninety pounds as a salary for the 
first year after his Settlement, and ninety-five pounds for the second, and one 
hundred pounds for each year afterwards during his Ministry here." Mr. 
Parsons was asked to supply the pulpit during his consideration of this offer. 
Possibly he was not wholly satisfied with the terms offered, for a later meet- 
ing (July 15) voted "To provide twenty five cords of firewood for Mr. Par- 
sons the first year, and to add five cords annually until it shall amount to forty 
cords, which shall be annually provided for him afterward." On the 12th of 
August, 1782, the citizens met in town meeting, when the following letter was 
read to them : — 

"Gentlemen: Inasmuch as you have passed sundry Votes respecting my 
encouragement and support in case I should settle with you in the work of 
the Gospel Ministry, antl as it is always expedient that the meaning of the 
parties in Transactions of this Nature should be well explained and clearly 
understood to prevent any Dispute or misunderstanding between them after- 
wards, I beg Leave to express to you ray sense of the meaning of your Pro- 
posals as I understand them which is as follows, (viz.) The several sums 
which you offer me in Settlement and Salary I understand to be in Silver 
money, Spanish Milled Dollars at six shillings or other Silver or Gold equiva- 
lent; And as for the Payment of my Settlement I understand that you will 
procure me Real Estate to the value, in case any such can be procured, to my 
acceptance ; otherwise that you will pay me the money according to your first 
vote ; And as to the Article of Wood, I understand that the most I am ever 
to expect is forty Cords of fire wood of good quality in a year, unless the 
town shall voluntarily make addition on being satisfied that forty Cords is not 
sufficient for my reasonable use. Give me Leave further to add that I must 
understand it to be your intent, that no advantage shall ever be taken of any 
Paper Currency Depreciated, or of due act of Government that may be passed 
to avoid the fair, honest and equitable intent of the Contract. If this be your 



172 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



meaning, as I have expressed my sense of it, and if nothing more than I 
know of shall appear to prevent, you may expect an Answer in the Affirma- 
tive to the Church's Call. Your afifectionate friend and servant, 

" David Parsons." 

The town accepted the "foregoing" as " tlie true intent and meaning " of their 
votes, and empowered the town treasurer to give security for the payment of the 
promised settlement. They also voted to pay the expenses of Mr. Parsons's or- 
dination and chose a committee ''with a Discretionary Power to make the usual 
and Decent Preparations for the ordination " Probably most ministers of the 
present day would have hesitated even longer than did Mr. Parsons in accept- 
ing a call to which there was such a bitter opposition ; but Mr. Parspns clearly 
knew of all the animosity felt towards himself, and as in the words of his let- 
ter "nothing more than I know of" did " appear," he accepted the call and 
was ordained as secqnd pastor of the church,. October 2, 1782. The brief 
diary of one who attended the ordination tells us that " Rev. Breck 
preached; Hopkins gave charge ; Dana prayed first ; Hubbard, of Northfield, 
prayed to ordain; Newton prayed last; Backus gave right hand." The min- 
isters thus designated were Rev. Robert Breck, of Springfield ; Rev. Samuel 
Hopkins, of Hadley; Rev. John Hubbard, of Northfield; Rev. Roger New- 
ton, of Greenfield ; and Rev. Simon Backus, of Granby. How long they 
deliberated, or whether they consulted the opponents of Mr. Parsons, is not 
apparent. 

At the installation it was already evident that it would be impossible to 
reconcile those who were opposed to Mr. Parsons, to his ministry. The oppo- 
sition to him was chiefly political in the sense that he had, like his father, 
failed to sym.pathize with the spirit which prompted and carried through the 
Revolutionary war. The majority of the town, as we have already seen, 
heartily approved that war ; but they had endured throughout almost its en- 
tire duration a pastor who was strongly opposed to it. Now it was proposed 
to settle another "Tory" minister, and those who can remember the feelings 
called forth by the war of 1861-65 will not wonder that the patriotic majority 
could hardly endure the thought of settling one who sympathized with their 
enemies in the stern struggle. Coupled with this fact were charges against 
the christian character of the new pastor, which, whether true or false, tended 
to prevent a full degree of confidence in him. Evidently Mr. Parsons de- 
sired the call and wanted to hve in Amherst, and many a minister has since 
sympathized with him in this respect ; but perhaps he would not have ac- 
cepted his call nor the council have advised his settlement had it not been 
for the feeling that Amherst was large enough to support two churches, and 
that it was better that those so completely estranged from one another should 
be separated ecclesiastically rather than that the old strife as to the location of 
new meeting-houses and the dividing of the parish should be renewed. It is 
difficult to see on what other basis Mr. Parsons accepted his call or the coun- 
cil consented to his settlement. Tradition declares that the opponents of 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 173 



Mr. Parsons were so nearly a majority of the town that when the question 
between the two parties was decided in town meeting, the vote was taken by 
the two parties passing out ot the meeting house and forming in two Hnes 
in front of the house, and it was not certain that Mr. Parsons's friends had 
the larger number in line until almost the last man had taken his place, so 
nearly were the people evenly divided. At the head of Mr. Parsons's oppo- 
nents was General B^benezer Mattoon, who had rendered faithful service in 
the army during the war, and at this time was one of the influential men of 
the town, a graduate of Dartmouth college in 1776. He was one of the 
most ardent "Whigs" and represented Amherst in the state convention at 
Concord the year of his graduation ; was the Amherst delegate to the con- 
vention of 1779 which formed the state constitution, and was afterwards 
representative, senator, presidential elector, and member of congress. At the 
house of this man there met, September 30, 1782, two days before Mr. Par- 
sons's settlement, an ecclesiastical council "to advise the agrieved party." 
It was made up of the pastors of Southampton, Williamsburg, Whately, Hat- 
field, Northampton and Westhampton churches, with a lay delegate from 
each church except Willianisburg. This council "began to hear" on the 
evening of September 30th. They continued to "hear and consult" through- 
out October ist. The next day they attended Mr. Parsons's installation, and 
consulted until midnight ; October 3d they came to some unknown result 
and dissolved. It is probable that this council advised the formation of a 
new church, for October 15th twenty-two of Mr. Parsons's opponents 
bound themselves together to form a new church. Another council, 
composed of clergy and delegates from the churches of Southampton, 
Montague, Whately, Hatfield and Westhampton met at Amherst Octo- 
ber 2.S and 29, adjourned until November 11, and came to a de- 
cision November 12. In this decision the council approved an offer 
now unknown made to Mr. Parsons and his church by his opponents, but 
consider the proposals made by the church and pastor "unequal and insuffi- 
cient," and they therefore advised General Mattoon and his associates to 
proceed with the organization of a new church unless the old church would 
agree within four weeks to a mutual council. This the old church appears to 
have declined to do, although the town in special meeting " voted, To Con- 
cur with the Church in their Vote to invite an Ecclesiastical Council to look 
into the affairs of the Church and give their advice respecting the Brethren 
who stile themselves the aggrieved, and have withdrawn themselves from the 
Communion of the Church." This council was doubtless an cxparte council 
on behalf of the old church, as the former one had been on behalf of the new. 
In the following year (1783) the legislature formally incorporated " the second 
church and parish in Amherst," and from that time the reunion of the two 
churches became impossible, in spite of many efforts made in this direction 
both during Mr. Parsons's mmistry and after his dismissal. It should be said 
that the old church long claimed that the organization of the new church was- 



174 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



irregular and therefore void of effect ; that Dr. Parsons refused to recognize 
their minister as a brother pastor; and that the old church even went so far 
as to attempt to '■ discipline " the members of the second church as being 
disorderly and unmindful oi their covenant obligations to the First church. 
And it was not until May 21, 1810, twenty-eight years after the trouble 
began, that the First church formally removed the ecclesiastical censures they 
had voted upon the members of the Sc;cond church. Even at this late day, 
after the centennial of the Second church has been celebrated, the Amherst 
visitor may still hear the story of the bitter feelings "the warm contentions 
and unfriendly dispositions, which were lasting," of which Mr. Judd speaks in 
his History of Hadley. These have indeed been now long dead and buried ; 
but their bitterness causes the recital of their curious incidents. It is said 
that the people of North Amherst, most of whom attended the new church, 
desired that a new road should be laid out which should enable them to at- 
tend their church without being obliged to go through the center of the town. 
This was bitterly opposed in town meeting by the First church people, but 
was finally voted. When the road was laid out it was the present Triangle 
street running from the National bank to Henry D. Fearing's residence. The 
First church people refused to unite in the work of making it, and made it a 
point of honor never to set foot upon the street. At a muster the command 
of a company devolved upon an ardent supporter of the Second church, who 
undertook to march his command through this street, only to find that re- 
ligious prejudice was more powerful than military obedience, while the de- 
lighted landlord of the tavern, who was watching the maneuver, offered free 
liquor to those who fell out of the ranks rather than obey the command to 
march through the hated street. 

The incorporation of the Second Parish marked the end of the town's 
support of the gospel ordinances, and the history of both these organizations 
belongs henceforth not to the town as such, but to their respective bodies. 
It is probable that for some time after the formation of the Second church it 
was the larger and the stronger body. 

The First Congregational church edifice is located on the south side of 
Main street. This is a stone structure and the fourth building the society 
has erected. The corner stone was laid September 21, 1867, and the build- 
ing was completed and dedicated September 23, 1868. The second building 
was erected in 1788, third in 1828. The society now has 450 members, with 
Rev. G. S. Dickerman, pastor. 

The Second Congregational clmrch has a fine building located on the north 
side of Main street. It was built in 1839. The society's first church build- 
ing, erected in 1790, stood in the center of old East street. The society now 
has 200 membc;rs, with Rev. Francis J. Fairbanks, pastor. 

The North Cotigregatio?ial Church of Amherst wa.?, org&\\\zQA November 15, 
1826, and is an enduring monument to the memory of Oliver Dickinson, 
through )vhose generosty, zeal and faith the church property was secured, the 



TOWN OF AMHERST. I 75 



people brought to believe in their own power to sustain a church, and a stream 
of good influences put in motion. " Landlord Oliver," as his neighbors called 
the tavern keeper in North Amherst in the early days of the present century, 
was a man of some property in those days of comparative poverty, and being 
childless was able to bestow his property where he set his heart; and never 
vi^as man's heart more firmly " sot " on anything than was his on the church 
in North Amherst. When he was told by objectors that the little village of 
farmers could not maintain preaching, even it a church was formed, he replied 
by drawing up a paper pledging the subscribers to give towards a fund which 
he desired to have sufficiently large to enable the income to pay the modest 
salary required for the parson in those days. This paper he headed with a 
cash subscription of eight hundred dollars, and when he had gathered all the 
cash subscriptions l:e could, he headed another paper giving land with the gift 
of a farm belonging to him. whose value he estimated at a thousand dollars. 
In this way he gathered the fund which the church still holds, and of which the 
income only has been used. This fund is not large enough to make the church 
an entirely free church, but it annually paid one-half of the salary of the first 
pastor, and at present yields about one-sixth part of the money required to 
support the church. Its management is entrusted to the care of a board of 
seven trustees, legally incorporated^ who are chosen by the parish and hold 
ofiice for life. They may be held personally responsible for any loss in the 
property entrusted to them, and thanks to their wise management the fund 
remains intact sixty years after its collection. 

When Oliver Dickinson was told that the gathering of this fund had ex- 
hausted the ability of the people, and that it would be impossible to build a 
meeting-house, he responded by becoming personally liable for every obliga- 
tion for both material and labor requisite to tlie building of a convenient 
house of worship. He personally superintended the entire work, and so 
closely did he inspect every contribution of the people to the erection of the 
house that it was said that he "not only examined every shingle and clap- 
board put upon the house, but also every nail that was to hold them in place, 
in order to be sure that none but the best were used." His determination 
was "that from sill to rafter not one crooked or defective timber should enter 
into the composition of the house of the Lord," and many are the tales told 
of his contests with " such as would defraud the Lord by bringing to his ser- 
vice inferior material." When he had built the house of worship, Mr. Dick- 
inson sold the pews and in this way obtained a partial remuneration for his 
expenditures. The house was of wood and still remains in use by the church, 
though it has been several times extensively repaired and its interior aspect 
greatly changed. Its present value is about eight thousand dollars. 

The parish was not organized until after the completion of the meeting- 
house, and all tiie pew deeds given by Oliver Dickinson described him as 
" being; sole owner and proprietor of a meeting house lately erected." This 
exclusive right enabled him to attach to the property two conditions, which 



176 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



seemed to him and to his associates proper enough, but will hardly meet the 
approval of later generations. His desire for " the best " in the house of the 
Lord extended even to the people who should sit in the pews, and his " im- 
perative dictation " secured the attachment of the following condition to 
every pew deed : " that if the said grantee, his heirs or assigns, or any per- 
son or persons claiming under them, or either of them, shall let the said pew, 
or any part thereof to any negro or mulatto, or in any way admit any negro 
or mulatto to the possession or the occupancy of the same, then the said pew 
or pews, or such share thereof so let or occupied shall in every such case be 
forfeited and become the property of the other proprietors of said meeting- 
house." 

The second condition attached to the meeting-house by Oliver Dickinson, 
was one that expressed his extreme dislike of the Unitarian movement then 
just in the very flush of its early success. He formally deeded the pulpit of 
the meeting-house to the first pastor of the church and his successor " for and 
in consideration of the sum of one dollar," upon the express condition that 
these ministers should themselves believe, and in their preaching should in- 
culcate the '' principles of the gospel as contained in the Westminster Assem- 
bly's shorter catechism, and if he (the first pastor), or they (his succestors), 
shall depart from said standard of faith in their preaching' or belief," the 
deed was to be forfeited. When he deeded his rights in the meeting-house 
to the parish, a similar condition was attached to the conveyance. One 
of like import was inserted in the rules regulating the control of the 
church fund, and the communion service was similarly conditioned, being 
" loaned " to the church while such condition should be observed. Unnec- 
essary and arbitrary as this last condition may seem to-day, there was a good 
and snfficient reason for it at that time, inasmuch as there was a large and 
influential number of persons connected with the parish who were avowedly 
Unitarians in their sympathies, and had property been given simply to the 
parish, it would have at once become a bone of contention between the 
Orthodox and Unitarian brethren. Being placed by this condition out of the 
reach of such contest, the parish was, from the first, heartily harmonious, and 
that even the Unitarians felt no grievance was shown by the fact that they 
gave generously to the new society's treasury, and at the first parish meeting, 
three of the officers chosen to manage the society's business, were Unitarians. 

It was not until several years had elapsed that the parish was able to 
change this proviso in the pew deeds, but when the property passed out of 
the hands of its former " sole owner," and became the property of the in- 
corporated society, the pew owners surrendered their deeds to the parish and 
received in return other deeds in which this condition was omitted, and even 
the once " sole owner and proprietor " was persuaded just before his death, 
in 1843, to consent to this action of the society. The Sunday before this 
sketch was written, the pulpit of the same meeting-house was occupied by a 



TOWN OF AMHERST. 177 



negro who preached with heartiest acceptance and approbation of a large con- 
gregation. So greatly do the times change. 

When the fund for the support of preaching was thus collected, and the 
meeting house ready for service, the church was formally organized and reor- 
ganized by an ecclesiastical council, November 15, 1826. It consisted of forty- 
seven members dismissed from the neighboring churches for this purpose. 
The house was formally dedicated the same day and the next Sunday. 

Rev. William W. Hunt began his ministry. He was a young man, a native 
of the neighboring town of Belchertown. He endeared himself greatly to 
the people, and after "supplying the pulpit" during the winter, he was form- 
ally ordained as first pastor of the church the following March. He was a 
vigorous man, although in feeble health all his time of service here, and the 
success of the church for the past sixty years is largely due to him for the 
wise and sure laying of substantial foundations of success. In his ministry 
of nearly eleven years, he received into church membership one hundred 
and eleven persons. Mr. Hunt was one of the first and foremost in the early 
band of abolitionists, and his zeal in this cause brought upon him the only 
criticisms and ill-will whose memoiy lives in the traditions of the parish. He 
died October 5, 1837, and was buried amidst those whom he had loved and 
served so faithfully. 

Rev. George Cooke was his successor, being ordained as second pastor Janu- 
ary 15, 1839, and continued in office until failing health necessitated his dis- 
missal. May 20, 1852. Mr. Cooke was a thorough scholar and a faithful pas- 
tor. One hundred and five persons joined the church during his ministry, 
and his interest in the young, his influence in the town which he served as a 
committee on school management, and the general love and confidence which 
he won from all who knew him, were all of great advantage to the church 
which still cherishes most warmly a love for its second pastor, although thirty- 
four years have elapsed since his dismissal. Mr. Cooke became president of 
the University of East Tennessee, after leaving North Amherst, and now re- 
sides with his only child at Winchester, Mass. 

The successors of pastors Hunt and Cooke have not continued in office as 
long as these early workers in the church, but the church has never lacked for 
both able and successful ministers. The names of subsequent pastors are, 
Rev. George E. Fisher (1852-1857), in whose ministry occurred the greatest 
revival of the church's history, ninety persons being added to the church in 
a single year; Rev. John W. Underbill (1859-1862), whose work was cut 
short by his early death ; Rev. Daniel H. Rogan (1865-1866), now pastor of 
a Unitarian church in Athol, Mass.; Rev. William D. Herrick (1867-1874), 
whose ministry witnessed another powerful revival, bringing over fifty into the 
church; Rev. George F. Humphrey (1875-1875), whose troubled pastorate 
lasted but a single year! The present pastor of the church is Rev. George 
H. Johnson, a native of Worcester, Mass., and a graduate of Harvard col- 
lege. This is his first pastorate, and he is now in his eighth year of service, 



178 TOWN OF AMHERST. 



having commenced his labors here in September, 1878. He has received 
eighty three persons into the church, his ministry having been blessed with a 
revival of religious interest in the winter of 1884-1885. Mr. Johnson has 
taken great interest in the local history of North Amherst, and his researches 
have recovered to knowledge many little but interesting items concerning the 
early history of the church and village, which v/ere fast passing into oblivion 
by the death of one after another of those who had attained to advanced age. 

The South Congregational church, located at South Amherst, was organized 
October 24, 1824, and re-organized in 1858. The society was organized 
with forty-eight members and now has one hundred and fifty-five. Their 
church building, a wooden structure, was erected in 1825, re-modeled in 1843, 
and quite extensively repaired at other times, so that it is now valued at about 
$5,000.00, and will accommodate about 250 persons. The society's pastors 
have been as follows: Revs. H. B. Chapin, 1825-29; Aaron Gates, 1832- 
37; Gideon Dana, 1838-40; Dana Goodsell, 1841-46; James L. Merrick, 
1849-64; Walter Barton, 1864-66; George Lyman, 1869-73, F. B. PuUan, 
1875 ; Charles S. Walker, 1876, the present pastor. 

The Baptist church, located on Pleasant street, was organized as a branch 
of the New Salem and Prescott church, November 8, 1827, removed its con- 
nection from the church in New Salem and Prescott to the church in North- 
ampton in October, 1830, and was re-organized as the " First Baptist Church of 
Christ in Amherst," August 3, 1832. It then had forty members, and the first 
pastor was Rev. Mason Bell. The church building was erected soon after the 
organization and is still in use, though it has been extensively repaired and 
remodeled several times. The society is now in a flourishing condition, with 
Rev. Jonathan Childs, pastor. 

The Grace Episcopal church, located on Maple street, was organized by 
Bishop Huntington, September 12, 1864, with thirty-seven members. The 
first rector was Rev. S. P. Parker, D.D., who was installed January 11, 1864. 
Services were held in the hall of the old academy until March 2, 1866, when 
they moved into the basement of their new church, which was consecrated on 
September ist of the same year. This is a handsome stone edifice capable 
of seating four hundred and eighty persons. It cost, including grounds, etc., 
$40,000.00, about its present value. The society now has one hundred mem- 
bers, with Rev. Samuel Snelling, rector. 

The Methodist church at '^ North Amherst City,'' was organized March 9, 
1849, although Methodist services v/ere held here by Rev. E. S. Potter and 
others as early as 1842. The church building was dedicated January i, 1845, 
though it has been repaired and enlarged twice since, in 1867-68 and 1874- 
75. The church is now fairly sustained, with Rev. H. A. Jones, pastor. 

The Wesleyan Methodist Episcopal Society, — In 1868 a Methodist society 
was formed at Amherst village, which existed about a year, with Rev. E. 
Frank Pitcher, pastor. In the winter of 1874, Rev. S. L. Rogers, who was 
supplying the Methodist church at North Amherst, formed a class at Amherst 



TOWN OF BELCHERTOVVN. 



179 



with twelve members, and appointed Cummings Fish, leader. In the sum- 
mer of 1875 the church was again organized, Rev. S. L. Rogers being the 
first pastor. The church building, a brick structure, was erected in 1878-79. 
The present pastor of the society is Rev. John Emerson. 

S^. Bridget" s Roman Catholic church. — Previous to 1869 meetings of Ro- 
man Catholics in this vicinity were held at " Palmer's Hall," under the min- 
istration of pastors from Northampton. In that year, however, their present 
lot on Pleasant street was purchased, and in 1870-71 their church building 
was erected. The society's first resident pastor. Rev. Francis Brennan, served 
until the spring of 1878, a period of six years. The present pastor is Rev. 
Father E. M. Barry. 

The Zion Congregational church, (colored) was formed by its first pastor. 
Rev. S. L. Hobbs, in 1876, though the society had been in e.xistence without 
formal oaganization since the autumn of 1862. The chapel, on Parsons 
street, was built in 1868. There is kept up no regularly organized society 
connected with the chapel, however, those (colored) persons who wish to 
unite with the church are simply received into the membership of the College, 
church, which is responsible for the salary of the clergyman in charge of the 
chapel services, the Rev. D. W. Marsh, D.D., a retired clergyman living in 
Amherst. 



BELCHERTOWN, in area the largest town in the county, lies in the 
eastern part of the same, and is bounded north by Pelham, east by 
Pelham, Enfield and Ware, south by the county hne and west by 
Granby and Amherst. The bounds thus roughly stated include, as we have 
said, the largest area of any township in the county, and we might also have 
added among the largest of the state, it being about twelve miles in length, 
north and south, and five miles in width, thus giving it an area of sixty square 
miles. 

Surface. — The surface of the town is amply diversified, affording many 
choice bits of scenery and enchanting views. The town is noted for its 
charming drives, while its salubrious climate attracts many summer residents. 
In our chapter on the county's geology, page 10, we have given a description 
of the geological formation of this section, and outlined the causes which 
carved out the town's present contour. In the northern part the country is 
broken and rough, often rocky, though the soil is usually good and strong, 
but not easily cultivated ; while the soutnern part of the town is more level, 
with considerable sandy plain. Still, the town is hilly throughout nearly its 
entire extent. 

Settlement. — The territory now included within the limits of Belchertown, 
Ware and Pelham was early known as the "Equivalent Lands," and was 



l8o TOWN OF BELCHERTOWN. 



noted as an excellent hunting ground. Later on, when settlements had 
sprung up in the vicinity of Northampton, the highway of travel for these 
settlers in their visits to Boston or points in the eastern part of the colony, 
lay directly across these "Equivalent Lands." In what is now Belchertown, 
near the present Cyrus Bartlett farm, and directly in the course of this high- 
way, was a copious spring at which the travelers used to stop for rest and 
refreshment. Thus the section in that vicinity took on the name of "Cold 
Spring." This name lingered even after settlements had been effected here, 
and hence the territory of Belchertown, down to the time the town was 
legally incorporated, bore the name of "Cold Spring." 

The title of " Equivalent Lands" was obtained through circumstances as 
follows : The first grant made of lands in Connecticut by the Plymouth 
Council to the Earl of Warwick in 1630, and which the Earl soon assigned 
to Lord Say or Seal, Lord Brook and others, was very indefinite ; the terri- 
tory conveyed was very imperfectly known. John Mason, as agent for the 
Colony of Connecticut, in 1661, bought of the Indians all lands which had 
not been previously purchased by particular towns, and made a surrender of 
them to the colony. The colonists then petitioned the crown for a charter 
confirming their rights to the land. In 1662 Charles II. issued his letters 
patent in compliance with their request, and fixed the boundaries as fol- 
lows : — 

" All that part of his Majesty's Domains in New England, in America, 
bounded East by Narragansett river, commonly called Narragansett Bay, 
where the river falleth into the sea; and on the north by the line of Mas- 
sachusetts plantation, and on the south by the sea, and in longitude as the 
line of the Massachusetts colony, running from east to west, that is to say, 
from the said Narragansett Bay on the east to the south sea on the west part, 
with the islands ihereto belonging." 

The north line of this grant, as well as of others, was still undefined. 
Settlements were springing up on the line of the two governments at Enfield, 
Somers, Woodstock and Sufiield, which were supposed to lie within the limits 
of Massachusetts, and its government accordingly extended its jurisdiction over 
them, protecting therp during the Indian wars. This state of. things contin- 
ued till Indian hostilities had subsided, English settlements multiplied, and 
the lands attained considerable value, when it became necessary to ascertain 
the true line between Massachusetts and Connecticut. The survey was 
made, when it was found that the towns we have mentioned lay really within 
the limits of Connecticut. Enfield was granted by the general court of Mas- 
sachusetts to Springfield, in 1648, and in 1670 the court granted Suffield to 
Maj. John Pynchon. Lines corresponding with these grants placed Somers 
and Woodstock within the limits of Massachusetts, and this government 
claimed jurisdiction over them. Connecticut consented to this, upon condi- 
tion that Massachusetts grant to Connecticut a jurisdiction over an equal ex- 
tent within its territory as an equivalent. A treaty of this description was 
carried into effect, and thus it was that a large tract, including the present 
territory of Belchertown, came to be known as the " Equivalent Lands." 



TOWN OF BELCHERTOWN. l8l 



In 1727 the portion of these lands which was destined to ultimately become 
the town of which we write was sold by Connecticut to seven persons who 
resided in Boston and its vicinity, in six equal divisions, as follows : The first 
division to Paul Dudley, two-thirds, and Col. John Wainwright, one-third ; 
second division, to John Caswell, one-sixth ; third division, to Col. Thomas 
Fitch, one-sixth ; fourth division, to Adington Devenport, one-sixth ; fifth 
division, to Jonathan Belcher, one-sixth ; sixth division, to William Clark's 
heirs, one-sixth. 

In October and November of the same year Col. Timothy Dwight, of 
Northampton, who had been employed to survey and lay out the territory, 
completed his task. According to this survey, the purchase included 27,390 
acres of land. With the sale of this land, Connecticut transferred her powers 
of jurisdiction over it to Massachusetts. At the time the town was incor- 
porated, it had increased its territory so that it had an additional territory to 
the north of that embraced by Col. Dwight's amounting to 12,000 acres, a 
part of which has since been taken to make up the township of Enfield. 

As a natural sequence, the proprietors once in possession of their lands, 
they immediately began to look about for a means of procuring their settle- 
ment. It is very probable that transient settlements had been made, for the 
section was, as we have said, noted as a hunting ground ; and not only this, 
but during the summer season it was used by the people in Northampton 
and vicinity as a place for their cattle to browse, while it abounded in pine 
trees which were valuable on two accounts — for "candle-wood '' and turpen- 
tine. In Northampton the authorities had early recognized the value of the 
two latter commodities, and had passed a law that "no candle-wood should 
be gathered within seven miles of the meeting-house," and "no trees boxed 
for turpentine within three miles of the same." This would naturally drive 
•seekers of these commodities to more remote places, and hence into the ter- 
ritory of Belchertown. 

The proprietors of course were conversant with these facts, and were not 
slow to take advantage of the opportunities they offered for influencing 
settlers to come in. Accordingly they offered gratuitous grants of land to 
such of the settlers in the older districts as would come on to their tract and 
make permanent settlements thereon. This proposal was accepted, and 
several famiUes from Northampton, Hatfield and Hadley moved here in 
173 1, of whom the pioneers, locating here in July, were as follows : Samuel 
Bascom, Benjamin Stebbins and a man by the name of Hooker. Later on in 
the same year Aaron Lyman came on from Northampton, and in 1732 John 
Bardwell and Jonathan Graves, from Hatfield, joined them. 

No records are left of the settlers' affairs down to 1739. and while it is 
known that the settlement increased but slowly, it is difficult to determine 
just what the increase was. A petition addressed to the general court in 1737, 
however, throws some light upon the matter. This petition says they " had 
twenty families, and more expected soon." They pray the general court to 

13* 



l82 TOWN OF BELCHERTOWN. 



grant them a land tax to aid them, for they "■ are about settling a minister and 
building a meeting-house." In another petition, dated November, 1738, the 
petitioners say: "We have agreed with Mr. Noah Merrick to settle with us 
in the gospel ministry, and pray for the privileges of a township." But Mr. 
Merrick did not settle here, and in January, 1739, another petition prays for 
the same privilege. Another petition, under date of November, 1740, says 
the petitioners are "greatly in debt for building a meeting-house, outside cov- 
ered and glazed, and a minister settled; we are but twenty famihes, and owe 
Judge Dudley and others over ;j{^2oo for lands for our minster's settlement, 
and to our minister between ^^{^200 and £,Z°° for' salary and settlement. We 
have sustained preaching five or six years, and have advanced the estates of 
the proprietors more than our own by settling Cold Spring." This was a 
prayer for the taxation of non-resident land owners. The names attached to 
these petitions, other than those mentioned^ were John Smith, Ebenezer 
Bridgman, Moses Hannum, Eliakim Phelps, Joseph Bardwell, Nathaniel 
Dwight. Abner Smith, Joseph Bridgman, Benjamin Billings, Stephen Craw- 
foot, Thomas Graves, Joseph King and Robert Brown. 

Thus from these petions we deduce the following ; A permanent settlement 
was commenced at Cold Spring in July, 1731; up to and including the year 
1736 the settlement had increased to twenty familes ; that in November, 1740, 
the settlement still numbered twenty families, who had built a church, sus- 
tained preaching five or six years, and were then greatly embarrassed by debt 
in consequence thereof. 

During the next twelve years, however, the population more than doubled, 
for in 1752 the town had " more than fifty families." In 1776 the population 
amounted to 972 souls. The government census reports for each decade 
from 1790 to 1880 show the population to have been as follows: 1790, 1,485 ; 
1800, 1,878; 1810, 2,270; 1820, 2,426; 1830, 2,491; 1840, 2,554; 1850, 
2,680; i860, 2,709; 1870, 2,428; 1880, 2,346. 

Organization — The first meeting of the settlers of " Cold Spring," held 
under legislative authority for the purposes of electing precinct officers and 
for transacting general prudential business for the settlement, was convened 
April 28, 1740. The precinct organization continued until the legal organiz- 
ation of the town, twenty-one years later. 

As early as 1757 measures were taken to obtain an act of incorporation 
with town privileges. The settlers had no power to tax non-resident land 
owners for parochial charges, to pay a minister or build a meeting-house; that 
could be done only by special authority from the general court ; this had em- 
barrassed them from their first settlement. There was a conflicting interest 
between resident and non-resident proprietors on this subject. Resident 
proprietors, in a petition dated December, 1754, say they are destitute of a 
minister and unable to go through with the expense of settHng one, and pray 
for leave to assess a small tax on all lands. This was opposed by non-resi- 
dent proprietors. By way of remonstrance, February 26, 1755, they say: — 



TOWN OF BELCHERTOWN. 



183 



"This tract was equivalent land and purchased without any conditions or 
limitations. One-third was sold to persons to brmg forward a settlement, but 
they culled out the best ; their own one-third is in fact equal to all the rest; 
yet proprietors (non-resident) agreed to be taxed for meeting-house and min- 
ister. A meeting-house was built, and Mr. Billing settled. After along con- 
troversy and debate Mr. Billing was dismissed. And now the inhabitants 
petition for a tax to settle another. We think this unreasonable, as we were 
not obliged originally to pay anything, and pray that no power be given to 
raise a tax." 

This remonstrance prevailed, and no tax was then granted. A similar pe- 
tition was made to the general court in 1756. In January, 1757, the power 
was given by the legislature, and a tax of half a penny per acre was assessed. 
This greatly relieved and encouraged the people. 

The greatest obstacle in the way of the prosperity of the place, and which 
was most embarrassing to the settlers, was this inability to tax the property 
here for the support of their religious institutions, making that support unequal 
and troublesome. So long as that inability existed they were not successful ; 
lands were not taken, population was stationary and the people discouraged; 
when the difficulty was removed and power given for a general tax, the people 
prospered. 

At a precinct meeting held December 29, 1760, a committee was appointed 
to present a petition to the general court for an act of incorporation as a 
town. In March, 1761, it was presented, and on June 23d an act was passed 
incorporating the town under the name of Belchertown. A warrant was issued 
by the general court for calling the first meeting, and appointing Eleazer Por- 
ter, Esq., to warn the same. 

The name Belchertown was given in honor of Jonathan Belcher, whom we 
have mentioned as one of the original proprietors. He was a prominent man, 
having served the province as governor from 1730 to 1740. 

Pursuant to warrant authorizing the inhabitants to convene for organization 
and election of officers, a meeting was held September 30, 1761, when the 
following list of town officers was elected: Nathaniel Dwight, moderator and 
clerk; Dea. Aaron Lyman, Lieut. Abner Smith and Joseph Bridgman, select- 
men and assessors; Nathaniel Dwight, treasurer; Joseph Graves and 
James Walker, constables and collectors ; Sergt. Hezekiah Root and Sergt. 
Daniel Smith, wardens ; Joseph Smith and Israel Cowles, surveyors of high- 
ways; Joseph Bardwell and Moses Hannum, tythingmen ; Benjamin Morgan 
and Ebenezer Warner, fence viewers ; Lieut. Abner Smith, clerk of the 
market; Joseph Bridgman, sealer of leather ; Benjamin Morgan, deer-reeve; 
and Caleb Clark and John Cowles, hog-reeves. 

BIOGRAPHICAL. 

In the early records the following names are met with frequently, and hence 
may be looked upon as the fathers of the town : John Smith, Joseph King, 
William, Samuel and Moses Hannum, Abner Smith, Benjamin Stebbins, 



184 TOWN OF BELCHERTOWN. 



Ebenezer Warner, Moses Warner, Thomas, John and Jonathan Graves, Ben- 
jamin Morgan, Ebenezer Bridgman, Joseph Bridgman, Samuel Bascom, Hez- 
ekiah Root, Robert Brown, Stephen Crawfoot, Israel Towne, Benjamin Bil- 
lings, Thomas Graves, Walter Fairfield, Nathan Parsons, Ellakim Phelps, 
Joseph Bardwell, Israel and John Cowles, Thomas Brown, Nathaniel Dwight, 
Daniel Worthington, James VValker, Elihu Lyman and Aaron Lyman. 

Of the distinguished ones who have been born here may be mentioned 
Ethan Smith, an able divine and theological writer ; Erastus Worthington, 
politician and lawyer; Samuel Stillman Greene, able teacher and author; and 
Josiah Gilbert Holland, distinguished journalist, author, poet. 

John Smith was the son of Joseph Smith, and grandson of Joseph Smith, 
who came from England and settled in Hartford, Conn., about 1651. He 
married Elizabeth Hovey, of Hadley, in 1709, and removed to Hatfield in 

17 1 1, where he was chosen deacon of the church. He settled in Belcher- 
town in 1736, and was chosen first deacon of the church at its organization 
in 1737. He was a prominent actor in the religious and civil affairs of the 
town, and was authorized by the general court to call the first meeting ever 
called by legislative authority of the settlers of Belchertown for police pur- 
poses, raising money to support the Gospel, and for other prudential affairs. 
The church records say of him : "A valuable man in his day." He died in 
1777, at the age of ninety-one years. Several of his sons settled in town. 

Dea. Aaron Lyman (formerly spelled " Limon") was a grandson of John 
Lyman, of Northaotipton, whose name occurs there as early as 166 1. He 
settled in Belchertown in 1731, and married Eunice, daughtei of Nathaniel 
Dwight, the following year. He was chosen deacon in the church at its 
organization, and died in 1780, aged seventy-five years. His descendants 
have disappeared from the town. 

The Bridgman family were among the very early settlers of Hampshire 
county. As early as 1640 James Bridgman appears to have settled in Hart- 
ford, Conn., and to have moved to Northampton in 1655, where he died in 
1676. His children, who lived to adult age, were John, Mary and Martha, 
John was born in Springfield, July 7, 1645, married Mary Sheldon, Decem- 
ber II, 1670, and reared seven sons and six daughters. He died April 7, 

17 12. His son Ebenezer was born in Northampton, in 1686, married Mary 
Parsons in 17 10, came to Cold Spring in 1732, reared four children, and lived 
here till he died, in 1760. Joseph, son of Ebenezer, was born in 17 12, mar- 
ried Elizabeth Warner, and had born to him two sons, Oliver, born Decem- 
ber 28, 1738, and Joseph, born Januaiy 4, 1745. The latter married Rath 
Wright, of Northampton, June 21, \T]o, and reared four sons and two 
daughters, viz. : Wright, Joseph, Theodore, Mary, Sarah and Jonathan. He 
died in 1826, aged eighty years. Wright was born June 3, 1772, married 
Irene Smith, December 15, 1796, and reared nine children, as follows: 
Wright, Henry, Mary C, John B., Wright, 2d, Porter, Phineas S , Calvin and 
Helen M. Phineas S. was born June 20, i8io, married Sarah Stebbins, July 



TOWN OF BELCHERTOWN. 1 85 



22, 1828, who bore him eight children, as follows: Jane A., Frederick B., 
Sophronia S., William E., Eugene, Edward S., Frank H. and Arthur. 

Nathaniel Dvvight was a native of Northampton, and a son of Nathaniel 
Dwight, who located at Northampton in 1689. His great-grandfather, John 
Dwight, came from England in 1636, and located at Dedham. Nathaniel 
settled in Belchertown in 1732, married Hannah Lyman, a sister of Aaron 
Lyman, and was a prominent man in all civil and religious aftairs. He served as 
a captain in the French and Indian war, 1 755-60, was active and useful in the 
Revolutionary war, and did much to advance the interests of the town. He 
died in 1784, aged seventy-two years. The family is still represented. A 
second branch settled about 1775, in the person of Henry Dwight, from Wes- 
ton (now Warren), Mass. 

Eliakim Phelps was born in Northampton, in 1709, and was a descendant 
of Nathaniel Phelps, one of the first settlers of that place, and of William 
Phelps, who was one of the first settlers of Windsor, Conn., in 1640. He 
was the sixth settler in Belchertown, in 1731 or 1732. He lived an honorable 
and useful life, leaving descendants, and died in the year 1777, at the age of 
sixt\'-nine years. For his first wife he married Elizabeth Rust, of Northampton, 
who bore him six children, and died in 1752, at the age of forty years ; and for 
his second, Elizabeth Davis, of Springfield, who died in 1778, aged sixty- 
four years, and by whom he had several children. 

John Bardwell was a son of Robert Bardwell, who came from London to 
Boston about the year 1670. He sett'ed in Belchertown in 1732, and was 
one of the first settlers. He had three sons, Martin, Joseph and Jonathan, 
who came with their father. The family has been active and influential, and 
is still represented in the town. Bardwell village bears their name. 

Moses and Ebenezer Warner were brothers, sons of Ebenezer Warner, of 
Hatfield, and grandsons of Daniel Warner, one of the first settlers of Hat- 
field, in 1684. Moses, the eldest, was born in 17 17, and Ebenezer in 1729. 
The former married Sarah Porter in 1739, and died in 1759, at the age of 
forty-two years, leaving descendants. Ebenezer married Dinah Phelps, and 
died in the year 1812, at the age of eighty-three years. Moses settled in the 
town about 1747; Ebenezer in 1752. 

William and Samuel Hannum were brothers, and came to Belchertown 
with families in 1732. They were sons of John Hannum, and grandsons of 
Wilham Hannum, one of the earliest settlers in Northampton. William was 
born in 1690, and died in 1756, leaving three sons. Samuel Hannum died 
in 1780, aged eighty-eight years, leaving two sons. 

The Graves family settled prior to 1735, ^^ the persons of Thomas, John 
and Jonathan, who came from Hatfield, and were lineal descendants of 
Thomas Graves, one of the first settlers of that place. Jonathan was born in 
1702, and passed his life in Belchertown, dying in ij^y at the age of eighty- 
six years, leaving descendants. Thomas and John were brothers, and sons 
of Samuel Graves. The former married a daughter of Isaac Graves, a cousin, 



1 86 TOWN OF BELCHERTOWN. 

and died in 1784, at the age of eighty-two years. The latter was born in 
17 19, and died in 1793, at the age of eighty years. The family is not now 
represented in the town. 

Israel and John Cowles, sons of John Cowles, were natives of Hatneld, 
and born, the former in 1726 and the latter in 1731. They settled in Belcher- 
town about the year 1752. Both engaged in the French and Indian war, and 
went to the relief of Fort William Henry in 1757. Israel died in town in 
1797, aged nearly seventy-one years, leaving two sons. John died in 1811, 
aged eighty years. 

The Towne family are descended from William Towne, who came to this 
country and settled at Salem about 1640. Israel, son of Israel, purchased 
a farm in Belchertown and settled in 1749, being then twenty-two years of 
age. He married Naomi, daughter of Benjamin Stebbins, in 1754. Hedied 
in 1805, aged seventy-eight years, and his wife in 1827, aged ninety-two years. 
They left a family of ten children, of whom a number settled in town, and 
intermarried with some of the oldest and best families. The family is still 
represented. 

Walter Fairfield, a native of Lenox, or Ipswich, was an early settler ; lo- 
cated about 1742, and died in 1756, aged eighty-three years. 

Nathan Parsons settled about 1746, and was a brother of Rev. David Par- 
sons, the first settled minister in Amherst. He raised a family, and died in 
1806, at the age of eighty-six years. 

Hezekiah Root was a native of Northampton, and a lineal descendant of 
Thomas Root, one of the first settlers of Northampton. He settled prior to 
1736, married, and raised a family. His brother Orlando also settled, and 
died in 1805, at the age of seventy-two years, leaving descendants. Heze- 
kiah died at the age of seventy-eight ye^rs. 

Benjamin Morgan settled probably in 1750, passed his life in Belchertown 
and had three sons, Benjamin, Titus and Gad, and one daughter, Sarah, who 
married Benjamin Billings. Morgan was the last survivor of those who acted 
in town at the time of the settlement of Rev. Mr. Forward, in 1756. He 
died August 21, 181 2, aged ninety-three years. His descendants are still 
represented in town. 

Benjamin Billings was born in Hatfield in 1704, and was one of the first 
settlers in Belchertown. He married Mary Hastings, passed his life in the 
town, where he raised a family, and died in 1782, aged seventy-eight years, 

Stephen Crawfoot, from Northampton, was an early settler, before 1737. 
He served \n the French war from Belchertown, and died in 1765, at the age 
of fifty-five years. 

Daniel Worthington, a native of Colchester, Conn., settled in town in 1753. 
He was a soldier in the French war, and was out in Capt. Nathaniel 
Dvvight's company for the relief of Fort William Henry in 1757. He died 
at W^oodstock, Vt., in 1830, at the age of ninety-eight years. 

Capt. James Walker was born in Weston, in November, 1732, and was a 



TOWN OF BELCHERTOWN. 1 87 

son of Nathaniel Walker. He settled in Belchertown in 1755, was twice 
married, and had eight sons, of whom James, Hezekiah, Silas, Jason and 
Nathaniel lived to advanced ages in town. He served in the French war in 
1757, and died in 1806, aged seventy-four years. 

Col. Myron P. Walker, one of the best known of Belchertown 's sons at the 
present time, was born February 18, 1845 ; was educated in the public schools. 
At the age of fourteen he was accepted as the drummer boy of the first Con- 
necticut valley Massachusetts regiment, the famous 10th. With it he was in 
all the hard fought campaigns of the army of the Potomac, frequently at the 
front and under fire. Returning, after three years' service, he went into a 
country store, from whence he took a clerkship in Springfield. At majority 
he struck out for the Pacific slope. He vvent into a Sacramento life insurance 
company, whose cashiership he at length resigned for the secretaryship of a 
new corporation, to which was given the Pacific coast business of the great 
New York Life Insurance Company. While in California he won the repu- 
tation of a sound, skillful and successful insurance man. Able at length to 
select a residence, irrespective of business considerations, he returned to his 
native town and has developed a fine country seat. In the fall of 1884 he 
was placed in nomination for the Hampshire senatorship, and was hand- 
somely elected, leading every candidate on the ticket, whether state or na- 
tional. His own town gave him all but twenty-nine of her 392 votes, and at 
his re election the following year all but eleven, a wholly unprecedented 
occurrence. This time he led his ticket by 700 votes. During his two terms 
he has held the chairmanship of the insurance committee and has been a 
member of the military and of the treasury committees. One of his most im- 
portant services was the passage of a law regulating assessment insurance. 
The bill, which was mainly his work, became a law with scarcely a word of 
debate, and is regarded as the best existing law on the subject. In military 
and agricultural matters he has won the cordial regard of those especially in- 
terested. His record in legislation is an honorable one, and has gained him 
many friends. He is now assistant adjutant-general on the staff of Gov. Rob- 
inson, with the rank of colonel, and was last year on the staff of the national 
commander of the G. A. R. For two years or more he has been president of 
his regimental association. He is, besides, a member of several miHtary and 
civic bodies. As he is not yet forty years of age, it is fair to anticipate other 
honors and services yet to come. 

Capt. Roger Clapp came to Dorchester, Mass., from England, about 1630, 
and was one of the most important men of the colony. His son. Preserved, 
was born in Dorchester, November 23, 1643, married Sarah Newbury, and 
died September 20, 1720. Samuel, son of Preserved, was born in Northamp- 
ton in 1677, and died in 1761. He married three times, first, Sarah Bart- 
lett; second, Thankful King, and third, Mary Sheldon. Ebenezer, son of 
William, was born in Northampton about 1707, and married Catherine Shel- 
don, in 1726. Ebenezer, Jr., was born in Northampton in 1730, married 



J 88 TOWN OF BELCHERTOWN. 



Mary Tileston, and died in Pittsfield, Mass. James Harvey, son of Ebenezer, 
Jr., was born in Northampton, March 5, 1792, married twice, first, Marilla D. 
Francis, and second, Mrs. Sarah Roy, and was for many years proprietor of 
a line of stages between Boston and Albany. He served in the legislature 
three terms. In 1812 he located in Belchertown and resided here until his 
death, April 23, 187 1. Of his nine children four are living, namely, Everett, 
of the firm of Rice, Clapp & Co., of New York city, Dwight P., Edward L., 
of the firm of Clark, Clapp, & Co., of New York city, and Mrs. Jane A. M. 
Gilmer, residing in Belchertown. John F., the oldest son, who died July 28, 
1882, was of the firm of Simpson, Clapp & Co., of New York city. He left 
a fund of $40,000.00 in trust to his brothers, Everett and Dwight P., to build 
a library in Belchertown, with the stipulation that it be completed within the 
term of five years, and then given to the town. This request has been com- 
plied with, and the fine structure that now ornaments the village is the result 
of his generosity. 

Benjamin Stebbins, son of Samuel, was born in Northampton in 17 11, 
and is said to have been the first settler in Belchertown. He died in 1789, 
aged seventy-eight years. His son, Captain Gideon, was born in this town 
in 1740, married Mary Hinsdale in 1768, and had born to him" five sons, Ben- 
jamin, who died many years ago, Darius, who died in infancy, Zenas, Samuel 
H. and Henry. 

Joshua Barton, son of Samuel and Hannah Barton, was born in Oxford, 
Mass., December 24, 1697, and died February 13, 1773. His son, Reuben, 
was born March 28, 1728, served in the Revolutionary war, and died in Bel- 
chertown, December 22, 18 19. Reuben, Jr., was born in this town, January 
17, 1772, married Candace Darling, and reared seven children, viz.: Augus- 
tus, Nancy, William, Theodore, Orin, Horace and Marcus. The mother o^ 
these children lived to the great age of 102 years, the greatest age ever at- 
tained by any person in Belchertown. Theodore was born February 3, 1805, 
married twice, first, Rachel Cowin, November 22, 1832, and second, Electa 
C. Bush, February 16, 1852. Mr. Barton lived and died on the farm where 
his son, Myron S., now resides. The oldest child, Lydia, was born August 
6, T835, and lives in the village. Myron S. married Celestia E. Fisher, and 
has two children, Frederick S. and Harold E. 

David Pratt came to this town from Ware, at an early day, and settled on 
road 23. He served in the Revolutionary war, and died in 1806. His son 
Elisha was born on the homestead, where he always lived, in October, 1785, 
married Abigail Sherman, and reared ten children, viz.: David, Hiram, So- 
phia, Virgil, Maria, Coohdge E., Caroline, Mary S., Experience and James 
H. Virgil was born in 181 6, married Mary A. Randall, and has had born to 
him five children, two of whom are living, Homer S. and Almon L. Mr. 
Pratt lives on the homestead. 

William Shaw, son of WiUiam, was born" in this town in 1776, on the farm 
now owned by Edwin Kimball. He died February 14, 1859, aged eighty- 



TOWN OF BELCHERTOWN. 1 89 



four years. His son Oziel was born in 1806, married Lovina Bassett, and 
reared nine cnildren, viz : William B., George F., Francis H., Ellen L, Aus- 
tin H., Elmer P., Laura A., Mary I. and Eva A. William B. married Julia 
M. Gamwell, and has three children, Lillian [., Ida L. and Myron A. Ellen 
L. married Edwin Kimball in 1862, and they have had born to them nine 
children, viz.: Angle E., Edwiti E., William A., Clara L., Henry E., Nettie 
N., Austin L., Leila L and Edith L. 

Marcus L. Goodell is a son of Moses Goodell, a native of Woodstock, 
Conn., where he was born March 30, 1777. While an infant his parents 
moved to Belchertown, locating upon the farm now owned by LaFayette 
Goodell, where he died October 15, 1854, aged seventy-seven years, and is 
buried in the old cemetery near Dwight's Staton. Marcus, the fifth of his 
twelve children, was born on the old homestead April 24, 1807. He mar- 
ried for his first wife Amanda Aldrich, September 18, 1831, who bore him two 
children, both of whom died in infancy. For his second wife he married 
Dorothy Dickinson, of Amherst, November 9, 1837. She died without issue, 
March 2, 1S70. His present wife, Julia A., daughter of Aretas Cadwell, of 
North Hadley, he married October 23, 1873. Mr. Goodell located upon the 
farm which he no.w occupies, on road 16, in 1831. In 1876 he built a resi- 
dence in Amherst, where he resided a short time, but returned to the old 
farm. Mr. Goodell began as a poor boy, and has, by perseverance and good 
management, worked his way to wealth. 

Luther Holland was born in Petersham, Mass., in 1776, and came to this 
town in 1808. He married Clarissa Ashley, and reared five children, namely, 
Nelson, George, Ashley, Luther and Clarissa. Luther, Jr. , was born in 18 10, 
married Dorothy W. Stebbins, and reared eight children, three of whom are 
living, Harriet, Caroline and Charles. Harriet married Horatio Holland, 
and has one child, Dorothy S. Caroline married Edward Fisk, of Amherst. 
Charles L. married Cornelia Eaton, m 1876, and has two children^ Ella E. 
and Charles L., Jr. The farm now owned by Mr. Holland has been in the 
family for four generations. 

Thomas Sabin, son of Thomas, was born December 22, 1783, came to this 
town in 1813, and purchased the farm now owned by Lyman Sabin. He 
married twice, first, Abigail Durfey, who bore him five children, Lewis, Laura, 
Sherman, Lyman and Abigail. He married for his second wife, Abigail, widow 
of Horace Gates, and died March 29, 1885, at the great age of loi years. 
His son Lyman was born in 18 13, married Lucy C. Stebbins, and has three 
children, namely, Maria D., widow of Joshua Longley, Abigail D. (Mrs. 
Lewis K. William), and Laura S., who resides with her father on the home- 
stead, which is located on road 79. This farm was awarded the first pre- 
mium as being the best managed farm in the county, in 1871, by the East 
Hampshire's .Agricultural Society. It also affords one of the finest views 
along the Connecticut valley, being at an elevation of 1,000 feet. 

Henry Graves was born August 19, 1793, married Selina Smith, and had 



I go TOWN OF BELCHERTOWN. 



born to him four children, namely, Henry, Sophia S., who married John 
Elliott, a dentist; William and Austin L. Mr. Graves moved to South Had- 
ley Falls from Williamsburg, lived there seven years, moved to Ware in 1824, 
built a house there, which place he exchanged for the farm where he died, 
which event occurred March ^5, 1865. Henry, Jr., was born in 1819, married 
for his first wife Hannah Wales, October g, 1844, who bore him one son, 
Moses Wales, born April i, 1846. She died April 16, 1863, and he married 
for his second wife Nancy Witt, May 8, 1866. Mr. Graves located on the 
farm where he now resides in 1853. He served in the late Vv'ar, enlisting 
August 7, 1862. and serving three years. Mr. Graves has been deacon of 
the Baptist church for twenty-five years. 

George Hubbard was born in Fabius, N. Y., in 1828, where he lived un- 
til he was eleven years of age, and then came to Belchertown. He married 
Maria Town, and has had born to him four children, namely. Lyman, Alfred, 
Edwin and Jennie S. Lyman married Malvina Bur.TS, and has six children. 
Alfred married Julia Bisbee, and has tvvo children. Jennie S. married Jerome 
Draper, and has one child. 

Jefferson White, son of Amos and grandson of Jesse, was born in North- 
bridge, Mass., in 1805, and came to Belchertown in 1841. He was married 
three times, first, Abigail Eastman, who bore him eleven children, viz. : Mary 
J., Thomas J., Martha A., Wilbur F., Rufus B., William O., Charles A., 
Hannah E., Albert E., Amos L. and Eugene E. He married for his second 
wife Dorcas Lorring, and for his third wife Marion Cady, in April, 1885. 
Mr. White lives on road 86. 

Martin L. Hastings was born in East Boylston, Mass., in 182 i, and resided 
there until he was eleven years of age, then moved with his father to Leo- 
minster. He moved to Barre when he was nineteen years of age, and came 
to this town in 1856. He married Mary Corbit, of Ware, and has had born 
to him one child, who died in infancy. He worked in Smith's cotton factory 
in Barre three years, worked for the Thorndyke Compiny, in Palmer, as 
overseer, and was employed in Otis Company's cotton mills in Ware, for 
about nine months. 

Isaac Prouty was born in West Boylston, Mass., married Betsey Bear, and 
reared seven children, viz. : James, Jane (Mrs. Elias Cook), Benjamin, Isaac, 
Irena, Forester and Edward. Forester was born in Shutesbury, Mass., in 
1826, married Elvira Pratt, in 1846, and has had born to him four children, 
three of whom are living, Emerson, Luther and Judson. 

Philander Chandler, son of Jonas C, was born in Hardwick, in 1805, mar- 
ried Myra Keith, in 1833, ^"^^ has had born to him five children, three of 
whom are living, namely, Minnie M., who married Arthur D. Howard, a cor- 
respondent of The Homestead, George F., who lives with his parents, and 
Susan E., who married T. W. Chapman, of this town. Mr. Chandler came 
to this town in 1865, locating on the farm where he now. lives. His son 
Charles, who died in Boston in 1885, was a graduate of Amherst college, 



TOWN OF BELCHERTOWN. igi 

soon after obtaining a position on the Boston Herald, and eventually became 
assistant editor. 

Russell Jenks was born in Spencer, was a manufacturer of twisted whip 
stocks, and had born to him thirteen children. He moved to Palmer about 
1806, and settled a place which was at that time a dense wilderness. His 
son Russell was born in Palmer in 1820, married Minerva Gary, of Westfield, 
Vt., and has one child, Abbey. The latter married Orcian Feague, who car- 
ries on business in Palmer, but resides in this town. 

John S. Green was born in Monson, Mass., September 27, 1806, married 
Arminda Jenks, who bore him six children — Rachel, Sophia, Susan, Laura, 
Oliver and Josiah J. — and died here in November, 1881. His grandfather, 
Lovell Green, came from Sheffield, England, about 1667, and settled in Mon- 
son. John S. was the seventh of the eight grandchildren, brought him by his 
son Reuben. Josiah J., son of John S., was born in Palmer in 1829, and 
located upon the farm he now occupies on road 115, in 1877. He was over- 
seer in the Dwight Manufacturing Company's works at Chicopee twenty-five 
years. His son, John C., is now overseer in a cotton mill at Millbury. 

George Warner, son of Martin, was born in the state of New York in 1832, 
and came to this town with his father in 1847. His father died here at the 
age of seventy years. His children were as follows : Abraham, Eliza, Sarah, 
Magdeline, Martha E., Maria and George. Sarah married Asa Canterbury, 
and has three children, George, Fred and Eva. Magdeline married Joseph N. 
Towne, and has four children, Edwin, Byron, Carrie and Fannie. Martha E. 
married Frank Brewster, of Norwich. George married twice, first, Catherine 
Holden, who died in 1861, and second, he married a Miss Cushman, and has 
four sons, Frank L., Fred E., David H. and Arthur E. 

Henry D. Moulton was born in Wales, April 5, 1842, and served in the late 
•war, enlisting in Co. K, ist Conn. Cav., January i, 1862; was wounded at 
the battle of the Rapidan in 1864, and after recovery agam rejoined the army. 
He married Anna Dyer, who died in September, 1882, leaving four children, 
Carrie B. and Cora B. (twins), Fannie A. and Arthur G. Mr. Moulton mar- 
ried for his second wife Marion E. Hurlburt, January i, 1884, and moved to 
this town in August, 1885. 

David Blodgett came to this country from England, locating in East Wind- 
sor. He afterwards moved to Amherst, married a Miss Dickinson and reared 
six children, viz.: Asahel, Jerusha, Sabrey, Eunice, Sally and Alma. Asahel 
was born in Amherst, married twice, first, Eunice Calkins, who bore him eight 
children, namely, Israel P., Elisha B., Jerusha, Asahel, Alonzo C, David, 
Asahel, 2d, and Eunice. The mother of these children died January 21, 1812, 
and Mr. Blodgett married for his second wife Lucinda Clapp, and had born 
to him four children, namely, Eunice. Lucinda, Theodore and Edward S. 
Alonzo C. was born in Amherst, April 24, 1805, married twice, first, Rosalind 
Hyde, December 2, 1830, and has had born to him five children, Edward P., 
Mary M., Ellen M., Rosalind H., who died in infancy, and RosaHnd, 2d. Mr. 



ig2 TOWN OF BELCHERTOWN. 



Blodgett lived in South Hadley about fourteen years, and then came to this 
town. His \\ife died November i6. 1849, and he married for his second wife 
Mary Pease, January 3, 1854. He now resides near the village. 

MILITARY. 

The "old" French and Indian war broke out in 1744, being the fifth of 
the series, and there were wars and rumors of wars almost up to the time of 
the Revolution. In the early colonial struggles the town bore its full part, and 
it taxed the people heavily. 

Coming down to the Revolution, the records show that when the first 
provincial congress in 1774 directed the municipal tax-gatherers not to pay the 
incoming tax to the regular treasurer, whom they regarded as too much of a 
Tory, bat to Henry Gardner, whom they styled receiver-general, Belchertown 
was the first of all the towns to pay its tax to him, thereby inaugurating a 
severe blow against the loyalist government. In accordance with the advice 
of this congress the people of the town gathered in their meeting-house No- 
vember 4, 1774, and organized a militia company witn Caleb Clark as cap- 
tain, Joseph Graves and John Cowles, lieutenants, and Elijah Dwight, ensign. 
They had previously laid in a stock of ammunition, having sent a team to 
Providence for powder, and at this meeting Ensign Dwight was made custo- 
dian of all their war material. Having been thus on the alert, they were 
ready for the call to arms when the conflict was precipitated at Lexington. 
The day after that battle two companies marched from Belchertown, one of 
thirty-five men, under Capt. Jonathan Bardwell, and Lieut. Aaron Phelps and 
Silvanus Howe, was attached to the regiment led by Col. Jonathan Warner, 
of Hardwick. Capt. John Cowles was at the head of the other company, 
Asahel Smith and Eleazer Warner being the lieutenants, and it formed a part 
of the regiment which Col. Ruggles Woodbridge, of South Hadley, com- 
manded. It contained thirty-four Belchertown and twenty-six Granby resi- 
dents. These minute-men served only a fortnight, but many of them re-en- 
listed and others joined them, so that Capt. Bardwell led a company in Col. 
David Brewer's regiment, which served over three months up to August. 
Moses Howe was the first lieutenant. Capt. Cowles also commanded a com- 
pany in the army for the same period. 

One of Arnold's captains in this terrible expedition across the wilds of 
Maine the next winter was Elihu Lyman, son of Deacon Aaron Lyman, of 
Belchertown, who was afterward promoted to be major. His brother, Josiah 
Lyman, was a captain in the regiment of Col. Elisha Porter, of Hadley. They 
left Belchertown, March 22, 1776, marching to Ticonderoga, thence up Lake 
Champlain, by way of St. Johnsbury to Quebec. They had a very arduous 
campaign, and were consequently credited, by vote of the town, with double 
the months during which they actually served. Capt. Lyman was afterward 
major in Col. Nathan Tyler's regiment, serving in Rhode Island in 1779. A 



TOWN OF BELCHERTOVVN. 1 93 



Belchertown company of twenty-seven men, led by Lieuts. Aaron Phelps and 
James Walker, marched one hundred and forty miles in July^ 1777, to join 
Col. Porter's regiment, just before Burgoyne's surrender. This band included 
the leading men of the town. Bardwell's company in the same regiment 
contained a dozen Belchertown nine-months' men in 1779. At the Benning- 
ton alarm Capt. Elijah Dwight and Lieut. Gideon Hannum were the officers 
who marched at the head of the leading men of the place to repel the in- 
vaders. But as they were gone from home only five days it is fair to presume 
they did not reach the scene of action. Belchertown men saw considerable 
service around New London in 1779, the officers being Maj. Elihu Lyman, 
Capt. Dwight and Lieut. David Barton. Lieut. Daniel Smith served at Dor- 
chester in the winter of 1776-77. Calls for special service were frequent, 
and some citizens were in the Continental army four years or more. Dr. 
Estes Howe, Belchertown's first physician, who practiced in the town fifty 
years, was a drummer in his father's company at Lake George in 1759, and 
he served as surgeon at two different times during the Revolution, being on 
General Gates's staff through the Saratoga campaign. When General La 
Fayette was riding through Belchertown on his way from Albany to Boston, 
in June, 1825, hearing that an old officer of the Saratoga army lay sick in a 
neighboring house, he stopped his carriage and went in to greet Dr. Howe. 
Capt. Joel Green was credited in the town average rolls with more service 
than almost any other man. He led a company in Ezra Woods's regiment 
at Peekskill and White Plains in 1778, and was adjutant in the regiment of 
Lexington minute-men which Col. Jonathan \Varner, of Hardwick, com- 
manded. 

The town had little to do with the war of 1812 until Gov. Caleb Strong 
called out the militia, in the fall of 1814, to defend the Atlantic coast. Bel- 
chertown contributed an artillery company of fifty-four men to Col. William 
Edwards's regiment, the officers being Capt. Zenas Stebbins and Lieuts. Eliab 
Washburn and Theodore Bridgman. The company was on duty in Boston 
from September 8th to November 5th. An infantry company was also raised 
at this same time from Belchertown and vicinity of seventy seven men, with 
George Gilbert as captain and Thomas Field and Samuel Rich, lieutenants. 
Tliese men served at Boston from September loth to November 7th, but 
none of the troops saw an enemy. 

Just as soon as the war for the Union became a certainty, the Belchertown 
militia company was recruited to its full strength, but so many such organi- 
zations were offered for the Tenth regiment, that they could not all be ac- 
cepted, and this one was broken up, although many of the members enlisted 
in other companies. Belchertown's soldiers were mostly found in the Tenth, 
Twenty-seventh, Thirty-first, Thirty-seventh and Forty-sixth regiments, al- 
though a good many sons of the town fought elsewhere, a few being mem- 
bers of cavalry and artillery regiments and the navy. The list of officers 
comprises Col. Eliot Bridgman, Twentieth corps de Afrique, Maj. Harry Wal- 



194 



TOWN OF BELCHERTOWN. 



ker, a cavalry officer, Dr. George F. Thomson, assistant surgeon of the 
Thirty-eighth, and surgeon of a regiment which served on the Canadian 
frontier at the close of the war, with the ranks of major ; Capts. Mason Abbey 
and George Darling, Thirty-first ; Lieut. Martin M. Pulver, Thirty-first ; 
Lieut. M. V. Rrown, Twenty-seventh ; Lieut. William Shaw, Forty-sixth ; 
Lieut, Solomon C. Shumway, Bumside's staff". 

The town furnished, in all, two hundred and eighty men, being twenty over 
her quota under all calls. It furnished $29,000.00 to the government, aside 
from the $13,576.40 which was afterwards refunded by the state. 

\aLLAGES. 

Belchertown village is located about at the geographical center of the 
town, on the New London Northern railway, and occupying the site of the 
earliest municipal enterprises of the town, is to-day, as it ever has been, the 
chief point of interest in the township. Lying about 1,000 feet above 
sea level, in the midst of much that is beautiful in nature, these beauties and 
salubrious climate attract many summer residents. The stores, hotels, etc., 
are grouped about a fine park of five acres, which was presented to the town 
by Col. Elijah D wight, in 179 1. It is oval in form, is nicely kept, and con- 
tains a fine band-stand and a graceful soldier's monument. At the north end 
of this park is the quiet, home-like, popular hotel of Mr. Dwight V. Fuller^. 




(Belcher Housr, D. V. Fuller, PRorRiETOR.) 

the Belcher House, as shown in the accompanying engraving. At the oppo- 
site end of the park is the fine summer hotel erected by Mr. B. Butler during 
the past season, the Highland House. This building is a wooden structure 
40x170 feet, three stories in height, and surrounded by broad verandas. It 



TOWN OF BELCHERTOWN. I95 

is equipped with all the appliances of modern hotel art, and bids fair to 
become a popular resort. Just south of the latter hotel stands the town's 
pride, its elegant $40,000.00 library building, erected through the munificence 
of the late Mr. Frank Clapp, of Brooklyn. The building is of stone and a 
model of architectural beauty and convenience. Aside from these buildings, 
the village has several fine summer residences, notably those of the Messrs. 
Clapp and Senator Walker. 

In brief, the village has three churches, a town-hall, library building, high, 
grammar, and intermediate schools, two hotels, eight stores, including a drug 
store, eight mechanic's shops and a large number of dwellings. 

Dwight's Station, a hamlet in the northwestern part of the town, on the 
New London Northern railway, perpetuates the name of the Dwight family. 
It has the only postoffice in the town outside of Belchertown village. There 
are, however, several other hamlets, as follows : — 

Barrett's Junction, in the southern part of the town, where the Athol 
branch crosses the New London Northern railroad. 

Ba'-^dwell Village,, deriving its name from the Bardwell family, in the 
southeastern part of the town, where formerly quite a manufacturing business 
was carried on. 

Slab City, in the eastern part of the town, on Swift river. 

industries. 

Hawkes, Smith &= Co.'s carriage shop. — For many years Belchertown was 
noted for its extensive carriage, wagon and sleigh manufactories, though of 
late years this business has almost entirely passed away, there being only two 
or three small shops in the town, of whom Hawkes, Smith & Co. do the 
largest business, employing seven hands. 

Lyman Smith's carriage shop, on Main street, was built by Nathaniel Wal- 
ker, over seventy years ago. Mr. Smith does repairing and jobbing princi- 
pally. 

Dore cv Woodman s soap-stone factory. — -The manufacture of soap-stone 
was commenced in the southern part of the town, at Barrett's Junction, in 
1880. A large amount of money was expended in the building of a dam, 
canals and mill, largely by W. B. Kimball, of Enfield. The company, known 
as the Springfield Soap-stone Company, failed after a year or two, but the busi- 
ness is now carried on at the same place by the firm of Dore & Woodman, 
who obtain their supply of stone from Francestown, N. H. The business is 
in charge of A. M. Cushing, formerly of Boston, who is thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the business in all its branches, and it promises to become a 
large and profitable venture. The use of soap-stone is increasing, and as peo- 
pie come to understand its value, they will doubtless avail themselves of the 
opportunities presented for obtaining it, especially for fire purposes and for 
kitchen use. 



196 TOWN OF BELCHERTOWN. 



Nathan W. Bond' s grist and sawmill, on road 99, occupies the last privi- 
lege on Jabish brook before it empties into Swift river. This site has been 
occupied for many years, and several mills have been destroyed by fire. In 
October,' 1883, the mills were burned, and the present mills built during the 
same year. The grist-mill has one run of stones, with capacity for grinding 
300 bushels of grain per day, while the saw-mill has a circular saw and the 
capacity for cutting 10,000 feet of lumber per day. 

Fernando G. Shaivs steam saw-mill, on road gT, was built in 1883. It 
has a forty horse power engine, circular saw, and the capacity for sawing 10,- 
000 feet of lumber per day. 

Edtvin Smnvs spoke and handle factory, on Jabish brook, road 41, was 
originally built for a grist-mill, by Nathan Shumway, about seventy years ago. 
Mr. Snow purchased the property in 1879, and put in machinery for manu- 
facturing spokes and handles. He has also added a saw-mill, cider-mill and 
distillery for making cider brandy. 

Virgil Pratt <5n Son's grist, saw and shingle-mill, located on Jabish brook, 
road 23, was built in 1860-61. The saw-mill has the capacity for cutting 
about 10,000 feet of lumber per day, the shingle-mill 6,000 shingles, and the 
grist-mill is for grinding coarse grain. 

D. Bruce &^ Son's saw, shingle and planing- mills, on Jabish brook, road 
54, were built many years ago, at least a portion of the mills, and used as a 
woolen-mill. The saw-mill was built by Elijah Walker, about forty years ago, 
and has the capacity for turning out 10,000 feet of lumber per day. The 
shingle-mill was also built by Mr. Walker, about thirty-three years ago, and 
has the capacity for cutting 8,000 shingles per day, 

Sanford e^' ^tebbins's saiv mill, on road 54, was built by a Mr. Thayer about 
1820. It was purchased by the present firm in 1883. It is operated by 
water-power, gives employment to four hands and turns out about 300,000 
feet of lumber per year. 

Blachner &> Walkers saw and shingle-mill, on road 74, was built at a 
very early date, by Orlando Root, and is still known as the " Root mill." 
The present firm purchased the mill in 1872. It has the capacity for manu- 
facturing 5,000 feet of lumber anrl 6,000 shingles per day. The shingle-mill 
was added to the saw mill in 1820, by Enos Lincoln. There is also a plan- 
ing-mill connected, added by H. Root in 1855. 

George B. Weston's saw mill, on road 52, was originally built by Mr. Bar- 
ton at an early date, burnt, and re-built by Mr. Weston's father in 1847, ^.nd 
again in 1869. The mill has the capacity for cutting 10,000 feet of lumber 
per day, and also has a shingle-mill connected which cuts 10,000 shingles 
per day. 

Thomas S. Haskell's cider-nii II and vinegar works, on road 54, were estab- 
lished by him in i860. In 1885 he put in steam and improved apparatus for 
converting the cider into vinegar. 

The Jabish gtist-mill, off road 66, near Belchertown village, owned by Dor- 



TOWN OF BELCHERTOWN. 1 97 

man & Sanford, was built in 1875, upon the site of an old mill destroyed by 
fire that year. It has two runs of stones and grinds about 25,000 bushels of 
Western corn per year, besides a considerable amount of custom work. 

LaFayette IV. Goodell, on road 22, is extensively engaged in growing 
seeds. He devotes from ten to fifteen acres to this purpose, employing from 
five to ten hands. He deals in all kinds of seeds, making a specialty of grow- 
ing flower seeds. 

Gold 6^ Knighfs smoniill, on road 6, was built by C. T. Brown, about 
forty years ago. It was purchased by Mr. Knight in 1863, who took Samuel 
S. Livermore into partnership with him. In 1875 M^"- ^old purchased the 
latter's interest. They saw about 200,000 feet of lumber per year. 

Lein IV. Gold's wood-turning shop., on road 5, was established by him about 
1867. The shop is operated by water-power. Mr. Gold does a general 
wood-turning business and manufactures tool-handles, spokes and hubs. 

Alden A. Days cider-mill, on road 16, was purchased by him about ten 
years ago. He turns out about 400 barrels of cider per year. 

ECCLESIASTICAL. 

The early history of the church here has already been touched upon, as in the 
early times the religious interests and the temporal interests of the community 
were so closely united that it is impossible to trace one without the other. At 
this point it was only necessary to remind the reader that the subject of erect- 
ing a meeting-house was brought up in 1737. A year after, the building was 
ready for use, though not finished till 1746, and then " done in a manner 
suited to their embarrassed circumstances." The house now occupied as a 
place of public worship was erected in 1789, the birth year of our Consti- 
tutional RepubHc, but it was not dedicated till September 12, 1792. In 1S28, 
during Dr. Coleman's ministry, it was much enlarged, and the interior entirely 
re-constructed at an expense of overthree thousand dollars. Again, in 1850, 
during the ministry of Dr. Wolcott, it was re-modeled and better adapted to 
the wants of the minister and congregation. It was put into its present con- 
dition in the summer of 1872, being re-constructed and re-furnished at a cost 
of seven thousand dollars. It was re-dedicated September 12, 1872, on the 
eightieth anniversary of its first dedication. The exercises of the occasion 
included a sermon by the pastor, Rev. P. W. Lyman, an historical address by 
Rev. G. A. Oviatt, and dedicatory prayer by Rev. H. B. Blake, former 
pastors. 

The Brainerd church was organized September 30, 1834; between ninety 
and a hundred persons were then, or shortly after, dismissed from the First 
church to constitute it. It continued a separate existence until August 31, 
1841, when, with about a hundred and eighty members, it was re-united to 
the parent church, its pastor, Rev. G. A. Oviatt, becoming the pastor of the 

14* 



198 



TOWN OF BELCHERTOWN. 



united people. About 1,680 persons have been members of this church since 
its organization. 

The first pastor of this church was Rev. Edward BiUing, a native of Sun- 
derland, and a graduate of Harvard college. He accepted the call, in a let- 
ter dated February 22, 1739, and was probably ordained in April, 1739. ^^ 
was dismissed in April, 1752. In 1754 he became the first pastor of the 
church in Greenfield, where he died about the year 1757. 

Rev. Justus Forward, the second pastor, was born in Suffield, Ct., May 11,. 
1730; graduated from Yale college in 1754; taught school in Hatfield, 
where he studied theology; was licensed to preach in the fall of 1755, ^"^ 
was ordained February 25, 1756. He was sole pastor till March, 1812, when 
a colleague was settled. He died March 8, 1814, in the fifty-ninth year of his 
ministry, and the eighty-fourth year of his age, having followed to the grave 
more than nine hundred of his people. During his ministry three hundred 
and eighty members were received into the church, of whom two hundred 
and ninety-four joined on profession of faith. Several revivals of religion oc- 
curred during his connection with the church — the most remarkable of which 
was in the years 1785-86. 

Rev. Experience Porter, the third pastor, was a native of Lebanon, N. H., 
graduated from Dartmouth college in 1803; was tutor in Middlebury college 
one year ; studied theology with Rev. Asahel Hooker in Goshen, Conn. ; 
was ordained over the church in Winchester, N. H., November 12, 1807, and 
settled over this church early in 1812. He retained his pastorate until 
March 9, 1825. During these thirteen years four hundred and tvveny-five 
persons were received into the church, three hundred and forty-five of them 
on profession. This number was about equal to the whole number added 
during the previous eighty years. Two remarkable revivals occurred during 
his ministry. In 1813 one hundred and seven persons were added to the 
church upon profession, and from the fall of t8i8 through 1819, two hundred 
and eight persons united with it. Mr. Porter died August 25, 1828. 

Rev. Lyman Coleman, the fourth, pastor, was born in Middlefield, June 14, 
1796; graduated at Yale college in 181 7 ; taught three years in the Latin 
Grammar school at Hartford, Conn. ; was a tutor in Yale college four years 
and a half. While there he studied theology, and was ordained here October 
19, 1825, and was dismissed in September, 1832, having received one 
hundred and seventy-eight persons into the church, of whom one hundred 
and thirty-three were upon profession of faith. Since his dismission he has 
been principal of Burr seminary, Vermont, also of the English department 
of Phillips academy in Andover, a teacher in Amherst, Mass., and Philadel- 
phia, Pa., professor of German in Princeton college (from which he received 
the degree of D.D.), and of ancient languages in Lafayette college, Easton, 
Pa. He is the author of several valuable works upon sacred geography and 
subjects connected with Christian antiquities. 

Rev. Jared Reid, the fifth pastor, was born in Preston, Conn., February, 



TOWN OF BELCHERTOWN, 1 99 

1788; graduated at Yale college, 1817 ; studied theology at Andover ; li- 
censed to preach, April, 1822 ; was settled in the ministry at Reading, No- 
vember 20, 1823; dismissed in 1833; installed here September 4, 1833; 
was dismissed here January 6, 1841. He was afterwards at Tiverton, R. I. 
- Rev. George A. Oviatt, the sixth pastor, is a native of Bridgeport, Conn. ; 
graduated at Yale college, 1835, where he also studied theology. He was 
ordained pastor of the Brainerd church in this place August 28, 1838, when 
(upon the resignation of Mr. Reid) the two churches were re-united, he was 
invited to become their pastor, and was installed over this church August 31, 
1841. He was dismissed July, 1845, and took the pastorate of the Suffolk 
Street church, Boston ; afterwards of the churches in Chicopee, Somers, Conn., 
and Talcotville, Conn. 

Rev. John Clancey, the seventh pastor, graduated at Middlebury college, 
1818; studied theology at Andover; settled in the ministry at Charlton, N. 
Y., twenty years. He was installed here February 25, 1846, and remained 
until March 27, 1849, when, having been dismissed, he returned to Charlton. 

Rev. Samuel Wolcott, the eighth pastor, was born in what is now South 
Windsor, Conn., July, 1813 ; graduated at Yale college in 1833 ; completed 
theological study at Andover in 1837. For two years afterward he assisted 
the secretary of the A. B. C. F. M. November 13, 1839, he was ordained, 
and went to Syria as a missionary. He continued his labors in that region 
till January, 1843, when, on account of the death of his wife and the unset- 
tled condition of affairs in Syria, he returned to America. In August, 1843, 
he became pastor of the church in Longmeadow,from which he was dismissed 
in December, 1847. He was installed over this church October 2, 1849, and 
dismissed March 29, 1853. At that time he became pastor of a church in 
Providence, R. I., where he remained six and a half years ; then spent two 
years in connection with the New England church, in Chicago, 111., and was 
then settled over a church in Cleveland, Ohio. A noteworthy revival visited 
the church during the first year of his ministry here, and one hundred more 
added to the church, eighty-nine on profession of faith. 

Rev. Henry B. Blake, the ninth pastor, was born in Winchester Center, Ct., 
May 20, 181 7 ; united with the church in 1832; graduated at WiUiams col- 
lege in 1841 ; studied theology at East Windsor, Ct., and graduated in 1844. 
He was ordained at South Coventry, Ct., January i, 1845 ; dismissed in May, 
1855 ; installed here June 26, 1855, and dismissed at the end of ten years, 
June 26, 1865. He went to Wilmington, N. C, as an agent of the American 
Missionary association, in 1868. 

Rev. W. W. VVoodworth, the tenth pastor, was born at Cromwell, Ct., 
October 16, 1813 ; graduated at Yale college in 1838, and at Andover Theo- 
logical seminary in 1841. He was pastor at Berlin, Ct., 1842-52 ; at Water- 
bury, Ct., 1852-58; stated supply at Mansfield, Ohio, 1858-60; at the Olivet 
church, Springfield, 1860-62 ; at Plymouth, Mass., 1862-64; at Painsville, 
Ohio, 1864-66; pastor of this church, 1866-70. 



TOWN OF CHESTERFIELD. 



Rev. Payson W. Lyman, the present pastor, was born at Easthampton, 
February 28, 1842; graduated at Amherst college in 1867, and at Union 
Theological seminary, New York, in 1870; ordained and installed over this 
church, May 10, 187 1, having previously preached a short time in Ashfield. 

The Baptist church of Belchertown was organized June 24, 1795, by its 
first pastor, Rev. Samuel Bigelow, with sixteen members. In 18 14 the society 
built a house of worship, which was used until 1842, when the present struct- 
ure was purchased of the Brainerd church, which at that time re-united with 
the Congregational church. The building is a fine wooden structure, having 
been extensively repaired several times. The present pastor of the society 
is Rev. William Read. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of Belchertown was organized by Theodore 
Blodgett and Thomas Haskell, with twelve members, March 29, 1865. The 
first pastor was Rev. William Gordon. The church building, a wooden 
structure erected in 1874, is valued, including grounds, at $6,000.00, and 
will seat 500 persons. The present pastor is Rev. William F. Lawford. 

The Union church society of North Belchertown was organized during the 
past summer, and a neat chapel has been put up at Dvvight's Station, the 
corner stone being laid on the 6th of October. This church is made up of 
the people in this vicinity, irrespective of denomination. It is the growth 
of years ; for, while the people here desired a church, they were not suffi- 
ciently strong in any one denomination to support one, though at one time 
a Methodist society flourished here. As an outgrowth of this desire, the 
present chapel society has grown. 



CHESTERFIELD* is one of what is known as the hill towns of the 
county, lying in the western- central part of the same, bounded north 
by Cummington and Goshen, east by Goshen and Williamsburg 
south by Westhampton and Huntington, and west by Worthington. These 
boundaries enclose an area of 16,748 acres. 

N^atural Features. — The land is mountainous, the ranges running north 
and South, with long, pleasant intervening valleys. Through one of these 
valleys, in the western part of the town, flows Westfield river, making up the 
most characteristic feature in the town's landscape. In one place this 
stream has cut through a ledge of rocks a channel thirty feet deep and sixty 
rods in length, as symetrically as if done by art. East of this valley lies the 
valley of Dead Branch, which is a tributary of the Westfield river, the outlet 
of Dead pond in the Northern part of the town. Generally speaking, the 
surface of the town is rough and mountainous, better adapted to grazing than 
cultivation, though its valleys and hillsides afford many fine farms. Its gen- 

* For this sketch we are largely indebted to the "Centennial address," delivered by 
J. D. Vinton, in 1862, and to Chandler T. Macomber. 



TOWN OF CHESTERFIELD.. 



eral geological formation is granite in the eastern and calciferous mica schist 
in the western part. The latter formation is rich in minerals, among which 
is albite, blue, green and red tourmaUne, smoky quartz, spodumene, kyanite, 
rose-beryl, garnet, tin ore, columbite, and lithia-mica. 

Original Grants. — King Philip's war broke out in 1675, and was one of the 
most remarkable of oar Indian wars. As the reader well knows eight hundred 
and forty Massachusetts troops were marched through the December snows to 
attack Fort Narragansett at Pocasset, and a great slaughter followed. As an 
acknowledgment for this brave service, the general court of Massachusetts 
granted, June 30, 1732, seven tracts of land to the descendants of this band 
of eight hundred and forty. These tracts were designated as Narragansett 
Township Number One, Two, Three, etc. A part of Number Four was 
eventually embraced within the limits of the present town of Chesterfield, 
though the tract was primarily laid out in New Hampsire. 

In the court records of Massachusetts Bay, dated December 16, 1735, is 
the following : — 

'^ A petition of John Foster and Edward Shove in behalf of the grantees of 
the tract of land granted to the Narragansett soldiers, which lies at Amoskeag, 
on the west side of Merrimack river, showing, that upon their viewing the 
said land, in order to their laying it out into lots, they found it so poor and 
barren as to be altogether incapable of making settlements, and therefore 
praying that they may have liberty to quit it and take up the said grant in 
some other province land." 

Their petition was granted, and February 4, 1736, we find another act con- 
firming to them another tract of land " lying between Lambstown on the east, 
Swift river and the Equivalent Land on the west, Salemtown on the north, 
and Mr. Reed's land on the south." This grant received the name of " Quab- 
bin Territory " — Quabbin being the Indian name — and included the town 
now called Greenwich, while the " Equivalent Land " was comprised in Belch- 
ertown, Pelham, Prescott and Ware, and was so called from the manner of 
settling the boundary between Massachusetts and Connecticut. Twelve hun- 
dred acres of this territory were confirmed to James Patterson and others, and 
the remainder was confirmed in the same act to the proprietors of Narragan- 
sett Township Number Four, " in part to satisfy a grant of a township made 
to them," meaning the New Hampshire grant. This was insufficient to make 
up 23,040 acres, or six miles square, therefore it was further ordered in the 
same act, "that a township of the contents of six miles square be laid out 
west of Hatfield [the part now Williamsburg] and adjoining thereto, and that 
so much thereof be confirmed to the proprietors of the Narragansett Town 
Number Four, as shall be, together with what is found to be contained in the 
above described land, over and above the twelve hundred acres especially 
granted, as shall make up and complete the contents of six miles square, 
formerly granted to them." The Quabbin territory contained 15,779 
acres, which was confirmed to them in an act by the general court, January 
9> 1737. and the remaining 7,261 acres was made over in a special act, July 



TOWN OF CHESTERFIELD. 



7, 1739, from the above named township west of Hatfield. In laying out this 
land, they were to commence at the northeast corner and run to the center or 
middle of the eastern line, and then to extend in a parallel line westward with 
the north line, so far as to contain 7,261 acres. 

This township was laid out June 13, 1738, at least this is the date of its 
entrance upon the court records, by Nathaniel Kellogg, and contained 23,040 
acres, exclusive of six hundred acres granted to one Coleman, bounded "east 
on Hatfield (or Williamsburg), north, south and west on unappropriated lands, 
beginning nine miles west of Connecticut river in the line between Hatfield 
and Deerfield, supposed to be Hatfield northwest corner," running west 2,160 
perch, south 1,880 perch, east 1,880 perch, and thence north 90 degrees east 
to the first mentioned point. This last statement must be a mistake in the 
recjrds, as it is a continuation of an eastern line, whereas it really is north 10 
degrees east. 

The conditions of this grant were, that they should settle forty families in 
Quabbin, and twenty others in the township west of Hatfield, making sixty 
the number required to be settled in each township. A committee was ap- 
pointed by the general court to oversee the laying out of the latter tract, and 
they were " empowered to admit forty other settlers in said township, first 
giving preference to John Potter, Jonathan Tarbox, Joseph Breden, John 
Newhall, John Delaway, Joseph Coolings, Daniel Johnson, Samuel Newhall, 
and to one of the heirs of each of the following persons : William Wormwood, 
Zachariah Marsh, John Driver, Henry Trivet, John Page and Bartholomew 
Flagg." Some of these are supposed to be the soldiers, or the descendants 
of the soldiers, engaged in the Canada expedition of 1690, and who served 
under Capt. Thomas Andrews. Their portion of the land was located in the 
southern part of the township and was subsequently called " New Hingham," 
probably because so many of the soldiers came from Hingham. We have 
but little evidence that any of the above named persons ever had a settlement 
in town, but there are records of the transfer of land given in some of their 
names. 

The committee was also "directed to lay out three hundred acres for the 
first settled minister, another for the ministry, and another for the school, 
and the rest of the land (besides what is hereby confirmed to the Narragan- 
sett soldiers) to be equally divided to the other forty settlers, provided each 
of them shall within two years from this time build and finish a house eighteen 
feet square and seven feet stud, and he or one of his decendants shall con- 
tinue to dwell there two years from the building such house, and bring to and 
put under good improvement ten acres of said land within the space of four 
years from this time." Another provision was " that the settlers shall build a 
suitable meeting-house and settle a learned orthodox minister among them 
within the space of five years from this time." Though this is the read- 
ing of the act, no meeting-house was built until thirty-two years after. 

Of the Coleman grant but little has as yet been ascertained. Why he re- 



TOWN OF CHESTERFIELD, 



203 



ceived six hundred acres of the best land in the township, and in laying out 
the township there should be an allowance made of that number of acres, has 
not been satisfactorily explained. It is somewhat traditionary that he received 
the grant for services rendered in laying out lots in the township, which may 
be probable. We find his grant spoken of in the records of January 13, 
1738, but without his given name, and this in the act concerning the 
boundaries of the town, which we have spoken. 

In 1781 the present township of Goshen was set off from Chesterfield ter- 
ritory. 

Settlement and Groivth. — At what precise date the first family entered the 
town is uncertain. Gideon Bisbee came into town as early as 1755 or 1756, 
and chopped wood. He only staid during the week, returning to Northamp- 
ton Saturday nights. How long he worked is unknown. Owing to the In- 
dian difficulties in and about Northampton, he was prevented from doing it 
for any great length of time. George Buck is supposed to have been the first 
person who wintered here, in Ireland street, and perhaps the fact that 
George Buck and Prince CoA^in^, two of its earliest settlers, were Irishmen, 
is the reason for calling the street by its present name. It is related of him 
that lie was detained an unusual length of time in Northampton by a snow 
storm, where he had gone for provisions, being short at home, and his family 
were so reduced during his absence as to be obliged to kill and eat their dog. 

The settlement from this time gradually increased. In 1776 the population 
was 1,092 souls. The growth and fluctuation of the town's population since 
J 790 may be seen by the following : 1790,1,183; 1800,1,223; 1810,1,408; 
1820, 1,447; 1830, T,4i6; 1840, 1,132; 1850, 1,014; 1855, 950; i860, 
S97 ; 1865, 801 ; 1870, 811 ; 1875, 74^ i 1880, 769. 

Organization. — Two sets of proprietors, the Narragansett and Canada, 
living side bj' side in the same township, upon different grants of lands, were 
greatly embarrassed in their civil policy, and it became necessary for the 
general court to make the two parties one corporate body. To this end an 
act of incorporation passed the house June 10, 1762, and received the ap- 
proval of Governor Bernard the next day, June 11. The act reads as fol- 
lows : — 

"Whereas, the proprietors of the new plantation called New Hingham, are 
under such circumstances that they cannot carry on their public aft'airs without 
the aid of this court, they being originally two proprietors as to their property, 
and have never been united into one propriety as to their public affairs. Be 
it therefore enacted by the Governor, Council and House of Representatives, 
that the new plantation called New Hingham, lying in the county of Hamp- 
shire, bounded as follows: east on the township of Hatfield, south partly on 
Northampton and partly on land lately sold by the province, north partly on 
province lands and partly on a grant made to Narragansett Number Four, and 
extending west to make twenty-three thousand and forty acres, exclusive of 
Coleman's grant, which contains six hundred acres, be and hereby is incor- 
porated into a town by the name of Chesterfield, with powers, privileges and 
immunities that towns within this government have or do enjoy." 



204 TOWN OF CHESTERFIELD. 



According to the instructions contained in the last clause of the incorpo- 
ration act, Samuel Mather, Esq., of Northampton, issued his warrant to Jere- 
miah Stockwell, calling a town meeting at the dwelling house of Elisha War- 
ner, July 20, 1762. At this meeting Eleazar King was chosen moderator and 
town clerk ; Joseph Burnell, Benjamin Bonney, and Everton Berwick, select- 
men ; Benjamin Bryant, constable ; Elisha Warner, treasurer ; Everton Ber- 
wick and Benjamin Bonney, assessors. 

Highways. — A vote was passed October 25, 1762, that " for every faithful 
day's work clearing and repairing highways," they would pay 3s. 4d., or about 
eighty-six cents. The first town highway laid out by the selectmen and on 
record, is Ireland street, and it has held its original course till the present 
time. It was laid out December 18, 1762, and is recorded as follows: — 

" Beginning at a beach staddle which stands on ye south side of ye county 
road at ye east end of ye west row of lots in ye town of Chesterfield, extend- 
ing south from ye staddle on ye line which divides ye west row of lots from 
that which adjoins it on ye east, extending so far south as ye lot No. 86 — 
ye road forty feet wide till it comes within twenty rods of Mr. George Buck's 
well, then widening out till it comes to be sixty feet wide by ye well, then 
narrowing off till it goes twenty rods beyond ye well, then holdmg its first 
mentioned width to its aforesaid bounds." 

The county road spoken of is the road known as the Pontoosuc road from 
Hatfield — W^illiamsburg — to Pittsfield, and was the first road through the 
town. It was laid in 1760, and passed through the center of Chesterfield, 
crossing the Westfield river about midway between the old and new roads as 
they remain at present. Indications of this road are still visible in the woods 
near Wtstfield river. The site of George Buck's well is still visible near the 
roadside, and is probably one of the oldest wells in town. To give some idea 
of the travel which crossed the town in the old staging days, it is only neces- 
sary to state that the town had ten hotels. 

Almost every year several new roads were presented to the town for ac- 
ceptance. But few of the roads of an early date are now traveled. Time 
and experience proved that it was not always the best way to go over the 
tops of hills, and they gradually learned that a kettle bail is as long stand- 
ing as when lying down, and therefore experimental philosophy had some- 
what to do in the changeableness of their roads. One other road we will no- 
tice, however, which remains about as it was laid. It was accepted March 
6, 1769, and is as follows : — 

" Beginning at a hemlock tree on ye county road about six rods east of ye 
Rev. Benjamin Mills' house, and thence straight by ye east end of his barn, 
and thence straight by ye east end of ye burying yard, thence straight to and 
between ye lowermost ledge and ye second ledge and Lieut. Abner Brown's 
lot, and thence between ye ledge to a convenient place to go down, thence 
straight to ye meeting-house, and ye road is four rods wide." 

This, as it plainly appears, is the one from the hill to the north part of the 
town, and it remains almost precisely as it was formerly laid, 

June 5, 1769, it was voted to clear the " new road across Westfield river," 



TOWN OF CHESTERFIELD. 205 

which is now the old River Hill road. At what time the bridge was built is 
uncertain, though perhaps not far from this time, March 9, 1797, the third 
Massachusetts turnpike corporation was established, and this road became a 
part of the turnpike from Northampton to Pittsfield. A toll-gate was kept 
just beyond the west end of the bridge. This neighborhood still goes by the 
name of " the Gate." 

It seems that bridges were scarce in the early settlement of the town, and 
that streams were forded as they are in new countries at the present time. 
Streams evidently were larger then than they are now, and sometimes travel- 
ers were put to much inconvenience to cross them. To illustrate their in- 
genuity in discovering ways to cross under such circumstances, it is related 
of Jonathan Anderson, that he was coming from Northampton horseback 
with a load of provisions, he came to the river somewhere near Florence, 
which at the time was so high he could not ride on his load. So dismounting 
he headed his horse into the stream and applied the whip, catching the horse 
by the tail as it swam away, and was thus safely drawn across the river. 

Early Schools. — The first notice of schools is under date of December 
21, 1767, when the town voted to have a school or schools, and soon after 
voted not to raise any money to support them. September 28, 1768, it was 
voted to raise ^9 to be expended in schooling. The town was to be divided 
into three districts. A line from east to west by the meeting-house would 
separate the north from the south district, and all over the river would form 
the west district. A committee of three was also appointed in each district, 
and " empowered to provide masters and dames for their respective districts 
and also places to keep at." The pay of a " dame " in those days the follow- 
ing fact will illustrate. Dea. Oliver Taylor records in his memorandum that 
he hired a "schoolmarm " for fifty cents a week, and she boarded herself. 
May 8, 1769, we find another vote to raise ^12 for summer schools. The 
town was divided into five districts, and one man appointed in each district 
to act as a committee for the district. The men appointed were Dea. May, 
Benjamin Bonney, Joseph Biirnell, Robert Hamilton and John Buck. The 
vote of instruction given them showed in what light they esteemed their 
schools. The committee "are hereby empowered to call their respective dis- 
tricts together at proper times and know their minds how and when the 
school should be kept, and make report to the selectmen who they have em- 
ployed to keep school." December 11, 1769, they voted ;^i8 for win- 
ter schools, and each district was authorized to build a school-house. De- 
cember 22, 1772, they voted £,2^^ for schools, and March 7, 1774, they had 
increased their appropriation to ^30. 

Military. — September 29, 1774, a special meeting was called to see whether 
a delegate should be sent to a provincial congress to be held at Concord on 
the second Tuesday of October following. They voted in the negative ; but 
December 21st they voted to comply strictly with the association of the 
continental congress, and a committee was chosen to carry out the mind of 



2o6 TOWN OF CHESTERFIELD. 



the association. A committee chosen to look after those people who could 
not arm themselves, and voted to purchase 400 pounds of powder for a town 
stock. Ezra May was chosen delegate to the provincial congress, and they 
agreed to indemnify all officers for all losses in not making returns to Harri- 
son Gray, Esq., province treasurer. Thus we see that a sudden change came 
over them within the space of three months, and now they took strong meas- 
ures in the cause of their country. January 16, 1775, the vote to purchase 
400 pounds of powder was reconsidered, and another passed to buy 200 
pounds as soon as possible, and 400 pounds of lead and 1,200 flints. Affairs 
appeared more threatening in the country, and the people of Chesterfield 
were preparing to share in the dangers of the Revolution. Capt. Webster 
of the minute men was ordered, if called into action before the March fol- 
lowing, to procure guns enough to supply those men who could not purchase 
them for themselves, and in town meeting a subscription paper was drawn 
up for the benefit of the men. April 21, 1775, Capt. Webster marched to 
Cambridge with forty-seven men, and mustered into Col. John Fellows's reg- 
iment. July loth, it was rated that fifteen men from each of the two com- 
panies in town should be enlisted and stand in readiness in case of alarm. 
April I, 1776, Abner Brown's account was allowed "for a door, staple and 
hinges under the pulpit to secure the town stock of powder." It was also 
"voted to run the town stock of lead into balls and buckshot of different 
sizes." On June 19, 1776, it was voted "that should the Honorable Conti- 
nental Congress for the safety of the United Colonies, declare themselves 
independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain, the inhabitants of the town of 
Chesterfield will, with our lives and fortunes, engage to defend them in the 
measure." 

November .3, 1777, a consultation of the committee of safety was urged to 
determine what should be done with the German prisoners sent from North- 
ampton ; but we have no report of their action. These were some of the 
prisoners taken at Saratoga the October previous. They were lodged in the 
barn of Jonathan Anderson. Mrs. Anderson was a peculiar woman, ready 
to do what her sense of justice required, and it is related of her that some of 
the privates of the prisoners asked for some refreshments, and presently some 
of the officers made a like request, when they were told that they could have 
some when their turn came. 

In brief, the town furnished about forty soldiers for the Revolutionary war, 
about twenty for the war of 1812, one for the Florida war, and one for the 
Mexican war. In the late great war the town sent ninety-five men to the 
front, ten over its quota, two of whom were commissioned officers. It appro- 
priated and expended $14,662.00 for the cause, exclusive of $5,013.01 
which was refunded by the state. 

Biographical. — Of the families of the first settlers but little can be learned 
except that they came from such a place, settled at a certain spot marked by 
a pile of stones or a cellar hole, and that they died about such a time. But 



TOWN OF CHESTERFIELD. 207 

a few family records are known to exist, and the memories and records of the 
old inhabitants are as unsatisfying as the traditions handed down from gener- 
ation to generation. The family name in many cases is lost, even where there 
are descendants by other names. Added to this is the fact that many of the 
old families lived in what is now the town of Goshen, and will appear in the 
history of that town. Of a few of the pioneers whose names are among us we 
append the following, omitting generally, names of those removed or died 
without children, tracing the family name down to the present generation. 

Of the original settlers, Joseph Burnell and David Stearns came from Dud- 
ley; Benjamin, Consider and Prince Bryant, Abiel Stetson, Abner, Nehemiah 
and Benjamin Bates, Benjamin, Thomas and Jonathan Pierce, Seth, Nehe- 
miah and Luke Sylvester, Jacob Litchfield, Robert, Amos and Isaiah Damon, 
Joshua and John Rogers, John Pynchon, Joseph and Joshua Baily, Charles 
and Job Cudworth, from Scituate; Ichabod Damon, John Stephenson and 
Zebulon Willcutt, from Cohassett; Seth Taylor, Benjamin Bonney, Zebulon 
Robinson, Gideon and Jotham Bisbee, from Pembroke ; Paul and Silas King, 
Elisha, Elijah and Joel Warner, Justus Wright, Paul and Amasa Clapp and 
OUver Edwards, from Northampton ; Daniel Littlefield, George and Matthew 
Buck, Abram Joslyn and Prince and Barnabus Cowing, from Bridgewater; 
Thomas Holbert and David Macomber, from Easton ; Samuel and Joseph 
Rhodes, from Marblehead ; Samuel, Elijah and Barney Higgins, from Cam- 
bridge, N. Y.; Abijah Whiting (or Whiton), from Hingham; Nathaniel Bry- 
ant, from Plymouth ; Thomas Moore, from Brookfield ; Gershom Collier, 
from Boston. 

The first family that wintered in town, as we have stated, was that of George 
Buck, who, with his son Matthew, from Bridgewater, settled on what is known 
as " Ireland Street." In fact this street was limited on the north by George 
Buck's well, just south of C. P. Hathaway's house, on land of John W. Cow- 
ing. A son (Thomas) of Matthew was the father of Cyrus, who, with his son 
Franklin, lived where Otis now lives. Isaac Buck, a descendant of the same 
family settled on the " Mount." Isaac, Jr., also lived on the Mount, and was 
one of the soldiers of 1812. One of his sons died in the Florida war. One 
son, Thomas, lives in Goshen. 

Dr. Robert Starkweather was the physician of the town for more than fifty 
years. He was from Stonington, Conn., and settled here in 1790. He built 
and occupied the house now occupied by Oliver Edwards. Of his children, 
Horace went to Michigan, Rodney lived many years in town, but late in life 
removed to Ohio. Mrs. Oliver Edwards (the mother of the present Oliver) 
and Mrs. Emmons Putney, of Goshen, were his daughters. Anecdotes of the 
"old doctor," who was somewhat of a joker and very particular and peculiar 
in his habits, might be related, enough to fill this volume. 

OHver Edwards (grandfather of the present Oliver) removed here 1775 ^o 
1780, from Northampton, at Robert's Meadow, so-called, where Eli A. Sylves- 
ter now lives. He was a son of Nathaniel Edwards, long known as " Land- 



2o8 TOWN OF chesterfield; 

lord Edwards." He settled on "Sugar Hill," on the place now owned by 
Ebenezer Edwards. Of his children, Luther and Oliver settled in Chester- 
field ; Elisha, in Springfield; Mrs. VVilUam Pomeroy, at Williamsburg; Mrs. 
Ambrose Stone, at Williamsburg ; and Mrs. Joshua Bates, at Skaneateles, 
N. Y. 

Lieut. Robert Damon, with his brother Amos, came from Scituatein 1762. 
Robert built the mill now known as Bisbee's, and Amos located in the north 
part of the town, about half a mile north of Utley Corners, and near the Fred- 
erick Utley house. His children were Isaac, Jemima, Debby, James, Nathan, 
David, Hannah and Caleb. Isaac's children were Isaac, Thomas, Lewis, 
WilHam, Cyrena, Rufus, Zenas, Salma, Rowena, Calvin, Sophronia and 
Wealthy. Calvin owns the old homestead of his father, and Wealthy mar- 
ried Orin Bisbee, at Bisbee's Mills, Most of these settled in town and have 
an extensive family connection. 

Elisha Witherell, while a single man, removed from Scituate and located in 
the southeastern part of the town, about 1770, and while that section of the 
town was a wilderness, making his first domicile in a cabin built against a 
huge rock on his premises. He married Mrs. Rebecca Studley, who bore 
him three sons and three daughters, all of whom settled in this town. His 
sons were Nathaniel, Joseph and Elijah. His daughter Rebecca married 
Joshua Nichols, father of Albert Nichols. Nathaniel's children were Levi 
and Mrs. John Hayden. Elisha's children were Edsel, Lewis, Hiram and 
Ransom. Joseph's children were Henry, Mrs. Charles Cudworth, Lyman 
and Electa. 

The Bisbee family came from England, in 1634, and settled in Marshfield, 
or Pembroke, wiiere we find the record of John Bisbee. His son Gideon 
came to this town about 1755, and spent one summer clearing a portion of 
land near the " Kidd Lookout," in the eastern part of the town. Returning 
to Pembroke in the fall for his family, he arrived just in season to join in the 
French and Indian war, where he died of the small pox. Soon after this his 
widow and two sons and daughters removed to this town and located just a 
few rods south of the present homestead of Otis H. Buck. The widow died 
there and was buried at " The Gate " cemetery. Of his children, Jotham 
married Lydia, daughter of Luther Curtiss, and remained at Home. Gideon 
married Betsey, daughter of Nathaniel Bryant, and settled on the Mount. 
Lydia married Joseph Nichols and located on the farm still owned by Albert 
Nichols, one of the grandchildren. The other daughter married Luther Cur- 
tiss, and removed to the eastern portion of the town, where descendants now 
live. Of these four children, Jotham had ten children, among whom were 
Jonathan, Elisha, Job and Asahel. Gideon had five children, but the family 
has long been extinct in town. The record of the daughters will appear in 
other places. Jonathan had seven children, among whom we find Capt. 
James, of Worthington ; Rev. John H., of Westfield, and Martha, who mar- 
ried Capt. James Kelly, of Worthmgton. Elisha had eleven children, among 



TOWN OF CHESTERFIELD. 



209 



whom were Orin, Osmon, Miranda, Joanna, Arvilla, Asenath and Ursula. 
Asahel had four children, Henry A., of Williamsburg, George, of Goshen, 
Celia, who married Edgar, son of Patrick Bryant, Jr., and lives in Westfield, 
and Harriet, who died young. Of the children of Elisha, Orin married 
Wealthy Damon, who bore him seven children, Wealthy, who married C. T. 
Macomber, Horatio, who married Louisa, daughter of Col. Lyman Rice, 
Mary, who married Allen Shaw, Lydia, who married Joseph B. Macomber, 
Jane, who married C. S. Vanslike, and Almarin, who married Martha, daugh- 
ter of E. W. Tilden. Osmon married Sophia, daughter of Lewis Damon, 
who bore him five children, Melvin, J. Eliot, Melissa, Rockwell and Adelbert. 
Miranda married Royal Harrington, and had two children, Hellen and Ella, 
the latter of whom married Albert Abbott, of Easthampton. Joanna mar- 
ried Waterman Buck, and went West. Arvilla married James Robinson and 
went West. Asenath married Chauncey Witherell, who lives at the Center. 
Ursula married EHjah Tilden, and lives in California. 

Jacob Thayer, from Bridgewater, located in the west part of the town 
quite early. Of his children^ Luke and Joel located on the " Mount," Ste- 
phen near the river, on the farm now owned by Mrs. Edward Thayer, and 
later on the farm owned by the Thayer brothers. One son married the daughter 
of Elder Vining. Of the descendants, Luke's children went West. Joel 
had two sons, Orrin and Daniel. Daniel removed to Connecticut and Orrin 
located in South Worthington. Stephen's children, among whom were Alpha, 
Ansel and Susan, settled in town. Alpha married Anna Whiton, and located 
on the " Mount." One son, Luther, represents the family in town as the last 
of Alpha's family. Ansel married Elvira, daughter of Job Cowing, by whom 
he had three children, Dwight, Electa and Lewis. His second wife was Em- 
ehne Manley, by whom he had three children, Elwin, Ella and Edwin. Susan 
married Lyman Culver, and had six children, all of whom removed from 
town. 

Jesse Willcutt lived in the town as early as 1775, and tradition says he 
heard the firing from the battle of Bunker Hill by putting his ear to the 
ground, and the identical spot where he stood at the time is pointed out to 
those curious in such matters. There were twenty one children, of whom 
seventeen grew to mature age, and among them was Jesse, Jr., a son of whom 
was Joel (Capt. Joel), father of Martin, who occupies the old farm. A few 
years since, at a cattle show at Cummington, Capt. Joel appeared in the pro- 
cession with five generations of the family by direct descent, on horseback. 
But few of the people of the vicinity that have not seen the captain officiat- 
ing as marshal or officer of the day on many a patriotic or festive occasion, 
and in his latter years he sported a sash taken from a Confederate officer 
by C. T. Macomber, at the battle of Newbern, N. C. The future historian 
can only speak of the Willcutts as " the old men," as the name dies out with 
the present generation in spite of the offer of Capt. Joel of a yoke of o.xen 
for a grandson by the name of Willcutt, 



TOWN OF CHESTERFIELD. 



Timothy Engram came from Williamsburg in December, 1798, and settled 
on the Coleman tract. Of his children, Timothy and Benjamin lived in 
Westhampton ; Joel, Nathaniel, Porter, Otis, Deborah and Mrs. Edwin Da- 
mon remained in town. Sons of Joel, Joel, Jr., and Newman, and Nathaniel 
and Ammiel, sons of Otis, are still in the town. 

James Utley lived near where Edward Cobb now lives. His children were 
Frederick, William, Knowlton, Sally, Ralph, Samuel and Mrs. Gershom 
House. A son of Knowlton represents the family name at present in town 

Joseph Rhodes, from Marblehead, had children, Jacob, Chapman, Thomas, 
Joseph, Stephen, Samuel, Benjamin, Amy, Polly, Hannah and Betsy. Chap- 
man's children were John, Norman, Horace, Harvey, Joseph, Mary Ann, 
Sarah, Jane and Janette. Thomas's children were Eunice, Matilda, Thomas 
C, Dorus L., Elmira and Alden. 

Elijah, Barney and Simeon Higgins were from Bridgewater. Simeon was 
among the Revolutionary soldiers. Barney settled in Worthington and 
Lewis in Chesterfield, where J. W. Cowing lives. He had three wives. By 
the first he had children, Jonathan, who removed to Ogdensburg, N. Y., 
Lewis, who settled in Chesterfield, Elijah and Luther in Worthington, Re- 
becca, Deliverance, who married Mr. Billings and removed to Canada, So- 
phronia, and William, who in middle life removed to Worthington, where he 
died ; by his second wife, Ruth ; by his third wife, Billings, who lived in 
Worthington. Lewis, who married Mary, daughter of Rev. Asa Todd, and 
had children, Jacob, who married Eliza Moore and Julia Prentice, and re- 
moved in middle life to Cummington. Almon married Lucy Clapp and re- 
moved to Westfield, Elzina married Chauncey Langdon, of Westhampton. 
Lucy E. married Madison Cudworth, of Chesterfield, DeHverance married 
John Cady, of Westfield, Elijah married Zilpah Collier and Elmira Prentice, 
and lives in Chesterfield, Catharine married James E. Westcott, of Westfield. 

Nathaniel Bryant, grandson of Lieut. John Bryant, of Plymouth, removed 
from Plymouth in 1777 and located a little east of E. S. Kinne's present domi- 
cile. There is a pear tree now standing near the site of the house. He 
married Joanna, daughter of Ebenezer Cole, of Plymouth, by whom he had 
twelve children, two only of them born after their removal to this town. Of 
the two children who settled in this town, Betsey married Gideon Bisbee, Jr., 
and located on the " Mount," and Colonel Patrick, who married Anna, 
daughter of Capt. Thomas Halbert, and settled near the " Mount." Patrick 
had seven children, of whom Patrick, Jr., and Ann located in this town. 
Patrick, Jr., married Bricea Dumbleton, by whom he had five children who 
grew to maturity, viz. : Elizabeth, Royal, Orrin, Calvin and Edgar. They 
located and built the mills now owned by H. B. Smith & Son, and the father 
and sons were widely known in mechanical matters and also as forming 
" Bryants' Band." Ann married Obed Skiff, of Williamsburg, and lived many 
years on the old homestead. They had seven children, all living, but widely 
scattered. 



TOWN OF CHESTERFIELD. 



The Baker family trace their genealogy back to Edward Baker, an English- 
man, who, as one of Winthrop's colonists, settled in Saugus in 1630. The name 
is perpetuated in town by way of Elisha, who came from Northampton, mar- 
ried Alice Wilder and had nine children, of whom Elisha, Jr., who married 
Samantha Parker, of Peru, and lived where his son Levi now lives. Zeruah, 
who married Ralph Utley and located in Goshen ; Andrew K., who married 
Eveline, daughter of Luther Edwards; Sarah, who married Darius Stephen- 
son and Asahel Bisbee ; Daniel C. who married Mary Ann Wilder, of Pitts- 
field, and Fanny, a daughter by a former wife, married Israel Graves, of 
Northampton. Joshua Healy lived in the northeast part of the town and 
was the father of Seth and Parley and grandfather of the present Seth A. 
Healy. Joshua was in the Revolutionary war and his sons in the war of 18 12. 
In the Shays Rebellion Joshua made himself obnoxious to the neighbors, by 
taking sides with the government, to such a degree that his house was fired 
into, three balls lodging inside. 

Zebulon Robinson located and lived to middle life where E. S. Kinne now 
lives. Later in life he purchased the old " Gate Tavern " of Daniel Little- 
field and remained there till his decease. Of his children, Josiah settled in 
Worthington ; Asa located and kept store where Horace Cole now lives, just 
opposite the tavern kept by his father. He was also interested in the woolen 
manufacture and in the raising of silk. Eleazer occupied the old homestead 
till middle life, when he removed to Worthington, where he now resides. 
Silas carried on the tannery in the we<5t part of the town several years, when 
he removed to Worthington and engaged in farming till the burden of years 
and bodily infirmities forced him to relinquish hard labor and tarry with some 
of his children. His present residence is Florence. His wife was Cynthia 
Potter, by whom he had twelve children, eleven of whom grew to mature age. 

By old deeds in possession of the Nichols family, we learn that Job Nich- 
ols owned and occupied a homestead in Scituate, and that in 1752 he pur- 
chased of Joshua Oldham, of Scituate, an addition to the same. Job 
Nichols married Mehetabel Oldham, by whom he had two sons, Joseph, and 
one who was lost at sea, leaving no family. Job removed from Scituate to 
Pembroke and lived with his son Joseph till his decease in 1778. Joseph 
Nichols, son of Job, settled in Pembroke, in that portion now Hanson. He 
married Lydia, daughter of Gideon Bisbee, of Pembroke, by whom he had 
three children, two sons and one daughter. In the spring of 1794 he re- 
moved and located in Chesterfield, his mother accompanying hini, where she 
deceased in 1804. His sons were Joseph and Jonathan B. The latter, 
about 1800, removed to Otisco, N. Y., where he settled as a farmer and gen- 
eral business man, reared a large family, and about 1830 removed to Pitts- 
field, Mich., where he deceased in 1834. Joshua remained at home, and in 
1803, married Rebecca, daughter of Elisha Witherell. His family consisted 
of six sons and three daughters, two sons being the only representatives now 
(1886) left. Of these remaining sons, John is living in Columbus, Ohio, is a 



TOWN OF CHESTERFIELD. 



physician and druggist. Albert, to the manor born in 1812, still remains 
loyal, has resided here almost contiuously from birth and still retains the old 
homestead of his ancestors. In 1838 he married Clarinda B. Johnson, of 
Williamsburg, by whom he had three sons, all .of them rendering service to 
the government in the land and naval forces. The youngest (John H.) still 
survives, resides in Haydenville, Mass. The others, Warner B. and William 
J., have been resting these many years among the multitude of their silent 
comrades in " God's silent acre," at Arlington, Va. This last representative 
of the Nichols family now residing here, has, we think, been favored with 
opportunities to enjoy a busy life. In addition to farming interests, engaged 
in school work, as a member of the school committee or teacher, or both 
since 1838, several years' service as selectman and assessor, etc., now render- 
ing his twentieth year of service as town clerk and treasurer of the town, by 
the good will of his fellows occupying a seat in the legislature three sessions, 
then with a commission as a justice of the peace for twenty years, must, as 
we think, have furnished abundant opportunities for doing many little things, 
while leaving those of greater magnitude to more ambitious citizens. 

Ezekiel Pierce, from Attleborough, married Wealthy, daughter of " Uncle" 
Solomon Livermore, who lived on the Clarke farm, and located at the foot 
of the " Mount" hill. He had one son and one daughter. His daughter mar- 
ried E. B. Taylor, of this town, and the son is still a bachelor of eighty-two, 
yet Asahel, "the Major," still blows his flute as satisfactorily to himself as in 
the old training days when he bore the commission of fife-major. 

The Macomber family is of Scotch descent, tracing their family history 
back to the time of King Robert the Second of Scotland. They were among 
the first of the colonists bearing the honorable title of "Pilgrims," and located 
in Bridgewater and Easton, where David was born. On reaching his major- 
ity he left Easton in a company of emigrants to Chesterfield, where he located 
in 1773. After a short service in the Revolutionary war, and becoming 
unfit for further service in the field in 1776, he married Katharine, daughter 
of Daniel Littlefield, purchased the farm now occupied by a grandson, Joseph 
B., and settled there. Here he reared twelve children, of whom six removed 
to Westford, Vt., two to Ohio, and four passed their days in Chesterfield. 
Alvan, a son, married Mercy Noyes for his first wife, by whom he had one 
son, D. Wright. His second wife was Nancy, daughter of Joseph Burnell, 
by whom he had five children. Chandler T., James H., Sophronia, Joseph B. 
and Martha G. His third wife was Malinda (Bates) White. 

From the most reliable sources at hand we find that Ebenezer and Consider 
Cole came to Ireland street among the earliest pioneers. Of the children of 
Ebenezer we find Joanna, who married Nathaniel Bryant, Rachel, who mar- 
ried Daniel Littlefield and lived opposite the present residence of Horace 
Cole; Ebenezer, Jr., and Elijah. Of the children of Consider we find Con- 
sider, Jr., and Amaziah. The children of Consider, Jr., were Consider, Sam- 
uel and Horace. • The last named at present living in Pittsfield, at the age of 



TOWN OF CHESTERFIELD. 



213 



eighty-seven. Of the children of Amaziah we find Amaziah, Jr., the father of 
John, Ephraim and Betsy (Mrs. Crozier). Most of these named had large 
families and their descendants are very numerous, but those named are the 
principal ones who preserve the family name in town. Of the children of 
Consider, Jr., Horace, Consider and Samuel, above mentioned, married sis- 
ters, daughters of Elijah Cole. Other children of Elijah were Nancy, wife of 
Lot Drake, Amos, of VVorthington, Isaac, Elijah, Jr., Lydia and Sophia. 

Prince and Barnabas Cowing, from places unknown, were among the pio- 
neers and both were in the Revolutionary war. Of their descendants we find 
that John, a son of Prince, was the first child born in town. We also find 
Samuel, Calvin, ^Thompson, Thomas, Job and Gathelius. Job settled on the 
" Mount " and had a large family. Of the sons of Gathelius we find Job, the 
father of Lewis, and John, now living on Ireland street. One daughter mar- 
ried Elijah Cole, Jr. 

Archelaus Anderson resided at the Center and afterwards where Dr. D. W, 
Streeter now Hves. In 1805 he sold the Streeter place to Gershom CoUier, 
just arrived from Boston, and bought the place where T. S. Ring now lives. 
Afterwards he sold this place to Elijah Graves and removed West. 

Amasa Clapp settled where W. I. Rice now lives. Of his children are Ira 
(father of Ira, now living in town), and a daughter was Mrs. Alvin Rice. 

Luther Curtiss's homestead in the east part of the town is now occupied by 
his descendants. 

Samuel Reed settled on the " Mount." His children were Samuel, Daniel, 
Mrs. Joseph Nash, Mrs. Luther Tower, Simeon, Joseph, Mrs. Jacob Bates, 
Mrs. Thomas Stearns and Alanson. 

Nehemiah Bates came to Chesterfield with his three brothers about 1771, 
and built the house which is now occupied by his great-granddaughter. He 
reared eleven children, of whom Solomon B. hved and died on the homestead. 
Hudson B., oldest son of Solomon B., was born September 11, 1802, married 
Judith Pynchon, February 7, 1825, and had born to him four children. One 
son died in the army, where he served as a corporal in the 5 2d vols. Mr. 
Bates was for many years captain of the old home militia, and was always known 
afterwards as Captain Bates. He served as town representative in 1850-51. 
He died October 3, 1884, aged eighty-two years, his wife having died ten 
years previous. 

Dyar Bancroft, the fourth of the legal profession to settle in Chesterfield, 
and for more than half a century one of the most respected of the town's res- 
idents, was a grandson of Ephraim Bancroft, of East Windsor, and subse- 
quently of Torrington, Conn., an officer of the Revolution. Ephraim married 
Esther Gleason, of East Windsor, Conn., who bore him six children, and lived 
to the great age of ninety-six years, dying in December, 1809, surviving 
her husband eighteen years, who died in 1791. Noadiah, the second 
of their children, married Jerusha Loomis, of Torrington. They both died 
in 1827, he surviving her from October 6th until November 28th of that year. 

16* 



214 TOWN OF CHESTERFIELD. 



Eight of their eleven children attained an adult age, viz.: Luman, Dyar, Eras- 
tus, Chester, Warren, Jerusha, Clarissa and Charlotte, only one of whom is 
living, Chester, a resident of Winsted, Conn. 

Dyar, a brief sketch of whose life we trace, was born in Torrington, Conn., 
April 12, 1786. Prophetic of the erudition he in his future life was to pos- 
sess, at the age of eleven years he began the study of Latin in the district 
school. He entered Yale college in September, 1805 ; but at the earnest 
solicitation of his friends he left in the following spring and entered Williams 
college. Among his classmates here were Samuel A. Talcott, of Hartford, 
Conn., afterwards attorney-general of New York, Samuel J. Mills and Darius 
O. Griswold, the latter of whom became the first settled minister of Saratoga 
Springs. Wholly uneclipsed by this array of talent, he graduated with high 
honors in September^ 1809. He then went to West Brattleboro, Vt., where 
he engaged as a teacher in the academy which is still sustained there. In 
1810 he made his first visit to New York, by the way of Hudson river from 
Albany, his journey from that point by sloop, the fastest transportation in 
those days, occupying six days. He soon after entered the law office of Hon. 
Daniel Dewey, of Williamstown, where he continued about one year, when 
he was appointed to a position as tutor in Williams college, which he success- 
fully held for two years, and when he took his final leave was strongly urged 
by the trustees to remain as professor of languages. In the meantime he 
had continued his study with Judge Dewey, and continued so to do until De. 
cember 13, 1813. On the 14th of February of the following year, 1814, at the 
sessions of the Berkshire county court held at Lenox, he was admitted to the 
bar, and immediately afterward settled in Chesterfield, where he remained 
until his death, September 13, 1866, aged eighty years. 

Of the circumstances which induced Mr. Bancroft to locate here, and the 
sensations he experienced on his first arrival, we quote his own version : 
" This was the time of the last war," he used to relate, " and was rather a dull 
time generally throughout the country for my professional business, and it 
was a matter of great difficulty to find an opening of much promise ; and my 
friends thought this place had as many encouragements as any one I should 
be able to find, so I came on. I really believe it is written out in the great 
book of Heaven, how ardently and devotedly I prayed to God when coming 
up the everlasting hill, in four feet of untrodden snow, that I might never lay 
my bones in Chesterfield. Whereas, as I now feel (in 1858), if I could get at 
that great book, I should be tempted to make an erasure. I love the place 
— it is to me a perfect paradise — it is the birthplace of my children." 

Three lawyers had preceded him here, the last being Benjamin Parsons. 
He purchased of Parsons an old arm-chair which had been m use by both 
the other lawyers, and which he used up to the day of his death, preferring 
it to a modern easy-chair. It was made a special bequest to his son William, 
who prizes it highly. He held many positions of trust and honor, was elected 
justice of the peace in 18x4, which office he held to the time of his death; 



TOWN OF CHESTERFIELD. 215 



was justice of the quorum, notary public for many years, and county com- 
missioner ; through his old master, Judge Dewey, who was then a member of 
congress (1814), he established the first postoffice in the town, Phineas Par- 
sons being the first postmaster, who accepted the office on condition that Mr. 
Bancroft should transact the chief business for him, he feeling incompetent 
for the task, though Mr. Bancroft was soon after appointed postmaster, and 
held the office more than a quarter of a century ; he was first elected to the 
legislature in 1825, holding the office, with one exception, twelve consecutive 
years. He was very familiar with the general routine of legislative business, 
was always on some respectable committee, and very often its chairman. He 
was a prominent member of the Hampshire county bar, and was steadily ad- 
vancing on the sure road to fame when, in 1834, he was sorely afflicted by 
the loss of his eyesight. In all of his earlier years in Chesterfield, his pros- 
pects, social, professional and political, were most promising, but after this 
affliction came upon him he was painfully handicapped, and lived in an 
eclipse. 

May 25, 1815, Mr. Bancroft married Sally Hayes, daughter of Rutherford 
Hayes, of Brattleboro, Vt., granddaughter of Ezekiel Hayes, of Branford, 
Conn., and aunt to ex-president Hayes. They began housekeeping in Ches- 
terfield, in the house now owned and occupied as a summer residence by the 
Rev. T- W. Chadwick, of Brooklyn. Their union was blessed with a family 
of four children, viz.: One daughter, Helen, who in 1834 married Hazelton 
Walkley, of Hartford, Conn., and shortly afterward moved to New York, 
where she spent most of her life, and where her husband died in 1864. She 
subsequently married Emmons Putney, of Goshen, Mass., where she died in 
1868 ; Talcott and William, who still live on the homestead in Chesterfield ; 
and Edward, who died here in 1873. Mrs. Bancroft died August 31, 1882, 
in her ninetieth year. 

"The Bailey Tavern building," which Mr. Bancroft bought early in his life 
in Chesterfield and made his family residence for forty years thereafter, was 
burned in December, 1859. His son William, then a merchant living in New 
York, came home and immediately re-built the present mansion, standing 
precisely upon the original site. In 1864 he replaced the old barns with a 
commodious new one, and with the other out-buildings the homestead makes 
one of the finest farm establishments in the county. William, with his fam- 
ily, have made this place their permanent home since 1864. His wife was 
Miss Julia A. Trowbridge, daughter of the late Henry Trowbridge, Esq., of 
New Haven, a distinguished West India merchant. They have three surviv- 
ing children, Ellen J., Frederick H. and Eliza T. Talcott and William are 
the sole survivors of the only Bancroft family that ever lived in this town. 

Physicians. — Dr. Robert Starkweather settled here in 1790, emigrating 
from Stonington, Conn. He studied with his brother Ezra at Worthington, 
and for fifty years was the only settled physician in town. His father and 
mother finally removed to Chesterfield and died here, the former in 1819, 



2l6 TOWN OF CHESTERFIELD. 



aged ninety-one, and the latter in 1824, aged ninety-three. Dr. Robert died 
in 1858, aged nearly ninety-three. Dr. Starkweather was succeeded by Drs. 
Ellis, Wilson, Perry, Richardson and D. W. Streeter. The latter settled here 
in 1866, and has a wide range of practice in this and neighboring towns. 

VILLAGES. 

Chesterfield is a fine post village located in the central part of the town, 
occupying a fine, sightly location, commanding a lovely view. The village 
has a number of fine private residences, a town-hall, church, store, etc. The 
first postmaster here was Benjamin Parsons, the present, William Baker. 

West Chesterfield village received its name when the postoffice was 
established here about 1850. The postmasters have been Job Cudworth, 
James M. Angell, Ansel Thayer, Joseph W. Tirrell, Nelson A. Higgins and 
Dwight I. Stanton. The postoffice occupies a building erected for the pur- 
pose of a store, postoffice and a public hall. The latter is used for Sunday- 
schools, meetings, lectures, etc. 

MANUFACTURES. 

Ruins of mills and dams may be seen on most of the streams, but their 
history is lost in the treacherous memory of the oldest inhabitants and in the 
scarcely less trustworthy traditions handed down through the generations. 
Years ago large quantities of broom-handles were manufactured here ; but 
the tempting tobacco raising speculation has driven the raising of broom corn 
from the fertile valleys of the Connecticut river and ruined the broom business 
in this section. The manufactures of the town are as follows: — 

S. C. Damon s smv-mill bears the worthy distinction of being the oldest 
in town. About 1760 Joseph Burnell emigrated from Dudley to this spot, 
and built a dam and grist-mill at what is known as the Narrows at the head 
of the present lower pond, and just below a beaver dam that existed at the 
time. At the decease of Joseph Burnell the property passed into the hands 
of his son, Joseph, Jr., who built the dam now standing early in the century. 
For many years this dam served the purpose of a highway from Chesterfield 
to Goshen. During the ownership of Joseph, Jr., a grist-mill, carpenter shop 
and blacksmith shop were erected and occupied by him, and after his decease 
by his son Francis, who inherited the mechanical genius as well as the prop- 
erty of the family. At his death, in j 863, the property passed to William 
Baker, who had married one of the daughters, and from him the property went 
into the hands of the present owner. " Burnell's Pond "is known far and 
near to fishermen, and a picnic ground on the shore of the pond is a favorite 
resort for Sunday School and Fourth of July festivities, and the immense 
quantities of blueberries in the vicinity help to make the place very attractive. 
The grist-mill has long since ceased its hum, and the carpenter shop has been 



TOWN OF CHESTERFIELD. 217 

converted into a dwelling house. The dwelling house has put on a more 
pretentious style of dress, but the old oaken bucket still hangs in the well as 
it has for more than a century^ and children's children to the fifth generation 
have drank from its mossy brim, 

Bisbee's mills. — The saw-mill on the east branch of the Westfield river was 
built prior to 1773, as it appears from the town records of that year that 
money was voted to build a bridge at that location. The mill after- 
wards passed to James Cox, and from him to Benjamin Pierce, who built a 
grist-mill on the east side of the stream. From Pierce the mills passed to 
Gershom Collier, who owned them till his death, when Elisha Bisbee pur- 
chased them, in 18 19, of Collier's widow, and in 1823 erected the grist-mill 
on the west side of the stream. He also built a small shop in connection with 
this mill, using the dwelling house of Thomas Collier for that purpose. This 
shop was soon burned and the present shop was immediately erected. The 
present grist-mili was built in 1S54. The present saw-mill was built by Orin 
and Osmon Bisbee, about 1840, and by them sold to Elisha and Andrew 
Baker, and by them to Orin Bisbee. The present owners are Orin Bisbee 
& Son, Horatio, the son, having purchased an interest in the property. The 
original dam stood near the mills, but for thirty years the water has been 
taken from the stream farther up. 

H. B. Smith &= Son's millwafi originally built by Jonathan Burr, for a tan- 
nery. Chittenden, Job Cudworth, Silas Robinson, Alpha Thayer and P. H. 
Cudworth succeeded to the business, until about 1855, when the property 
passed into the hands of Patrick Bryant, who changed the business for the 
manufacture of seive-hoops, until February, 1866, when the mill was de- 
stoyed by fire, but was immediately re-built, a few rods below the original 
location, where it now stands. About 1877 the property passed into the 
hands of H. B. Smith, who, in company with his son, Thomas E., has con-, 
tinned the hoop business in connection with the lumber business, employing 
eight or ten hands usually. 

S. A. Healys mill, occupied by him in the manufacture of plane and saw- 
handles, and by Henry L. Eddy in the manufacture of gun nipples, and by 
Lyman Hitchcock in the general turning business, occupies the mill privilege 
originally constructed by VViUiam Williams, in 1839. The original dam was 
about 200 rods higher up the stream, and the mill about thirty rods above 
the present location. This property has had many owners. L. K. Baker 
and Rufus Hyde used it for a long time for a saw-mill, carding workSj broom 
handle and button works, until about 1849, when G. W. Rhodes succeeded 
Baker and commenced the manufacture of plane handles in that year. In 
June, 1850, the dam was destroyed, and Rhodes substituted a steam engine 
in place of water-power, and in 1852 the present mill, which had formerly 
done good service at the Green Mountain academy, located at Worthington, 
was erected and run by steam till i860, when Parsons & Healy became sole 
proprietors of the mill rights and erected the dam as it stands. About 1864 



2l8 TOWN OF CHESTERFIELD. 

S. A. Healy became sole owner and continues the business, employing from 
three to six hands. After the loss of the dam in 1850, Rufus Hyde conceived 
the idea and carried it into execution, of building a dam higher up the stream, 
bringing the water a part of the way on the opposite side of the river and 
thence across the river in a cylinder into the old canal. This proved an ex- 
pensive experiment, although temporarily successful. Hyde and his wife 
were both drowned in a flood at Rowe, Mass., while trying to save his mill 
from destruction. 

George S. Spencer's mill was originally built by Lyman Litchfield and 
Duandler Moore, for an iron foundry, and for many years the " Green Moun- 
tain " cook stove, made by Moore & Litchfield found a place in the kitchen 
of most farm houses in the vicinity. Plows, cultivators and mop sticks were 
made in large quantities. The business and mills were sold to Alpha Thayer 
& Son, about 1856, who carried on the same business several years. In 1861 
the foundry was burned, and immediately Edward Thayer re-built the mill 
as a grist-mill, and put in a new dam, where it now stands. Several owners 
carried on the grist-mill till it came into the possession of George S. Spencer, 
the present owner, who exchanged the machinery for other kinds and has 
since carried on a business manufacturing factory supplies. 

E. H. Higgins &= Son's mill was originally built by Elisha Bisbee, about 
1800, and the dam now standing includes the original dam. Bisbee sold the 
mill to Capt. Joel Thayer, who occupied it till his decease, in 1832. Reed 
& Tower owned it a long time, and through successive owners it has come 
down to the present. The saw-mill was taken out many years ago, and the 
building is now used for the manufacture of gun tubes. 

Hiram Higgins s saw-tnill near the mouth of Dead branch, was erected 
about twenty years since, by Job Torrey and Dexter Damon, passing through 
the hands of several owners before coming to the present proprietor. Just 
above this mill is a small establishment owned by Henry A. Weeks, and 
used for the manufacture of cutlery. 

The Fiske saiv-mill. — The saw-mill on Culver brook at present belonging 
to the estate of Rufus H. Fiske, was built about 1840, by Lyman Culver, 
passing at his decease to his son Horace and from his heirs to Rufus H. 
Fisk. There is also a cider-mill connected with the saw-mill, where large 
quantities of apples meet a horrible death in the hope of an ignoble resurrec- 
tion in the form of cider. 

CHURCHES. 

The Congregatiotial church of Chesterfield. — There have existed a Baptist 
church and a Methodist church in Chesterfield, but as in most of New Eng- 
land towns the Congregational faith always was in the majority. The Con- 
gregational society was formally organized^ October 30, 1764, by Rev. 
Samuel Hopkins, of Fladley, and Rev. John Hooker, of Northampton. There 



TOWN OF CHESTERFIELD. 



219 



were seven members besides the Rev. Benjamin Mills, who had received a 
call from the town the preceding July, had accepted, and commenced his 
labors. He was installed as the first pastor of the newly formed church, 
November 2 2d, three weeks after the organization. The first members were 
Benjamin Mills, Joseph Burnell. Joshua Healey, David Stearns, Ezra May, 
Robert Hamilton, Benjamin Tupper and George Buck. The meetinghouse 
was repaired in 1814-15, and stood till 1S35. The new house was dedicated 
November 18, 1835. The society now has sixty-five members. Its pastors 
have been as follows : — 

Rev. Benjamin Mills, 1764-74, continued to reside in town, and became 
prominent in public afifaiis during the Revolution ; Rev. Josiah Kilburn, 
1780-81 ; Rev. Timothy Allen, 1784-96, remained in town and died in 1806, 
aged ninety-one ; Rev. Isaiah Waters, 1 796-1 831, died at Williamsburg, N.Y., 
1 85 1 ; Rev. Benjamin Holmes supplied the pulpit 1832-33 ; Rev. Israel G. 
Rose, 1835-42, he died while pastor, in 1842, aged forty-three; Rev. Oliver 
Warner, ordained in 1844, services closed by reason of ill health, in 1846, 
but he, however, supplied the pulpit considerably before the settlement of 
another pastor ; Rev. Samuel W. Barnum, ordained in 1853, dismissed in 
1855 ; Rev. John E. Corey, stated supply, 1856-59 ; Rev. J. W. Allen, 1859- 
62; Rev. William Rose, ordained in 1862, continued pastor till 1864; Rev. 
J. A. Wilkins, 1864-65: Rev. Edward Clarke, 1865-72; Rev. I. P. Smith, 
1872-73 ; Rev. William A. Fobes, 1873-81 ; Rev. Truman A. Merrill, 1882 
-85 ; Rev. Elijah Loomis, 1885, now holds the position. 

Baptist church. — By the records of the association, there existed a Baptist 
church in Chesterfield as early as 1780, but there is no record at hand dating 
farther back than 1789, at which date a meeting was held at the house of 
Zebulon Robertson (Robinson), where E. S. Kinne now lives, with Luke 
Bonney as clerk, and for a long time after the meetings were held at private 
houses. October 6, 1789, a committee consisting of Luke Bonney, Zebulon 
Robinson and Seth Taylor, was chosen to provide a "teacher." January 26, 
1790, it was reported from this committee favoring and recommending the 
engagement of brother Vining as minister, and, the report having been ac- 
cepted, it was voted to raise £^S- 14^- ^d. by subscription, to defray the ex- 
penses of moving, ordaining, and furnishing a suit of clothes for him. June 
15, 1790, Brother Vining was ordained pastor of the Baptist church in Chester- 
field. In the following May it was voted to move the place of meetings to 
Mr, Stone's new barn, and in 1798 we find a meeting recorded at the meet- 
ing-house, with Dan Daniels, of Worthington, clerk, an office held by Daniels 
for thirty years, assisted in the latter years by his son, Ira Daniels. January 
30, 1 801, Samuel Kingman, of Worthington, and William Keene, of Chester- 
field, were chosen deacons to wait on tiie church. In 1803 the name of Asa 
Todd, who had arrived from Whately, appears as the minister, and in 1805 
Noah White was chosen deacon in the place of William Keene, who re- 
moved to the state of New York. January 31, 1807, Deacon Kingman was 



TOWN OF CHESTERFIELD. 



dismissed, and in March, r8o8, David Macomber was chosen deacon, and in 
July 1 815, Timothy Austin was chosen deacon in the place of Noah White, 
dismissed. In 18 17 the name of Job Cud worth appears as one of the dea- 
cons. Deacon Macomber died in 1819, ^"<^^ subsequently the names of 
David Todd, Asa Robinson and Almon Higgins, appear as holding that 
office. 

In 1 81 7, by the death of one of the brethren, a fund was left to the church 
for the support of the communion table, and a committee, consisting of Dea- 
con Macomber, Deacons Austin and Daniels, was chosen " to obtain the 
money left to the church by our brother Reuben Hitchcock, of Worthington." 
Previous to this time and, as tradition has it, long before the organization of 
the church in the west part of the town, there had been a small body of Bap- 
tists in the northwest part of the town, holding their meetings where Edgar 
Damon now lives, and in 18 18 they erected a meeting-house in the east part 
of the town, a little East of Bisbee's mills, and from the records we infer that 
this was a part of the same church organization with the one in the west part 
of the town, with the same officers and minister. 

November 2, 1820, Eider Todd was dismissed from the pastorate in conse- 
quence of a dissatisfaction among some of the members on account of his be- 
longing to the Freemasons, a society not just then in very high repute, and 
added to this were difficulties of a more personal nature ; but he continued 
to reside in town till his death, in 1847, aged ninety-one. In June, 1822, 
Rev. Paul Hines was chosen pastor. At this date there appears 225 names 
on the church book as belonging to the church. Among them we find the 
names not yet extinct of Curtiss, Macomber, Hayden, Davis, Thayer, Torry, 
Bisbee, Litchfield, Bryant, Cole, Todd, Cudworth, Higgins, Stanton, Tower, 
Taylor, Cowing, Sampson, Angell, Bissell and Robinson. 

From about 1822 the records are lost, and facts exist only as far as known 
in the memory of many now living, and although these facts exist, the precise 
dates may be lacking. About 1825 the meetinghouse, a large rambling 
structure standing just above the present location of Asa Todd, where the 
road turns from Ireland street to Worthington, was taken down, condensed in 
its proportions and removed to the corner opposite the present house of Hor- 
ace Cole. At about the same time the meetings in the east part of the town 
were discontinued, and Rev. Ambrose Day appears as pastor till about 1845. 
Some time during his pastorate it appears there were three deacons, Deacon 
Cudworth having removed from the east part of the town and located in the 
west part. But a difficulty having arisen in the church concerning the bequest 
of Reuben Hitchcock, previously mentioned, and which was left in trust to 
the senior deacon. Deacon Robinson, with about forty others, was expelled 
from the church. The main body of the church erected a new meeting-house 
at the center of the town in 1845, and Almon Higgins was chosen deacon. 

This house was occupied about fifteen years, with Rev. William Smith, F. 
Bestor, Zalmon Richards and William Phillips as ministers or pastors, when, 



TOWN OF CUMMINGTON. 221 



by the removal or death of many of the able and influential members, and the 
gradual depopulation common to these hill towns, the burden became too heavy 
for those remaining. The meetings were discontinued, and in 1874 the meet- 
ing-house was taken down. The church still (1886) keeps up its organization 
with about twenty-five members, who meet with other churches wherever they 
happen to be located, and the avails of the fund left the church by the late 
Dr. Robert Starkweather is used according to the terras of the will. 

In 1825, in consequence of a change of views among some of the members 
living in the east part of the town, a portion, under the lead of Isaac King, 
Esq., withdrew and established a church known as the Free-will Baptist 
church, which occupied the meeting-house till 1845, when a new meeting- 
house at the Center was erected in connection with the Methodist church. 

The Methodist church. — In 1843 several families of Methodist sentiment 
being resident in town, meetings were held in the town-hall, with Josiah Hay- 
den and Mr. Morse, from Williamsburg, as leaders. In 1844 the conference 
sent Rev. Daniel K. Bannister, a native of this town, to conduct the meet- 
ings. In 1845, Rev. E. A. Manning was sent here, a church was formed and 
a house of worship erected. This house is the present town-hall, and is a 
neat and handsome building, founded literally "on a rock." In 1848 Rev. 
McClouth officiated for one year. In 1849 Rev. William Bardwell came here 
and remained two years. He was succeeded by Rev. I. B. Bigelow, who re- 
mained two years. In 1853 and 1855 Rev. John Smith was the preacher. 
E. .B. Morgan succeeded him for one year. The last pastor was Rev. J. W. P. 
Jordan, who remained two years. The house was occupied several years by 
the Free-will Baptists and was finally sold to the town for a town-house. The 
church records were lost in the Mill river flood, May, 1874. 



CUMMINGTON* is one of the western tier of the county's towns, and 
is bounded north by Plainfield, east by Goshen, south by Chester- 
field and Worthington, and west by parts of Windsor and Peru in 
Berkshire county, having an area of 13,711 acres. 

This town has been the birthplace of poets and statesmen, and has a re- 
cord which compares favorably with many better known j)laces. But the 
town has not yet awakened to a sense of her duty in having prepared a full 
and authentic history of the first century of her existence. Brief sketches 
to be sure have been prepared from time to time. It is the writer's purpose 
to add one more to this number, with the fond hope that it may enthuse its 
resident readers to search records and trace traditions, to learn more fully the 
pleasing story of the early life of their town — a story long, yet interesting, 
replete with pathos and humor. Limited space demands that our remarks 



•■ Prepared by Miss Mary E. Dawes. 



TOWN OF CUMMINGTON. 



shall be a brief narration of facts. Our authority in nearly every case are the 
records of the town or state. 

Natural Features. — The surface of the town is broken, presenting charm- 
ingly diversified scenery. Parallel ridges cross the town in a northeasterly di- 
rection and through the intervening valleys flow the several streams, though all 
are tributaries of the larger, the Westfield river. The streams are locally 
known as Swift river, north branch of Swift river, Shaw brook, Roaring brook, 
Childs brook, Kearney brook and Whitemarsh broak. A number of excel- 
lent mill sites are afforded. There is good arable land with rich tillable soil, 
though stock growing facilities predominate. 

Grant and Early Settlement. — On February i6, 1762, by an order of the 
general court, "Colonel Oliver Partridge and Mr. Tyler, with such as the 
honorable board may join " were appointed a committee to sell at public ven- 
due ten townships included in Hampshire and Berkshire counties. "Number 
5," now Cummington, is desbribed as follows : — 

" Also another township, to join west on the east line of said last men- 
tioned township [number 4, afterwards Gageborough, now Windsor] and to 
extend east 20° south, and square off at right angles to make the contents of 
six miles square." 

The committee reported the sale as having taken place on June 2, 1762, 
at the "Royal Exchange Tavern, in King street," Boston. Number 5 was 
then sold to John Cumraings for eighteen hundred pounds, he paying the re- 
quired twenty pounds down and giving a bond for the remainder. At a di- 
vision of lots December 29, 1762, the names of twenty-seven other men are 
recorded as having become proprietors. 

Tradition has uniformly fixed upon Samuel Brewer as the pioneer settler 
of the town. We first find his name among those of the party sent here to 
survey one hundred lots in the summer of 1762. Again, in the records of 
1763, we find a deed from John Cummings to Samuel Brewer, transferring 
certain lots of land in " Plantation No. 5 ;" and we next see him climbing 
these rugged heights, hewing down the dense forest trees and making for 
himself a home near the old Indian trail from Northampton to Pittsfield. He 
built his house near the south line of the farm now occupied by P. P. Ly- 
man, and midway between the old Stephen Warner house and the Seth Por- 
ter place. From here, unaided and alone, he opened a road nearly five 
miles through what is now Worthington to the place once occupied by Jonah 
Brewster, there striking the old military road from Chester to Bennington. 
The time of Samuel Brewer's death and the place of his burial are not known 
and diligent search has failed to discover even any reliable evidence in regard 
to the last years of his life. 

Through the road which this pioneer had opened the settlers came rapidly 
into "Plantation No. 5," principally from Plymouth and Worcester counties. 

But the story of these early times, as we have said, is vague and tradition- 
ary. To be sure records are extant, but they have not, it seems, been 
thoroughly sifted. The town was controlled by the proprietors, their names 



TOWN OF CUMMINGTON. 223 



appear as settlers, when they were in reality non-residents; transients hereto 
build mills or kindred work for the proprietors, are recorded as settlers ; votes 
were passed for improvements, for public buildings, for organization — an 
array of facts that would naturally suggest a rapid and flourishing growth, 
when such was undoubtedly not the case. The settlement during those early 
years increased slowly. The population of the town in decades from 1790 
appears as follows : 1790,873; 1800,985; 1810,1,009; 1820,1,060; 1830, 
1,261; 1840, 1,237; 1850, 1,172; i860, 1,085; ^^7°} i)037 j 1880, 881. 

Changes in Boundaries. — In 1778 the general court was petitioned to set 
off one-third of the public lands of the town to " Gageborough," giving as a 
reason the difficulty of getting over the great hill which intervened between 
this third and the main portion of the town; also the difficulty of transacting 
town business, as this third lay in Berkshire county, while the other two-thirds 
were in Hampshire county. The petition was granted. 

The State, for some public service performed, had given a certain tract of 
land to the town of Hatfield. This land was afterwards incorporated into 
the area of other towns, and a section further north and west was given to 
Hatfield in its stead. This latter was known as " Hatfield Grant " or 
" Equivalent." Plantation No. 5, when surveyed, was found to include nearly 
the whole of this " Equivalent." 

In 1778 the inhabitants of No. 5 sent to the house of representatives a 
petition asking to be incorporated into a town, exclusive of this Equivalent. 
This petition was accompanied by one from the inhabitants of said tract, 
asking to be excluded from the act of incorporation, " because of the moun- 
tains and rivers that attend." It appears that this petition was not granted, 
for in the act of incorporation, in June, 1779, a part of the Hatfield Equiva- 
lent is included in the town of Cummington. This act made the west line of 
the town the same that it now is, the east line of Berkshire county. The 
east line of the town, however, begun at the lot of Joseph Warner, and run- 
ning north, 19" east, crossed the East village near the Baptist church and ex- 
tended in the same straight line to what is now the north line of Plainfield. 

These boundaries, also, were soon changed, for in 1785 the district, then 
the town of Plainfield, was set off by the general court, by a line drawn east 
and west through the centre of the original town. In 1788 a considerable 
unincorporated territory lying between the then east line of Cummington and 
the towns of Ashfield, Goshen and Chesterfield was annexed to Cumming- 
ton. In 1794 a small gore lying north of the southeast corner of Plainfield 
was set off to that town, and Cummington's present boundaries were 
established. 

Organization. — The town was incorporated June 23, 1779, under the name 
it now bears, given in honor of one of its original proprietors. Col. John 
Cummings. The first town meeting was held at the house of Enos Packard, 
December 20, 1779, when William Ward, John Shaw and Ebenezer Snell 
were elected selectmen, and Barnabas Packard, clerk. 



524 TOWN OF CUMMINGTON. 



Educational. — The town has from the very first taken an unusual interest 
in educational advancement. As early as 1790 a building was erected for 
the purpose of opening a select school, or, as it was then called, an " Acad- 
emy." It was situated on the road leading from the old Stephen Warner 
place to the house of Fordyce Packard. Col. William Ward took a great in- 
terest in this achievement, and it was largely through his liberality that the 
town was enabled to complete it. Some of the less sanguine ones christened 
it " Ward's Folly," and by that name it was long known. Many years later, 
when East Cummington had grown to be the business center, a large acad- 
emy was built there and a flourishing school started into existence. Here 
the pupils were prepared for college, or armed themselves for the battle of 
life by a thorough practical education. During the reign of this school the 
number of college graduates from Cummington exceeded that of any other 
town of its size in the state. Since its abandonment there has been 
at various times a high school term during the winter. The large percentage 
of the inhabitants who have availed themselves of what educational advan- 
tages they could command, must account for the numbers that have been 
sent forth to occupy positions of trust throughout the land. Among those 
who have become illustrious or have achieved national reputation may be 
mentioned William Cullen Bryant, in the literary, and H. L. Dawes in the 
political world, as so well known that any remarks here would seem uncalled 
for. There is still another, John Howard Bryant, whose poetic genius and 
literary culture have given him a high place among the writers of our time. 
Others have shown large capacity in special research, viz.: Arthur Bryant, as 
a horticulturist and author of a standard work on forestry ; Cyrus Bryant, a 
chemist and geologist ; Dr. Oliver Everett, as a geologist and botanist ; Dr. 
Jacob Porter^ whose discovery of that rare mineral Cummingtonite, procured 
for him a membership in the Northern Antiquariao Society of Copenhagan. 
Some of Cummington's sons have developed those sterling business qualities 
calculated to give pecuniary success in life, prominent among whom are the 
Shaw Brothers, the largest tanners in the world ; the Hayden family, whose 
mechanical skill gave them great wealth and high standing in the country. 
But these are only a few of the prominent men who have claimed the moun- 
tain town as a birthplace. 

Lawyers. — Cummington has never proven a profitable location for lawyers. 
William Cullen Bryant, when a young man, tried one case here before his 
grandfather, Ebenezer Snell. A Mr. Cushing lived for some time here, but 
no records of cases tried by him are to be found. Horatio Byington, after- 
wards a judge of the court of common pleas, had an office in town for two 
years. 

Physicians. — One physician or more the town has always had. Drs. Brad- 
ish, Mick and Fay were here before " Plantation No. 5 " became a town ; 
since then there have been the following : Drs. Peter Bryant, Howland 
Dawes, Ira Bryant, Samuel Shaw. Robert Robinson, Royal Joy, Abel Pack- 



TOWN OF CUMMINGTON. 2^5 



ard, Atherton Clark, Morris Dwight, Stephen Meekins, Beemis Brothers, 
William Richards, Thomas Gillfillain, Arthur Kimball and Walter A. Smith. 
Biographical Notes — Dr. Peter Bryant, when a young man, came from 
Bridgewater to Cummington, where, in 1792, he married Sarah Snell. Their 
third son, William CuUen, born November 3, 1797, though never strong 
physically was always considered a precocious child. At nine years of age 
he began to write verses. At ten years he declaimed at school a poem of 
his own composition, describing a district school. At eleven, he was given as 
a task by his grandfather the first book of Job, to put in rhyme. At thirteen 
he wrote The Embargo, a satyrical poem which called forth much comment. 
During his sixteenth year he entered the sophomore class in Williams college ; 
but finding some features of college life distasteful to his shy, sensitive nature, 
he obtained an honorable dismissal the next year. However, in due time he 
received a degree as member of the class of 1813. In 1817 the North Ameri- 
can Review published his Thanatopsis, of which Professor Wilson said, " It 
alone was sufficient to establish the author's claims to the honors of genius." 
Mr. Bryant studied law with Judge Howe, of Worthington, and afterwards 
with William Baylies, of West Bridgewater ; was admitted to the bar at Ply- 
mouth, in 1815; practiced one year in Plainfield, then removed to Great 
Barrington, where he met Miss Frances Fairchilds, who became his wife in 
1 82 1. Several of his poems were addressed to her, and he once called her 
the "good angel of my life." In 1825 he went to New York, and abandon- 
ing the law determined to become a man of letters. He edited a monthly 
magazine for one year, before becoming connected with The Evening Post. 
He assumed editorial charge of that paper in 1836, a position he held until 
his death. Between the years 1834 and 1867, inclusive, he made six visits 
to Europe, and in 1872 a second voyage to Cuba and the city of Mexico. 
Yi'xs Letters of a Trajy^/^r give interesting accounts of these journeys. He 
spent the winters in New York, and divided his time during the summers 
between "Cedar-mere" his place at Roslyn, Long Island, and "The Home- 
stead," at Cummington, which he purchased and re-modeled in 1866. His 
last public utterances, the final sentences of his address at the unveiling of 
the statue of Mazzini, were a fitting close for a life which for purity and 
sweetness has not been excelled. At the close of these exercises Mr. Bryant 
walked about two miles under a burning sun. At the end of the walk he 
fainted, and in falling, struck his head, causing an injury of the brain which 
resulted in his death fourteen days later, and on June 12, 1878, he was laid 
to rest in the pretty cemetery at Roslyn, Long Island. 

Howland Dawes, born in 1766, came with his father's family, from Abing- 
ton, to Cummington in 1773. He studied medicine with Dr. Peter Bryant, 
and for about fifty years practiced his profession here. He never married, 
making his home with a brother. His genial, social nature made him many 
friends, and his kindly, urbane manners made him a welcome visitor at every 
fireside. And the name of Old Dr. Dawes still brings with it a sniile and a 



226 TOWN OF CUMMINGTON. 



pleasing anecdote from the older inhabitants of the towns in which he practiced. 
He died in 1844, and lies in the cemetery east of Mr. Charles Dawes. 

Henry L. Dawes, born October 30, 1816, graduated at Yale in 1839, studied 
law at Greenfield, while acting editor of the Greeiifield Gazette and after- 
wards in Albany with the firm of Cagger & Stevens, was admitted to the bar 
about 1842, practiced at North Adams and edited the North Adams Trans- 
cript for several years ; and had been a member of the Massachusetts legis- 
lature — serving in both houses — for six or eight years, when, in 1857, he was- 
elected to the house of representatives, where he served eighteen years. 
He entered the senate in 1875, and served two terms, having, during this 
long period of public service, discharged all duties devolving upon him with 
conscientious fidelity, to the satisfaction of his constituents and honor to him- 
self. Francis H. Dawes, born May 11, i8ig, has always lived in Cumming- 
ton. He has been fifteen years assistant assessor, thirty years a magistrate, 
and fifteen years a trial justice. He married Melissa Everett, in 1847. Has 
had charge of Bryant Homestead for over twenty years. 

Peter Tower, a decendant of John, who came from Hingham, England, 
about i%8, was one of the early settlers of this town. His son Stephen 
married a Miss Bowker, and reared thirteen children. His son John was born 
in Cummington in 1781, married Ruth, daughter of Rev. Jesse Reed, and 
had born to him seven children, viz. : John M., Salome, Coleman, Dexter, 
Laura, Roswell and Russell. Of these, lour are living, John M., Dexter, of 
Williamsburg^ Laura (Mrs. Cephas Thayer), and Russell of Worthington. 
The last mentioned married Rebecca Granger, and has two children, Cole- 
man E. and Mary E. Dexter married Irene Pierce, and has four children, 
namely, Clinton B., C. Belle, Lizzie J. and Pearly D. 

Stephen Tower was born March 8, 1778, came to Cummington in 1781, 
married Milly Bartlett, of Bridgewater, Mass., December 15, 1803, and had 
born to him seven children, as follows : Wealthy, Pamelia, Calvin B., Par- 
melia, 2d, Zilpha, Anna and Luther. Wealthy and Luther are the only ones 
living. Luther was born December 13, 1819, married Sabrina Tower, Novem- 
ber 25, 1841, and has four children living, namely, Mary A., Henry L., Char- 
les W, and Adella A. He resides on the homestead on road 55. His father 
died June 7, 1856, and his mother died August 18, 1864. 

Lorenzo Tower, a direct decendant in the seventh generation of John 
Tower who came from Hingham, England, resides in this town on road 31, 
and is librarian for the William CuUen Bryant library. 

Daniel Nash was born in 1743, and came to this town in 1788. He mar- 
ried Susanna Richards, October 7, 1773, and had born to him twelve children, 
namely, Susanna, Daniel, David, Susanna, 2d, Sarah, David, 2d, Sally, Mary, 
Asa, Olive, Jairus and lantha. David, 2d, was born August 4,1784, married Ruth 
Colson, June 3, 1813, and lived on the homestead. He died April 30, 1856, 
His children were as follows: David, Sarah, Caroline, Daniel, Susan, Edwin, 
Mary and Webster. Of these Sarah and Mary are living. The latter lives 
on the homestead. 



TOWN or CUMMINGTON. 227 



Asa Porter was born January 25^ 1771, came to Cummington in 1795, and 
settled on road 45. He married Elizabeth Huntington in 1797, and reared 
eleven children, two of whom are living, Mary and Milton. The latter was 
born July 27, 1806, married twice, first, Miss L. Hume, who bore him three 
children, Harris H., Ralph M. and Julia H. The mother of these children 
died March 29, 1857, and Mr. Porter married for his second wife Clarissa 
K. Bisbee, who died February 8, 1886. Mr. Porter and his son Ralph re- 
side on the homestead, on road 45. 

Wareham Hitchcock was born February 29, 1796, married Olive Clough, 
of Belchertown, in 1815, and moved to Chesterfield in 1826. After living 
there two years, he moved to Cummington, locating on what is known as " the 
Mount." He finally moved to Swift River, first building a house and grist- 
mill on road 34, and in 1843, built a house and saw-mill on road 35. He 
reared eleven children, viz. : Dwight W., Julia A., Jane M., Levi L., Lewis 
F., Nancy J., Lyman H., Henry H. and Eliza, now living, and Olive L., who 
died December 31, 1879, and Lewis O., who died in 1825. Mr. Hitchcock 
died October 13, 1869, and his wife died April 19, 1867. Henry H. resides 
on the homestead at Swift River, is postmaster, and part of his house is used 
as the postofiice. 

Arunah Bartlett was born March 30, 1797. and married Amanda Tower, 
March 13, 1824. Mr. Bartlett resides on road 56, where he has lived for 
fifty- two years. 

Hiram Steele was born in Weathersfield, Vt., in 1799, married Rebecca 
Witherell, of Chesterfield, in 1834, and came to Cummmgton, in October, 
1838, locating on road 48. He has had born to him three children, namely, 
Isaac H., Mary J. and Lucius, The last mentioned married Adelaide Clapp, 
of this town, and resides on the homestead with his father. 

VILLAGES. 

CuM.MiNGTON village is located just east of the central part of the town, in 
a narrow valley. In its vicinity the scenery is unusually picturesque and ro- 
mantic. The village has a number of fine residences, and with its schools, 
churches, business interests and dwellings, presents a pleasant appearance. 
Thomas Tirrell was the first settler here. The postofiice was established 
about 17 16, with Maj. Robert Dawes, postmaster. The present incumbent^ 
of the oftice is Theron O. Hamlin. 

West Cummington is a pleasant little post village, located in the north- 
western part of the town, on the Westfield river. It was mainly founded by 
William Hubbard, who established a tannery here in 1805, and Elisha Mitch- 
ell, who established a store here in 1823. About this time the postofiice was 
established, and Mr. Mitchell made postmaster. The present postmaster is 
Luke E. Bicknell. 



228 TOWN OF CUMMINGTON. 



Swift River, the latest established of the town's three post villages, is 
pleasantly located in the southeastern part of the town, at the junction of the 
two branches of Swift river. The postoffice was established here in 1869, 
with William H. Guilford, postmaster. The present postmaster is Henry H. 
Hitchcock. 

HOTELS. 

The first hotel was owned by William Mitchell, and stood where C. C. 
Streeter now Hves. Another early hotel was kept by Asa Streeter, on the 
farm now owned by H. A. Streeter. Adam Packard opened a public house 
on Cummington hill, and at a later date Seth Williams established a store and 
hotel at the village. In 1821 Levi Kingman opened a hotel here. The pres- 
ent hotel, known as the Valley House, was built by William White, in 1846. 
The later proprietors have been E. B. Bruce, C. M. Babbitt, R. W. Shattuck 
and F. L. Holmes, the present proprietor. 

INDUSTRIES. 

Cummington has always been a manufacturing as well as an agricultural 
town. During the first years of settlement measures were taken to induce 
parties to purchase and build here. In September, 1764, the owners of the 
town agreed to give Charles Prescott one hundred acres of land if he would 
" build a saw-mill on the nortli end of lot No. 45." The old foundation may 
still be seen on the land of O. B. Bartlett, near the dwelling of Jacob Higgins. 
This was the first mill in town ; but set back as it was on the hills, it soon 
gave way to the more substantial and easily accessible mills built on the river, 
which was then a much larger stream than at present. There were at one 
time two cotton and four or five woolen mills; but with the exception of one 
small woolen-mill these have all long since disappeared. 

B. E. &> C. M. Bradley s variety wood-ivork shop, on road -x^t^, was estab- 
lished by them in 1877, where they manufacture all kinds of variety wood- 
work, the principal market for which being Near York city. The site they 
occupy was formerly occupied by the cabinet shop of Ebenezer Gilbert. This 
shop was burned and re-built in 1846. 

The L. L. Brown Paper Co. are engaged in the manufacture of bond 
and linen paper here, employing twenty-five hands. The present firm took 
possession in 1886. The officers are I.,. L. Brown, president; T. A. Mole, 
treasurer; and John Wiethuper, superintendent. The mill was erected in 
1856, by J. D. Nelson. 

Nathan S. Stevens &= Son's mill, on road 32, was established in i860. 
During that vear N. S. Stevens purchased the factory of Alanson Bates, where 
he did quite a business in sawing and planing and the manufacture of pen- 
holders, and was also connected with A. Rhoades in the manufacture of scythe 
stones. The latter connection he severed in 1865, continuing the former till 



TOWN OF CUMMINGTON. 



229 



1874, when he admitted his sons A. S. and A. V. as partners, and added 
the manufacture of brush blocks and handles. In February^ 1883, the 
building was destroyed by fire and immediately re-built, and subsequently the 
manufacture of lead pencils was added. In 1884 A. S. Stevens died, since 
which time the firm name has been Nathan S. Stevens & Son. The firm 
imports its own leads for its pencils directly from Germany, in 10,000 gross 
lots, and its machinery is origmal with it and especially adapted for its own 
work. 

H. F. Bradley is engaged in the manufacture of pencils, pen-holders and 
brush handles, and also does custom sawing. His mill is located on road 18. 

CHURCHES. 

In 177 1 the proprietors located a "meeting-house spot " very nearly in the 
geographical center of the town, which was on the rocky ledge northwest of 
what is now known as the " Daniel Dawes place ; " but when they found how 
unsuitable it was, a dispute arose as to the proper locaUty. This dispute lasted 
seven years and was only settled when, a part of the town having been set off 
to Gageborough (now Windsor), the center of Cummington was changed. 
Meantime a meeting house had been built by private individuals near the "four 
corners." between the Adam Porter and Squire Snell farms. After the set 
off to Gageborough the town bought this meeting-house, and moving it about 
a mile east on to the old " Meeting-house Hill," enlarged it by putting a sec- 
tion in the middle. Services were held in this church till another was built, a 
it'fi rods south of it, in 1839. The first act of the town as a corporate body 
was the installation of a minister of the gospel. Before this time Rev. Mr. 
Hooper, Jesse Reed, Mr. Porter, Mr. Billings and Mr. Hotchkiss had offici- 
ated at brief intervals, but no minister had been 'settled until on the 7th of 
July, 1779, the little church consisting of eight male members ordained Rev. 
James Briggs. According to the terms of purchase two lots were set off for 
the minister at the first division, and these were on the west side of Remington 
hill, a very unsuitable place to locate the people soon discovered, and Mr. 
Briggs was given land in another part of the town. He ofiiciated for forty-six 
years. This first Congregational organization existed for eighty-nine years. 
When it became extinct, two organizations were formed and churches were 
built, at East and at West Cummington. A Baptist church was organized in 
1821, and about 1837 a Methodist church was built at " Lightning Bug," mid- 
way between the two villages. This church as well as the one on the hill was 
removed several years ago. There are now four churches in town, two Con- 
gregational, one Baptist and one Universalist, 

The Village church of Cummington was organized July i, 1839, by forty- 
seven members dismissed from the First Congregational church. Rev. Royal 
Reed being their first pastor. The society now has one hundred and forty- 
three members, with Rev. Franklin G. Webster, pastor. 

16* 



230 TOWN OF EASTHAMPTON. 



The Congregational church of West Cummington was formally organized 
September i, 1841, though the building was erected in 1839. The present 
pastor is Rev. Joseph B. Baldwin. 

The Baptist church at Cummington village was organized in 1821, with 
fourteen members, the first pastor being Rev. Asa Todd. The church build- 
ing was dedicated February 5, 1825. The present pastor is Rev. George E. 
Spaulding. 

The Universalist Church of Cummington. — As early as 1835 occasional 
Universalist meetings were held here, and in 1839 a council of Universalist 
churches was held in Cummington. The present church building was erected 
in 1845-46. 



EASTHAMPTON* is, in point of area, the smallest town in the county ; 
but in point of population, learning, wealth, manufactures, beauty 
and general thrift and prosperity the township ranks among the larg- 
est. Its area is 6,613 acres, lying in the southern part of the county, bounded 
north and east by Northampton and the Connecticut river, south by a small 
part of the county line and Southampton, and west by Southampton and 
Westhampton. 

In surface, the little township is quite level, though having mountains on 
either side, lying nestled at the very base of the bold and rugged Mt. Tom 
range. No more delightful location could be opened to the summer resident, 
and not a few avail themselves of the fact. Here one may enjoy the blend- 
ing of the beautiful, picturesque and even sublmie in nature, charming drives 
and a healthful climate, without dispensing with any of the comforts of city 
life — a fine library, congenial society, banks, and stores of all kinds, while 
landlord Johnson of the Mansion House furnishes a cusine inferior to none. 
The soil of the township is deep, moist and fertile, and the farms well culti- 
vated and remunerative. 

Two branches of Manhan river, one flowing south from Westhampton, 
the other north from Southampton, unite upon the western border and flow east- 
ward through the center of the town to the Connecticut, joining the lattter at 
the south part of the Oxbow. The tributaries of the Manhan from the north 
are Pomeroy brook. Saw-mill brook and several smaller rivulets. It has one 
tributary from the south of considerable importance, named Broad brook. 
This furnishes the power for most of the great manufactories. Broad brook 
has a small tributary in the south part of the town called Rum brook. 

Settlement. — Originally and for many years Easthampton was a part of and 
subject to the jurisdiction of Northampton. Its Indian name was Pascommuck. 
The first white settler in Pascommuck, then, was John Webb. His land was 

*For this brief sketch of Easthampton we acknowledge our indebtedness to the writings 
of Rev. Payson W. Lyman, of Belchertown. 



TOWN OF EASTHAMPTON. 331 

granted to him December 13, 1664, and he soon after located upon it, near 
the present Henry Clapp residence. Of Webb's subsequent history little is 
known, and some authorities place his death in 1670; but be this as it may 
he had two sons, and his widow married Robert Danks, of Northampton. 
His descendants were residents of Easthampton for three quarters of a cen- 
tury or more. 

In 1668 the the first bridge over the Manhan river was voted. This was 
located near Webb's home, not far from where the meadow road noA^ crosses 
the stream. Just across the Manhan from Webb's home, also, was a beauti- 
ful plateau. This was the location of the next settlement, and which bore 
the Indian name of Pascommuck. The settlers here were Moses Hutchin- 
son, John Searle, Benoni Jones, Samuel and Benj.aminJjJ3es, with their fam- 
ilies. To these were home lots granted in 1699. 

On the morning of May 24, 1704, there descended upon this hapless ham- 
let a marauding band of Indians. Nineteen of the settlers were killed, 
nine of the name of Janes, either here or shortly after capture. Benjamin 
Janes escaped, and rowing to Northampton across the flooded meadows, gave 
the alarm. A troop of cavalry, under Capt. John Taylor, started in pursuit, 
who encountered the Indians, but with no other result than the death of 
nearly all the captives, and of Capt. Taylor himself. More than ten years 
elapsed before this ruin was repaired , but at length others came in to take 
the places of the ill-fated ones, some of them being children of the slain. 

Twenty-five years before the settlement at Pascommuck, or in 1674, North- 
ampton gave " David Wilton, Medad Pumry and Joseph Taylor liberty to 
erect a saw-mill on the brook, on the right hand of the cart-way going over 
Manhan river." Twelve years later, 16S6-87, they voted Samuel Bartlett 
liberty to set up a corn-mill '^' on the falls below the cart-way on the river.'' 
The cart-way was just above the covered bridge at the foot of Meeting-house 
hill. These mills were doubtless built soon after, though their owners did not 
effect a residence here. Samuel Bartlett gave the corn-mill to his son Joseph, 
in T705, who made the first permanent settlement in the region of the pres- 
ent village, probably as early as 1725 or 1730. His house he kept open for 
the accommodation of travelers for twenty years. His nephew, Jonathan 
Clapp, ancestor of ail the Clapps here, lived with him and succeeded to the 
greater portion of his estate, and to his business. About the same time at 
which landlord Joseph Bartlett built his house, his brother David settled some 
forty rods westerly from the Julius Pomeroy residence, and after him his son 
lived there till near or quite the time of the Revolution. Between the homes 
of the Bartlett brothers was the home of four brothers named \Vait. 

Twenty years later, May 28, 1745, Dea. Stephen Wright and Benjamin Ly- 
man bought of Northampton the Upper School Meadow, a tract of eighty 
acres of land, lying on both sides of the river above the cart-way, which the 
town had set apart for the support of schools. They were the ancestors of 



232 



TOWN OF EASTHAMPTON. 



the Wrights and Lymans of Easthampton, and, until recently, most of their 
lands have been held by descendants. 

Not far from 1732. Samuel and Eldad Pomeroy settled upon what is now 
the Hannum homestead. In 1742 the Pomeroys entered a protest to the 
general court against being set ofif from Northampton with the then recent 
settlers in what is now Southampton, who were moving for a separation, and 
with whom they had had no connection. In their address, they state that they 
had improved their lands, and paid taxes on them for forty or fifty years. 
This would seem to show that their land came under cultivation not later 
than 1700. They were afterwards, at their own request, received into the 
new society at Southampton. 

As early as 1750, Josiah Phelps established himself upon Park hill, upon 
the place for many years occupied by J. Rockwell Wright. 

The first settler upon the plain upon which the village stands was Sergt. 
Ebenezer Corse, who built a house where Spencer Clapp formerly lived, and 
cut his road for a mile through the forest to this point. He was followed 
soon after by Stephen Wright, Jr., and Benjamin Lyman, Jr., sons of the 
purchasers of School Meadow, and also by Benjamin and Aaron Clapp. The 
first settlement in the southeastern part of the town was effected by Israel 
Hendrick. 

The settlement gradually increased so that in 1790 the first government 
census gives the town a population of 457 souls. The steady increase from 
that down is given by the following figures, a record for each decade since : 
1800, 586; 1810, 660; 1820, 712; 1830, 745; 1840, 717; 1850; 1,342; i860, 
1,916; 1870, 3.620; 1880, 4,206. 

Organization. — Just before the Revolutionary war some steps were taken 
to establish a separate town. The people upon the territory now included in 
Easthampton expressed their views by petitions to Northampton and South- 
ampton in 1773. In the former town a committee reported favorably, and 
the report was adopted. Southampton opposed the proposition, and the 
troubles of the Revolutionary period delayed any further action until 1781- 
82. The project was then revived, but required several years of effort to 
secure the act of incorporation, which was passed by the general court in the 
summer of 1785. 

Robert Breck, Esq., of Northampton, issued a warrant for the first meet- 
ing. It was directed to Benjamin Lyman, and the people met accordingly 
at the house of Capt. Joseph Clapp. The territory was set off as a district^ 
having all the rights of a town except that of representation in the general 
court. This district feature was a remnant of colonial policy, intended to 
retain power in the hands of the royal authorities, by not allowing a rapid 
increase of the people's representatives in the legislature. The policy sur- 
vived the Revolution, districts continuing to be incorporated for a few years. 

The name Easthampton was rather appropriate, not so much from its loca- 
tion, as from the fact that the three other Hamptons were already named, 



TOWN OF EASTHAMPTON. 233 



and it needed this to complete the natural series. And, though almost in- 
closed by the others, this town extends at one point to the east line of the 
original tract, and has so far a right to be called Easthampton. 

The act incorporating Easthampton as a district was approved by Governor 
Bowdoin, June 17^ 1785. The warrant was issued June 29, 1785. It was 
directed to Benjamin Lyman, who "truly and faithfully notified and warned 
the inhabitants." 

The list of officers chosen at this meeting, Monday, July 4, 1785, was as 
follows: Robert Breck, moderator; David Lyman, clerk; Aaron Clapp, Jr. 
constable; Jonathan Clapp, Capt. Philip Clark and Enos Pomeroy, surveyors 
of highways ; Stephen Wright, Capt. Philip Clark and Eleazer Hannum, 
selectmen and assessors ; Joel Parsons and Benjamin Lyman, tithingmen ; 
Obadiah Clark and Lemuel Lyman, Sabbath-wardens ; Daniel Alexander, sur- 
veyor of shingles and lumber ; Solomon Ferry and Elijah Wright, fence view- 
ers ; John Brown and Joel Hannum, howards ; John Clapp, David Chapman, 
Jr., and Elisha Alvord, hog-reeves; Capt. Joseph Clapp, treasurer; David 
Chapman, clerk of the market ;^2a^2ck_Danks, sealer of leather; and Benja- 
min Clapp, packer. 

The first municipal meetings of the inhabitants were held at the " dwelling- 
house of Capt. Joseph Clapp," down to July 13, 1785, when they were held 
at the church for nearly half a century. In 1833 a town-hall was built, and 
was superceded by a new structure in 1842. This m turn did service till 
1868-69, when the present elegant building was erected, at a cost of 
$65,000.00. 

Military. — Except the massacre at Pascommuck, no Indian troubles dis- 
turbed the peace of the settlement, except in one instance when Nathaniel 
Edwards, of Northampton, was shot and scalped here in 1724. Alarms there 
often were, but no serious results followed. 

Several who resided within the present limits of the town were in the battle 
near Lake George, in 1755, in connection with the Hampshire regiment 
which suffered so severely on that occasion. Eliakim Wright, son of Stephen 
Wright, was among the slain. Lemuel Lyman, son of Benjamin Lyman, was 
saved from a fatal wound by his bullet pouch, which checked the bullet which 
struck him. 

Among those who served in the Revolution were Capt. Joseph Clapp, Capt. 
David Lyman, Quarter-Master Benjamin Clapp, Dr. Stephen Wood and his 
sons Daniel and David, John Clapp, Jonathan Janes, Benjamin Lyman, Sam- 
uel Judd, Stephen Wright, Jr., David Chapman, David Clapp, Joel Parsons, 
Levi Clapp, Phinehas Clark, Eliakim Clark, Barzillai Brewer, ^ ^dock Dan ks. 

Stephen Wright, Brooks, Daniel Braman and Willet Chapman. Dr. 

Wood died in service at West Point, David Clapp never returned from the 
war, and Messrs. Brewer and Chapman both died in the army. Moses Gouch, 
who was brought up in Easthampton, served through the war and was sud- 
denly killed here in 1797. 



234 TOWN OF EASTHAMPTON. 



In the war of 1812 the town sent out the following: John Alpress, Elisha 
Alvord, Worcester Avery, Levi Brown, George Clapp, James Clapp, Philip 
Clark, Gershom Danks, Stephen Hendrick, Moses Gouch, Luther Pomeroy, 
Spencer Pomeroy, Jesse Ring, Harris Wright, Collins Wood, Ebenezer Wood, 
Thaddeus Parsons and Jesse Coats. 

For the late great war Easthampton furnished 200 men, a surplus of eighteen 
over all demands, five of whom were commissioned officers. The whole 
amount of aid paid solely by the town was $30,367.00, while the the amount 
of aid to families, subsequently refunded by the state, was $6,705.03. 

Notes. — Lemuel Lyman was born August 28, 1735, married Lydia Clark, 
and died July 16, 18 10, aged seventy-four years. His children were as fol- 
lows: Lydia, Lemuel, Justus, Ahira, Sylvester, Daniel, Esther and Ehhu. 
Ahira located on the plain, west of the Center, building for himself the house 
now occupied by Elijah A. Lyman. He died November i, 1836. His son 
Quartus P. was born here December 28, 1809, married Tryphena Wright for 
his first wife, November 1, 1832, who bore him two children, a daughter, who 
died in infancy, and John W., born November 9, 1836. The latter married 
Lucy MattheA's, has two children, C^arrie T. and Quartus, and is engaged in 
the wholesale vegetable and fruit business in Northampton, where he resides. 
Quartus P. married for his second wife Amelia Smith, June 26, 1851, and re- 
sides on road 26, where he has lived fifty-four years. 

Eliakim Clark, son of Dea. John Clark, came to Easthampton at a very 
early day. His sons, Obadiah, Asahel and Job settled near him. Job was 
born September 10, 1733, married Eunice Strong, and reared six children. 
His son Luther moved to Skaneateles, N. Y., but soon after returned. He 
married Deborah Robinson, January 28, 1802, and his children were as fol- 
lows : Luther, Alanson, Jason, Horace, Rowland, Emeline, Maria, Harriet, 
Cornelia and Cordelia (twins), Elvira and Henry. Henry was born in this 
town October 17, 1824, married Climena T. Benton, March 23, 1854, and 
resides on the homestead which is located on road 17. Horace was born in 
Skaneateles, N. Y., November 16, 1808, and came here with his parents when 
eight years of age. He married Lois Janes in 1833, who bore hmi three 
children, Emily J., George and Flora L. Mrs. Clark died April 20, i88o- 
George was born February 27, 1842, and married Hattie Cooley, who died 
in 1875. 

Franklin W. Janes, son of Luke, who was a native of this town, was born 
here November 13, 1828, married Harriet A. Clark, and has had born to him 
one son, Harry L., born in June, 1-^73, and died November 2\, 1880. 

Israel Hendrick was the first settler in the southeastern part of the town, 
locating there about 1774. His son James moved to the opposite side of the 
brook, reared eleven children, viz.: Jesse, Pearson, who died in early child- 
hood, Huldah, James, Lovy, Reuben, Joseph, Stephen, Pearson, Jabez and 
Rachel. Joseph was born November 24, 1790, married Lovina Newhall, and 
reared five children, only one of whom is living, Joseph N. He was a very 



TOWN OF EASTHAMPTON. 235 



energetic man, and lived to be over eighty years of age, up to which tincie he 
was engaged in business. Joseph N. was born July 17, 1824, and married 
Miss R. J. Olds, October 7, 1846. He has always lived on the homestead 
with the exception of about seven years spent in Wisconsin. He deals largely 
in live stock, and is located on road 30. 

Pearson Hendrick married twice, first, Mary Mosely, and second, Elisheba 
Newhall, who bore him ten children, as follows : Daniel N., Mary L., Sarah 
B., Martin V. B., Sarah L., Charles B., Mary V., Huldah J., Ellen M. and 
Pearson. Mr. Hendrick died February 22, 1870, and his widow died March 
4, 1886. Charles B. was born July 5, 1841, married Abby C. Barnes, De- 
cember 25, 1865, and has had born to him thirteen children, namely, Charles 
Alfred B., Martin V., who died in 1872, Jennie, who died in 1873, Leslie N., 
who died in 1876, Oseola, who died in 1876, Lester B., Abbie I., Mary B., 
Ella B., Arthur G., Frank H., who died in 1885, and Lucy. 

Stephen Hendrick was born July 9, 1792, married Nancy Phelps, March 
I, 1821, and had born to him seven sons and three daughters. He was a 
soldier in the war of 1812, and died August 8, 187 1, and his widow died in 
1883. James M., son of Stephen, was born March 28, 1833, married Cor- 
nelia Sperry, February i, 1876, and has had born to him one son, Lewis S., 
December 22, 1878. Mr. Hendrick has been engaged in railroad contract- 
ing until within the last few years, and is now located on roads 32 and 26, 
engaged in farming. 

Theodore H. Hendrick was born May 10, 1822, married twice, first, Par- 
melia Ashley, and second, Mary L. Wood, of Plainfield, N. Y. 

Benjamin Strong, great-grandfather of Calvin L., was the first settler in the 
Strong settlement, located in the southeastern part of the town. He came 
here from East street with his wife and son, all on horseback. Benjamin, 
Jr., married Dolly Wood, and reared nine children. C. L. and Calvin S. 
Strong now live on the homestead. C. L. married Lida Upson, October 8, 
1879, who died December 20, 1885. 

Stephen Wood was born July 7, 1774, married twice, first, Jemima Clark, 
who bore him four children, and second, Sally Braman, September 4, 1821. 
By his second wife his children were as follows : Ezekiel, who died Decem- 
ber 28, 1864, Enoch E., Spencer C, Newton and Sarah. Enoch E. was 
born July 15, 1825, married three times, first, Achsah E. Strong, who bore 
him two children, Hattie E. and Edward E. ; second, Miss S. E. Tilden, and 
has had born to him one child, Charles A. ; and third, Carrie A. Frary, Octo- 
ber 3, 1883. Newton, son of Stephen, was born April 16, 1828, married 
Mary M. Stebbins, July 30, 1856, and has had born to him three children, 
namely, Arthur N., Wallace W. and Francis. Mr. Wood served in the late 
war, in Co. K, 5 2d Mass. Vols. He is a carpenter and lives on road 27. 

John M. Clapp, son of John, was born in this town, August 2, 181 4, mar- 
ried twice, first, Lucia M. Frost, May 14, 1837, who bore him two children, 
George M. and Frederick O. The former resides in Westfield, and the latter 



236 TOWN OF EASTHAMPTON. 



died in 1871. The mother died May 12, 1862, and Mr. Clapp married for 
his second wife, Sophia Chapman. 

Edmund Parsons was born in Northampton, January 20, 1803, married 
Emeline E. Morgan, and reared four children, namely, Eliza S., Sarah J., 
Harriet and Lucius E. Mr. Parsons died May 27, 1867, and his widow died 
in April, 1877. Lucius E. was born in Easthampton, May 19, 1841, mar- 
ried twice, first, Emily W. Ferry, January 25, 1866, who bore him one child,^ 
Herbert S., and second, Clara M. Clark, December 31, 1867. 

Joel L. Bassett was born January 13, 1825, and married three times, first, 
Phcebe Thompson, who bore him children as follows : Nancy L., Elizabeth 
and Justin H. He married for his second wife, Lucy A. Dudley, who bore 
him two children, Cynthia L. and Joel, both deceased. He married for his 
third wife, Fannie W. Rogers, July 2, 1886. Mr. Bassett came to Easthamp- 
ton in 1854, has been engaged as a contractor in stone mason work, has 
built the foundations of most of the finest buildings in town, and also built 
the mill dam. He was one of the company of the Mt. Tom thread mill, 
which was incorporated in 1873. Previous to this the mill was used as a 
saw-mill, and was burned 1882. 

Gerard Searle was, born in Southampton, March 7, 1778, married Salome 
Burt, Februarv 20, 1 8 1 6, and reared six children, viz. : Rhoda, Sloan, Sophronia, 
Luther B., Charles H. and Alvin C. Charles was killed in the late war, at 
the battle of the Wilderness. He served in Co. F, 27th Mass. Vols. Gerard 
died July 29, 1869, and his wife died November 14, 1863. Luther B. was 
born in Southampton, May 10, 1825, married Eunice Ranger, October 16, 
1850 and came to Easthampton in 1866. He has had born to him seven 
children, as follows : Lelia A., born August 2, 1852, married Edward H. 
Clark, and resides in town; Emma E., born in 1856, died in 1858; Frank 
L., born in 1859; Hattie E., born in 1861 ; Emma E., 2d, born in 1863; a 
daughter who died in infancy ; and Lewis H., born in 1872, and died in 1873, 
Mr. Searle has served as selectman from 1879 to 1885. 

Dr. Frank C. Bruce was born in Peterborough, N. H., was educated at the 
Peterborough high school, Phillips academy, Andover, Mass., and University 
of Vermont, Burlington, from which institution he received his degree of M. 
D. He then returned to Peterborough, where he resided until October 13,^ 
1885, when he located m Easthampton, where he now resides. 

VILLAGES. 

Easthampton village impresses one at first sight as a bright, business-like, 
busy manufacturing place — and this impression is perfectly correct. The 
streets of the village are broad, shady and pleasant, and lined with good, sub- 
stantial, often elegant residences. It has also acres of extensive manufac- 
tories, two banks, several churches, the well known Williston Seminary, an 
elegant library building, beautiful town hall, and rows of business blocks. 



TOWN OF EASTHAMPTON. 237 



The history of the village begins almost with that of the settlement, at 
least with the incorporation of the district. It grew up near the old mill of 
the Bartlett's, authorized by the town of Northampton in 1675, which we have 
already alluded to. One of the first to open a store here was Joseph Clapp, 
opposite the present store of A. J. Lyman, on Main street, in 1792. The 
postoffice was established here in 1821. 

Mt. Tom is a hamlet in the northeastern part of the town, at the junction 
of the Mt. Tom railroad with the Connecticut River road. There is also a 
postoffice at this village. 

Glendale is the name given to a hamlet that has grown up about the 
elastic fabric mill, located in the northwestern part of the town. 

MANUFACTURES. 

Williston &> Knight Co. — This firm is extensively engaged in the manu- 
factur.e of covered buttons. The business was established by Samuel Willis- 
ton, who moved his factory here from Haydenville. In 1847-48 Horatio G. 
Knight entered into partnership with Mr. Williston, under the firm name of 
Samuel Williston & Co. A little later Seth Warner was admitted, and the 
firm name changed to Williston, Knight & Co. The business was carried on 
thus till December i, 1865, when a stock company with a capital of $150,- 
000.00 was formed, under the name of the National Button Co. This name 
was changed by the legislature in 1880, to the Williston & Knight Co. Mr- 
H. G. Knight has thus been actively engaged in the business for forty years, 
a great part of the time as general manager. The present building was 
erected in 1861. 

The N'ashawannuck Manufacturing Co. — The company was established 
in a small way, as the Samuel Williston Co., in 1850. In 1852 they received 
their charter from the state and changed to the present corporation, with 
$100,000.00 paid up capital. Since increased to $300,000.00. In 1853 the' 
amount of business was largely increased by the purchase of the right to use 
Goodyear vulcanized rubber in the manufacture of elastic fabrics. They 
were the first in the country to use vulcanized rubber with fibrous material 
in the production of elastic goods. The amount of their production has 
steadily increased until to day they are the largest manufacturers of suspend- 
ers and narrow webs in this country, if not in the world, employing over 500 
hands in weaving and finishing suspenders, garters and other narrow elastic 
fabrics. E. H. Sawyer, Esq., was their first treasurer and general manager, 
continuing in office until 1879, when the present treasurer, G. H.Newman, 
was elected. C. Myer, of New York, is president. All goods are sold from 
their selling house, 74 and 76 Worth street. New York. 

The Glendale Elastic Fabrics Co. — In 1862 a company consisting of H. 
G. Knight and E. H. Sawyer, of Easthampton, and William and C. G. Jud- 
son, of New York, was organized under the title of the Glendale Vulcanized 



238 TOWN OF EASTHAMPTON. 



Rubber Company, with a capital of $50,000.00. Their business was the 
manufacture of elastic cords, frills, and other similar goods. They located 
at the place now known as Glendale, in the western portion of the town. 
They enlarged and occupied a building that had been occupied as a manu- 
factory of twine and batting by Gregory & Wells. In 1864 they rented the 
two upper stories of the large brick factory erected by the Rubber Thread 
Company, near the Easthampton depot. Their operations were transferred 
to the village. They bought out the Goodyear Company in June, 1865, and 
their business rapidly increased until they occupied four mills. In 1867 some- 
thing of a re-organization took place, and the name was changed to its pres- 
ent form. The machinery was brought from England by Hon. E. H. Saw- 
yer, as an agent for certain New York capitalists. At about the same time 
the company bought the elastic cord and braid business, originally started by 
Lieut.-Gov. Knight, and they have since successfully connected both the 
goring and braided goods, together with the weaving of narrow-loom or gar- 
ter-web, and have brought the standard of their productions up to that of the 
best goods made in Europe. The line of work embraces a wide variety. 
The present officers are Samuel T. Seelye, president, and Joseph W. Green, 
Jr., treasurer and manager. 

Easthampton Rubber Thread Co., manufacturers of rubber thread ot all 
sizes from fine Para rubber. This company was formetl in November, 1863, 
with a capital of $100,000.00, and immediately began active operations. 
The managers had had previous experience in the business, and were thor- 
oughly acquainted with the needs of the elastic fabric manufacturing business, 
and were determined to supply them. With this end in view, they employed 
the latest and best mechanical aids and gathered a corps of skillful workmen. 
Their productions were at once received with great favor, and gave such 
satisfaction as to call for increased facilities. In 1869 the capital was increased 
to $150,000.00, and their business greatly extended. Their line of work is con- 
fined exclusively to the manufacture of rubber thread. They buy only the best 
quality of rubber, the "biscuits" being expressly selected for this company in 
Brazil. Every step of the conversion from "biscuits" to thread is taken 
within the company's works. The last processes are rolling the rubber into 
sheets of such thickness as may be necessary to make the size required, and 
then cutting the sheets into strips whose width equals the thickness. The 
present officers are Chistopher Meyer, president, and E. T. Sawyer, treasurer 
and general agent. 

The Willistoii Mills, extensively engaged in the manufacture of fine cot- 
ton yarn, were established by Samuel WiUiston in 1859. The present com- 
pany was incorporated in 1866, with a capital of $350,000.00. The presi- 
dent is John J. Haley, of Boston. 

7he Valley Machine Co., extensively engaged in the manufacture of steam 
pumps, was originally established in 1868, as the Easthampton Steam-pump 
and Engine Co. In 1870 the Valley Co. was formed, and purchased the busi- 



TOWN OF EASTHAMPTON. 239 



ness. This company at first received a charter, but surrendered it in 1873, 
and organized on a partnership basis, with John Mayher, treasurer and manager, 

iV. O. Dibble s suspender factory was established by him in 1870. He 
employs five hands in the manufacture of shoulder- braces and suspenders. 
Mr. Dibble came to Easthampton from Granby, Conn.j in 1865. 

Hannum cn Boswortfi s saw-mill, on road 20, was established by them in 
1884. They employ six hands and manufacture 6,000 feet of lumber per 
day. 

Martin Rich's brick yard, on Clark street, was established in 1864, and 
taken by Mr. Rich in 1867. When in full operation Mr. Rich employs thirty 
hands here. 

BANKS. 

First National Bank. — Early in the days of the National banking system 
the need of banking facilities was strongly felt by the business men of East- 
hampton. The nearest bank was four miles away, at Northampton, and 
Greenfield and Brattleboro institutions were utilized to some extent. On 
April 23, 1864, the organization of the First National Bank of Easthampton 
was completed in the old town-hall. Samuel Williston was the first sub- 
scriber, taking 400 shares of the stock. Officers were chosen as follows : 
president, Samuel Williston ; directors, H. G. Knight, E. H. Sawyer, Eben- 
ezer Ferry and Levi Parsons ; cashier, Eli A. Hubbard. The capital was 
$100,000.00, which was increased the next year $50,000.00, and again in 
1869 to $200,000.00. Office room was obtained in the second story of the 
Preston's block until, in 187 1, their present banking house was completed at 
a cost of $18,000.00. The lot was purchased of the town, and is a part of 
the old first burial ground. Mr. Williston remained president until his death, 
in July, 1874, when vice-president H. G. Knight was chosen. Cashier E. A. 
Hubbard soon resigned to accept a position on the state board of education. 
C. E. Williams acted until 1877, and Albert D. Sanders served till 1883. The 
present officers are, president, Samuel T. Seelye ; directors, John Mayher, E. 
R. Bosworth, G. H. Newman and William G. Bassett j cashier, C. H. John- 
son. The bank was re-chartered in 1883, for twenty years. Forty-four divi- 
dends have been paid, aggregating $342,663.00. The present surplus is 
$50,000.00, with undivided profits $5,000.00. 

T/ie Easthampton Savings Bank was organized June 7, 1870, and is lo- 
cated in the same building as the National Bank. The officers are John 
Mayher, president ; O. G. Webster, secretary, and S. T. Seelye, treasurer. 

GAS WORKS. 

The Easthampton Gas Co. was organized September 7, 1864, with a capital 
of $20,000.00, which was increased April 23, 1866, to $30,000.00. Ebenezer 
Ferry was the first president, and Horace L. Clark, treasurer. The present 



240 TOWN OF EASTHAMPTON. 



officers are E. T. Sawyer, president ; H. L. Clark, treasurer ; and G. L. 
Manchester^ superintendent. 

WILLISTON SEMINARY. 

This school wa& founded in 1841. It owes its existence to the generosity 
of one man, Samuel Williston, to whose business sagacity the growth of the 
town is largely due. During his lifetime he gave the seminary more than a 
quarter of a million dollars. Four large brick buildings occupy the school cam- 
pus, three boarding-houses are located in different parts of the village, and 
the Williston homestead is used as the residence of the principal. The ex- 
penditure for apparatus and laboratories has been large and unusual in 
schools of this grade. Thus, wliile the school has been a classical academy, 
especial prominence has also been given the scientific department. At his 
death, Mr. Williston left the school an additional endowment of $400,000.00. 
Half of this was paid to the trustees upon the settlement of the estate. The 
remainder, in the form of two trust funds of $50,000.00 and $150,000.00, is 
accumulating and will become available when they have doubled. 

Every school which lives and grows receives another endowment from those 
who serve on its boards of trust and instruction. In this second endowment, 
which cannot be enumerated in cash and real estate and apparatus, the sem- 
inary has been grandly enriched. To Tyler, the Wrights, Clark, Henshaw, 
Hubbard, Hitchcock and their associates in the past, and to others, the 
naming of whom might seem invidious, in more recent years the institution 
is indebted for its intellectual and religious impress. They have kept it 
abreast of the thought and claims of our time and land. It began as a local 
school and the founder thought it might remain such, but these other founders 
have made it national. 

Fortunate in its location and rich in its endowments, the school has also 
been prospered by its patronage. It began as a school for both sexes, hence 
the name seminary was adopted. The ladies' department was suspended in 
1864, and the seminary has been an academy for boys since that date. 
About 7,000 pupils have been gathered during its history. One fifth of these 
have been prepared for admission to colleges and other higher institutions of 
learning. More than 600 of these have received college degrees, of whom 
one-third have entered the gospel ministry, another third have become law- 
yers, and the remainder have entered the professions of medicine, teaching 
or journalism. 

The present principal is Rev. William Gallagher, A. M., and the president 
and treasurer of the board of trustees is A. Lyman Williston, Esq., of 
Northampton. 

CHURCHES. 

The First Congregational church of Easthampton was organized November 
i7> 1785. with seventy-two members, over whom Rev. Payson Williston was 



TOWN OF ENFIELD. 24I 



installed as pastor, August 13, 1789. He held the pastorate till 1833, and 
the pastors since have been Revs. William Bement, 1833-50 ; Rollin S. Stone, 
1850-52; A. M. Colion, till the present pastor, William F. Bacon, succeeded 
him a few years since. The first church building, erected in the spring of 
1785, occupied the present site of the park. The present building was erected 
in 1836-37, though it has been extensively re-modeled and repaired since. 
It is now valued, including grounds and other property, at $20,000.00. The 
society has 428 members. 

The Pay son Congregational church was organized July 8, 1852, with 100 
members, over whom Rev. Rollin S. Stone was installed as pastor. Their 
church building, erected in 1852, was burned January 29, 1854, and another, 
partly finished, was destroyed by fire September ist of the same year. The 
present building was erected in 1855. It is a brick structure capable of seat- 
ing about 700 persons, and is valued, including grounds and other property, 
at about $30,000.00. The society now has 460 members, with Rev. Charles 
H. Hamlin pastor. 

The Methodist Episcopal clmrch was organized by its first pastor. Rev. S. 
Jackson, with fifty-three members, in April, 1863. The church building was 
dedicated December 12, 1866, and cost $16,396.36, including furniture. In 
1882 they built a chapel at a cost of $4,000.00. Rev. James F. Mears is the 
present pastor. The society has 150 members. 

St. Philips Mission Episcopal church was organized in 1871. The build- 
ing was erected in 1885, at a cost of $4,000.00. The society now has sixty- 
four members, with Rev. Charles W. Ivie, rector. 

The Immaculate Conception Ro7nan Catholic church was organized by Rev 
Father Moyce, in 1872. The first pastor was Rev. Father Toomey. In 
1872 a church building was erected, a wooden structure, which was super- 
ceded by the present brick edifice in 1884. It will comfortably accommodate 
850 persons and is valued, including grounds and other property, at $60,000. 
The society now has 1,500 communicants, with Rev. R. F. Walshe pastor. 



ENFIELD lies in the extreme eastern part of the county, and is bounded 
north by Pelham and Prescott, east by Greenwich, south by Ware, 
and west by Pelham and Belchertovvn. 
The surface of the town is sufficiently diversified to present a pleasing, 
picturesque landscape, while it is not so broken as to retard cultivation of the 
soil to any considerable degree. Great Quabbin mountain is the principal 
elevation. It lies just south of the village and has an elevation of about 500 
feet above Swift river. Mt. Ram, north of the village, attains an altitude of 
about 300 feet, while Little Quabbin, lying northeast of the village, is smaller. 
These constitute the principal elevations. In fact, ridges of high and wood 
land extend north and south throughout the township. The town is well 



242 TOWN OF ENFIELD. 



watered by the east and west branches of Swift river, the latter of which sepa- 
rates Enfield from Belchertown. The east branch furnishes several fine mill 
privileges. Cadwell creek, a tributory of the west branch, waters the western 
section of the town, while several small brooks exist in other parts. The 
soil is productive, yielding average crops. 

Settlement, Orgafiization, etc. — Enfield originally formed a part of Narra- 
gansett Township No. 4, which included the present town of Greenwich and 
a part of the " Equivalent Lands " as described in thehistory of Belchertown, 
page 180. This whole tract was given the general name of Quabbin, after a 
celebrated Indian sachem, and is supposed to mean " many waters." For 
the facts which brought this early grant into existence we refer the reader to 
the sketches of Greenwich and Chesterfield. 

On June ^g, 1749, Quabbin was granted an act incorporating it into a 
parish, by which provision the inhabitants were empowered to call a minister 
and levy a tax for his support. This form was continued till April 20, 1754, 
when an act was passed making Quabbin parish a corporate township, under 
the name of Greenwich. As the settlement expanded, however, it became 
inconvenient for those living in the southern part of the town to go to Green- 
wich village to transact public business, or attend religious meetings. Accord- 
ingly, June 20, 1787, an act was passed incorporating the southern part of 
Greenwich into a separate parish, known as the South Parish of Greenwich. 
On February 15, 1816, this parish was incorporated as a separate township, 
under the name of Enfield, deriving its name from Robert Field, one of the 
early settlers. The boundaries of the new township are set forth in the act 
of incorporation, as follows : — 

"That all the lands in the towns of Greenwich and Belchertown, which are 
comprised within the limits of the South Parish, of the town of Greenwich, 
as they are now settled and established according to the provisions of an act 
entitled * An act to divide the town of Greenwich into two parishes, and for 
including the northeast coiner of the town of Belchertown in the South 
Parish,' passed on the twentieth day of June, in the year of our Lord, one 
thousand, seven hundred and eighty-seven ; an act in addition thereto, passed 
on the twenty-second day of February, in the year of our Lord, one thous- 
and, seven hundred and ninety-two, together with the farm of Robert Hath- 
away, in said Greenwich, with all the inhabitants dwelling thereon, be, and 
hereby are, incor])orated into a town by the name of Enfield, and vested with 
all the powers, privileges, rights and immunities, and subject to all the duties 
and requirements of other towns in the common wealth." 

An inscription on the tomb-stone of David Patterson, born in 1735. states 
that he was the first child born in Greenwich. He was a son of John Pat- 
terson, who is said to have been the first white settler to locate within the 
present limits of Enfield. He located about a mile south of the village^upon 
the Josiah W. Flint farm. He brought with him two sons, William and 
James, who soon after located in the southern part of the town, upon what 
is known as the McMillin farm. Among the other early settlers and families 
of prominence may be mentioned the following : — 



TOWN OF ENFIELD. 



243 



John Patterson, with the Stevensons (of whom David was one), and the 
McMilUns, who settled in the town soon after Patterson, about the year 1742, 
were Presbyterians, from the North of Ireland. The young Pattersons were 
"mighty hunters" and expert wrestlers. David Patterson had three sons — 
Robert, Oliver and John. He was a superior wrestler, and it is said that on 
one occasion a messenger came down from New Salem for him at midnight, 
to visit the latter place to wrestle with a man who had overthrown all com- 
petitors. He responded to the call, laid the champion on his back, and re- 
turned the same day. Of the Stevensons, there were four brothers, Edward 
and Isaac were hatters, and lived and worked in the Hooker house ; their 
shop for felting and dyeing hats was on the bank of the river below the house. 
John lived on the farm situated on the hill north of the Lamson place. 

Another settler of the town was John Rea, who resided, in 1764, south of 
the village, near the Bondsville road. Several brothers lived m town about 
the same time. They were large land-owners, and built several houses. Some 
of them subsequently removed to Pittsford, N. Y. 

A man by the name of Carver settled early in the town, and owned a large 
tract on the southern side of the Swift river, including the farms of S. Boyn- 
ton and S. S. Pope, and a large strip of land on that side down to the Cabot 
place. 

Other families who settled early in the town, all of them prior to 1793, 
were Sylvanus Howe, son of Lieut. Howe ; Daniel Howard, who located on 
the " old Howard place," where his father had preceded him ; David New- 
comb, who lived in the eastern part of the town ; Capt. Joseph Hooker 
(grandfather of Gen. Joseph Hooker, prominent in the late war), who was a 
large tract-owner in the town, owning most of the land between the two vil- 
lages, and who lived on the spot now occupied by the residence of Edward 
P. Smith ] Robert Field, also a large tract-owner, and a man of enterprise, 
public spirit, and great personal popularity, and who lived opposite the pres- 
ent residence of Charles Richards, Esq.; Benjamin Harwood, who early left 
Hardwick, where he was born, settling first in Greenwich, where he married 
a daughter of Rev. Robert Cutler, the first minister of that town, and who 
settled finally at the upper village of Enfield, where he passed the remainder 
of his life ; Nathan Hunting, who settled on the Cabot place, and early en- 
gaged in the business of a miller ; Caleb Keith, who settled in the western 
part of the town ; William Stone ; James Richard, who was born December 
13, 1766, and who finally settled in the eastern part of the town; Joseph 
Ruggles, who lived about four miles south of the village ; Abner Eddv, who 
resided where Washington Aldrich now lives ; Ebenezer and Barnabas Rich, 
the first of whom owned an early grist-mill in town, and lived where Benja- 
min Harwood now resides, and the latter of whom served in the Revolution- 
ary war ; Joseph Fobes, who lived in the southern part of the town ; William 
Morton, who lived on the old Monson turnpike, where L. M. Morton now 
lives, and Nathaniel Lane, who lived about half a mile south of the village. 



244 TOWN OF ENFIELD. 



Other families were those of Oliver Kingsley, who Uved in the southern part 
of the town; Phineas Howe, John Rich, father of William, who lived where 
the Thurston family now resides; Moses Colton, who occupied the house now 
the Swift River hotel; Simeon Stone, who lived in the old "Fleming House;" 
Paul Paine, who resided on the old Monson turnpike, near the Richards 
place, and was a sea captain ; Rufus Powers, who resided at the upper vil- 
lage ; Ichabod Randall, who came from Bridgewater and settled as early as 
1775 in Enfield, in the southern part of the town, on the place now occupied 
by Alvin Randall, and whose descendants still live in town ; and Simeon 
Waters, who settled early in the town and was a cloth dresser and a wool- 
carder by trade, and who removed to Millbury about 1830. 

Other early names are those of Rider, Caldwell, Clifford, Colburn, Drake, 
Collins, Wheeler, Mitchell, Lathrop, Ruggles, Swetland, Pratt, Underwood, 
Winslow, Bailey, Rice, Briggs, Gross, Gibbs, Clark, Torrance, Lyman, Osborne, 
Forbush, Messinger, Woodward, Mcintosh, Adams, Chickering, Bartlett, 
Shearer, Newell, Gilbert, Hanks, Barton, Lamson, Kentfield, Weeks, Cary, 
Snow, Pope, Smith, Hawes, Woods and Jones. 

Dea. Aaron Woods was born in New Braintree, Mass., in 1763. He was 
the only child of Aaron Woods, who, with a number of brothers, came to New 
Braintree from Marlboro, Mass., where the old Woods' house is still said to 
be standing. The Woods families are said to have settled in Marlboro when 
they came from England. Dea. Woods came to Enfield, v/ith his newly mar- 
ried wife, Sarah Bridges, in 1785, and settled on Great Quabbin, buying his 
farm for ^80. To the year of his death in 1845, he was a devout Christian. 
Faith had the first place in his heart, conscience ruled his life. To no man — 
certainly to no layman — does the church in Enfield owe more than to Deacon 
Woods. Dr. Robert McEwen, for twenty years pastor of the church, once said 
"the foundations of this church were laid on Great Quabbin Hill." So faithful 
was Deacon Woods to his spiritual oitice that he made an effort every year to 
meet every fellow church-member for converse on personal religion. The fol- 
lowing anecdote illustrates his conscientiousness. On one occasion he sent his 
son Moses to buv a yoke of oxen for $80.00. Moses beat the seller down to 
$75.00. This so disturbed his father that the young man was obliged to carry 
the extra $5.00 back to Amherst and deliver it to the former owner of the 
oxen. Like Abraham, however, Dea. Woods ruled his house well. All his 
ten children are buried in Enfield. Anna, the youngest, died at the age of 
four, Jonathan Edwards died in early manhood, leaving his young wife, Car- 
oline Mattoon, and his only child. Of the daughters, Sally and Catharine 
never married. Patty and Serene were married to Ichabod Pope, Esq., and 
the three surviving children of Serene — Mattie Woods, Charles F. and Will- 
iam H. Pope, live in Providence, R. I. Of the four remaining sons, Aaron, 
the oldest, spent much of his early life in Canada. He died in Enfield, in 
187 I, esteemed by all for his Christian intelligence and his courtly manner. 
Moses, second son of Deacon Woods, was a dyer. He is chiefly remembered 



TOWN OF ENFIELD. 



245 



as an imitable story-teller, full of humor and mimicry. He also distinguished 
himself when young, as a wrestler, but after he had been one night dragged 
out of bed, transported ten miles to meet a new rival, and broken his adver- 
sary's leg in the first trial, lie abjured the sport. Leonard and Josiah B. were 
for a long time associated in the manufacturing business in Enfield, first mak- 
ing card clothing, afterwards woolen goods. Leonard had few equals as a 
business man. Josiah B., an excellent business man, was also a skillful me- 
chanic. The invention of the machine for setting the teeth of card clothing 
is claimed for him. Aside from his constant devotion to the church, of which 
he was a member, Leonard gave his attention to little outside of the claims 
of his business. Josiah B., early in its history became interested in Amherst 
college, largely on account of his personal friendship for Dr. Edward Hitch- 
cock. He was member of the Massachusetts senate in 1845-46, and of the 
constitutional convention in 1852-53. He married Francis C. Belcher, 
daughter of Joshua Belcher, of Boston. They had eight children, four of 
whom died young. Charlotte J., who married E. P. Smith, died in 1881 ; 
Fanny C, who married Capt. W. B. Kimball, lives in Enfield, on the old 
homestead ; Mary P., wife of Prof. W. E. Chandler, of New Haven, Conn.; 
and Robert M., who graduated at Amherst college in 1869, and is now pastor 
of the Congregational church in Hatfield, Mass. The older sons of Deacon 
Woods all had large families, and his descendants are scattered from the field 
of the Nestorian Mission, in Persia, to California. Unfortunately compara- 
tively few bear his name. The surviving descendants in Enfield are J. E. 
Woods, J. B. Woods and Miss Carrie M. Woods, children of Aaron Woods ; 
Mrs. William B. Kimball, daughter of J. B. Woods; and Mrs, George C. 
Ewing, Jr., granddaughter of Leonard Woods and daughter of Hon. Rufus 
D. Woods. He was the oldest grandson of Dea. Aaron Woods, and was born 
in Enfield, May i, 181 8. He was graduated at Williams college in 1838, 
and afterwards devoted himself to business, for many years in Enfield, and 
for some time in Holyoke, where he was president of the Hadley Falls bank. 
He afterwards retired from business and was prominent in politics and served 
4S representative and senator in Massachusetts, also as a member of the ex- 
ecutive council with Governor Long. He traveled extensively, and died in 
Australia, in September, 1884. 

Rev. Joshua Crosby, the first pastor of the church in Enfield, was in- 
stalled in 1789, and retained the pastorate until his death, in 1838. He 
served in the Revolutionary war and was chaplain in the war of 181 2. He 
was one of the first trustees of Amherst college, and after the death of 
the first president, filled that position until another could be chosen. He 
married Lydia Terry in 1790, and reared seven children, namely, Betsey R., 
Lydia T., Sophronia, Joshua K., Ansel, John and Austin. Mr. Crosby died 
September 24, 1838, aged seventy-seven years. Betsey R. married Nathan 
Hooker, of Hadley, and her children were Betsey, Austin, Luther, Lydia, 
Mary, Joshua and Jane. Lydia T. married Col. Thomas Ashley, and their 

17* 



246 TOWN OF ENFIELD. 



children were Jonathan, John C, WilHam, Mary and Joseph. Sophronia mar- 
ried Timothy Brainerd, of Palmer, whose only son, John C, resides in Am- 
herst. Joshua K. married Minnie Sears, of Williamburg, and their two sons, 
Benjamin F. and Joshua, now reside in that town. Ansel married Eveline 
Chamberlain, and their children were John Marshall, Jane E,, George A., 
Luther and Lyman. John married Rebecca Converse, who died in 1834, 
and in 1836 married Harriet Beers, and his children were Rebecca C, who 
married Charles E. Davis, M. D.. of Greenwich, Lydia A., Mary D. F. and 
Nela. Austin married Mary Beals, and had no children. John M., son of 
Ansel, married Sarah Lodica Shaw, and has had born to him three children, 
namely, John M., who died in 1878, Luther, ho died in infancy, and Frank S., 
who is engaged in the merchantile trade in Ware. Mr. Crosby is a member 
of the present legislature. 

Abner Eddy, an early settler of this town, came here from Cape Cod, and 
settled on the farm now owned by Henry Squires. He married twice, first, 
Elizabeth Cotton, and second, Dorcas Gross. Abner, Jr., one of his fourteen 
children, was born April 15, 1788, married Mary Robbins, and reared eight 
children, viz. : Maria, Henry, Eliza, Mary, Jane, John, Duran and William. 
John married Sarah, daughter of Michael Gross, and has six children, as fol- 
lows: Emma, Mary, Stella, John M., Delia and Sadie. 

Jonah Gross, an early settler of this town, came here from Truro, Mass., and 
first settled on the farm now owned by John Eddy, who married Sarah, daugh- 
ter of Michael, and great-granddaughter of Jonah. 

Solomon Howe was born September 14, 1750, graduated from Dartmouth 
college, was a Baptist minister, and hved in various places, residing for a time 
in this town, where he officiated as a minister. He was also a teacher of 
subscription schools, married Polly Holmes, in 1778, and reared nine children, 
viz. : Abigail H,, Hannah, John, Nancy, Solomon, Jonah, Jedediah, Silas 
W. and John M. John Howe was born in Brookfield, December 20, 1783, 
and in 1791, came to Enfield with his father who settled on the farm now 
owned by Samuel L. Howe. He married Rhoda B. Babbet, and reared six 
children, as foUo'ws : John H., Myra M., Frances M., Henry C. M., Bolivar 
J. and Fenelon W. Early in 1800 Mr. Howe learned the art of printing, and 
in 1804, printed the first number of the Howe genuine almanac, which he con- 
tinued up to 1826, making his own calculations. He also published hymn 
books and spelling books. John H., the oldest son of John, was born in this 
town, October 24, 1816, married Melissa J. Lemon, and reared nine children, 
viz. : Fannie, Mary, Carrie, Jennie, Emily, John H., Hattie A. and Samuel 
L. Henry C. M., was born January 10, 1823, married Theodosia Johnson, 
July 20, 1848, and has had born to him four children, namely, Henry J., 
William F., Edwin H. and Lillian. Edwin H. graduated from the Eastman 
Business college ^at Poughkeepsie, in 1882. William F. married Hattie Hub- 
bard, and is engaged in mercantile trade in this town. 

Reuben Shearer, son of Reuben, was an early settler in this town, and had 



TOWN OF ENFIELD. 247 



' seven children, viz. : Reuben, James, Field, Pierce, Charles and two daugh- 
ters. William, brother of Reuben, built a house in 1779 O" the farm now 
owned by Lyman F. Shearer. He reared a family of four children, William, 
Reuben, Sophia and Fanny, and subsequently moved to Cortland, N. Y. 
William, the eldest son, married Rachel Haskell, and had born to him five 
children, namely, John, Fanny, Seth, William and Reuben. Charles married 
Ruth, daughter of Isaac Gleason, and had two children, Jane and Lyman F. 
The latter, who lives on the homestead, married Frances, daughter of William 
Shearer, of Cortland, N. Y. 

David Newcomb, son of Ebenezer, came to this town about 1782, locating 
on the farm now owned by James McCort. He filled many town offices, 
and built the first Congregational church in Greenwich. He married Eliza- 
beth Goss, and reared nine children. Nehemiah, son of David, was born in 
1762, came to this town with his father, married Hannah Thayer, and reared 
six children. Foster, son of Nehemiah, was born in this town, on the farm 
now owned by his son Leander W., January 26, 1789, married twice, first, 
Hannah Latham, who bore him one child, Bethany, and second, Fanny Col- 
lins, and had born to him seven children, viz. : Jason G., Anson F., William 
P., Gamaliel C, Leander W., John H. and Fanny L. 

Nathaniel Chickering, son of Nathaniel, was born in Dover, Mass., came 
to this town about 1800 and purchased the place now owned by his son 
Otis. He and his father built a grist-mill here, which he continued to run 
until 18 19, when the dam was swept away by a freshet. He married Fannie 
Nelson, and reared six children, viz. : Darius S., Fanny E., Lucy, Nathaniel, 
Otis and Betsey T. Otis married Sarah Winter, and has one child, Darius 
O., who resides on the homestead with his father. 

Ephraim Richards was born in Dedham, March 2, 1774, came to Enfield 
about 18 10, and transacted business here as a merchant and a manufacturer, 
accumulating great wealth. He married Susannah Holden, and reared 
children as follows: Alona M., Fanny F., George L., Susan P., Charles, 
William H., Dexter N. and Isaac N. Richards held many offices of trust, 
and died January 20, 1862. Charles was born September 30, 1818, married 
twice, first, Caroline C. Clark, who bore him four children, viz. : Charles E., 
of Waltham ; Edward S., of Boston ; Joseph C, of Hartford ; and Frederick 
B., who graduated from Amherst college in 1885, and resides in Michigan. 
The mother of these children died January 5, 1872, and he married for his 
second wife Lorana S. Hunt, and has had born to him two children, Caro- 
line C. and Raymond H. 

James Richards came to this town from Bridgewater, was an early settler, 
married Sarah, daughter of Dea. Ebenezer Rich, and in 1800 moved on to 
the farm now owned by Arvilla Richards. 

Benjamin F. Potter was born in North Brookfield, married Lydia Day, and 
came to Enfield in 1825. He had born to him five children, namely, Joseph 



248 TOWN OF ENFIELD. 



A., Nathan, both deceased, one who died in infancy, Henry M., of North- 
ampton, and Lyman D., of this town. 

Dr. William Stone was an eminent physician, practiced here for many 
years, and reared a family of six children, viz. : William, Rufus, Clark, Sarah, 
Mary and Eliza I.. He died here February 7, 1839, aged seventy-nine years. 
Clark was born March 30, 1788, married Mary Nichols, and had born to him 
six children, as follows: William P., Sumner, James, John H., Percy and 
Mary. 

Benjamin Harwood, son of Abel, was born in Hardwick, married Eliza- 
beth Cutler, and reared seven children, viz.: Betsey, Abel, Ruggles, Harriet, 
Harlan, Ezra and Bernice. Abel married Polly, daughter of Benjamin Town- 
send, of Greenwich, and had born to him six children, as follows: two who 
died in infancy, Benjamin T., Ruel S., and Myron W.^ of this town, and 
Charles E., of Fairfield, Neb. 

Asahel Blodgett came to this town when very young. His son David was 
born in Amherst, March 12, 1807, married Sarah Dickinson, and came to 
this town in 1832. He has had born to him two children, David H. and 
Sarah D., both deceased. He moved on to the place where he now resides 
in 1834. 

Jonathan Towne was an early settler of Greenwich, locating on the farm 
now owned by George Kelley, and reared six children, viz.: Jonathan. Rufus, 
Orin, Freeman, Eliza and Sally. Jonathan married Abigail Gleason, and 
reared nine children, as follows: Joseph W., now in Florida, Loriston H., de- 
ceased, William B., Andrew J., Loriston H., Elmer E., Abbie E., who mar- 
ried Nehemiah Doubleday, Maria M., who married George W. Foster, and 
Theodosia, William B married Elizabeth Curtis, and has six children, 
namely, Carrie L., Benjamin W., Ernest E., Ida Bell, Alice C. and Lewis W, 

Edward Smith, son of Maj. David Smith, was born in Granby, March 13, 
1805, moved to Holyoke about 1830, where he took charge of a cotton mill, 
and was a partner in a company known as the South Hadley Falls Company, 
for the manufacture of cotton cloths. They owned the entire water privilege 
on the Holyoke side at that time, and about 1848 they sold the entire prop- 
erty to the Holyoke Water Company. Mr. Smith then moved to Elasthamp- 
ton, where he managed the suspender factory for Samuel Williston. He came 
to Enfield in 1852, and became associated with the Swift River Company, of 
which he is still president and treasurer. He married Eliza, daughter of Dr. 
Enos Smith, and has had born to him two children, Edward P. and Henry. 

Daniel Gillett, a descendant of Cornehus Gillett, who came from England 
as one of the early settlers of this country, was born in Windsor, Mass., No- 
vember 25, 1 781, moved to Granville, Mass., where he married Edith, 
daughter of Col. Jacob Bates, and reared six children, viz.: Catherine, Eliza- 
beth, Mary A., Edward B., Daniel B. and Edith B. He moved to South 
Hadley Falls, where he engaged in the mercantile trade. Daniel B. was born 
in South Hadley Falls, July 21, 1819, married Charlotte E. Woods, May 6, 



TOWN OF ENFIELD. 249 



1845, and came to this town in 1846, and became associated with Woods & 
Bro., in the manufacture of card clothing. He continued here about three 
years, and then became associated with the Minot Manufacturing Company. 
He has had born to him two children, Daniel B. and Rufus W. His wife 
died August 30, 1856, and he married for his second wife Persis Winslovv, 
who died March 20, 1880. 

The first census taken after the town was incorporated, in 1820, shows the 
population to have been 873. The population at dififerent times since has 
been, in 1830, 1,056; 1840, 976; 1850, 1,036; 1855, 1,036; i860, 1,025; 1865, 
997; 1870, 1,023; 1875, 1,065; 1880, 1,043; 1885, 1,010. 

First Town Meeting. — The first town meeting was warned by Elihu Lyman, 
and convened at the meeting-house Monday, March 4, 1816, when the fol- 
lowing list of officers were elected : Benjamin Harwood, moderator ; Simeon 
Waters, clerk ; James Richards, Benjamin Harwood and Jesse Fobes, select- 
men; Ephraim Richards, treasurer; and Capt. Sylvanus Howe, Alden Lath- 
rop and Oliver Patterson, assessors. Several other minor officers were also 
elected. The following notes are from the town records : — 

"One of the first subjects to receive the attention of the new town (a church 
being already established) was that of education, and April 1, 1816, $300 
was appropriated for schools. On the same date provision was made for the 
ringing of the meetinghouse bell at stated hours in the day. It was also 'voted 
that Ebenezer Winslow sweep the meeting-house for one dollar and fifty cents 
per year, to sweep it six times per year and after every town meeting.' The 
amount of money voted the year 1816 was $1,166.67. 

"April 7, 1817, Hosea Hooker was allowed $2 for the use of his yard for 
a pound, and he continued to exercise the functions of pound master for 
many years thereafter. 

"April 3, 1820, Lieut. Joseph Keith presented a bell to the town, on con- 
dition that it should be forever kept and used for the accommodation of the 
town, and preserved in good repair and condition. 

"October 16, 1820, Benjamin Harwood was chosen to represent the town 
in the constitutional convention, to be held at Boston, November 3, 1820. 
In April, 1822, the sum of $50 was appropriated to support church music. 
On December 11, 1826, $75 was appropriated to support a singing-school 
the ensuing winter. In the month of March, 1837, a committee was chosen to 
dispose of the old bell and buy a new one. In the following year the town 
was divided into eleven highway districts. In 1832 measures were taken to 
build a new bridge over the river on the road to Ware ; and in the following 
year like action was taken toward building a bridge over the west branch of 
the river, on the road leading to Amherst. In 1844 a committe purchased 
in behalf of the town tfie farm of Ezekiel Keith, called the "Dale farm," for 
the sum of $1,900, to be used as a poor farm. 

"March 19, 1883, it was voted that a committee of three be appointed to 
report at an adjourned meeting to be held April 2, 1883, with reference to 
locating a site and building a hall for town purposes. At the adjourned meeting 
a committee of five was appointed to purchase land, or to locate a new town 
building, authorized to procure plans, purchase material, and make all neces- 
sary contracts to build such building, and to do all things necessary to be 
done in the matter, limited to the sum of $12,000.00. Henry M. Smith, 



250 TOWN OF ENFIELD. 



Solon R. Towne, Arthur J. W. Ward, Daniel B. Gillett, and William B. 
Downing was the committee. The building was constructed of brick, is 
50x20 feet with two stories and a basement." 

Items. — The earliest taverns known were kept, one where Lyman D. Pot- 
ter's barn now stands, and another where Daniel B. Gillett resides. Another 
was kept, at an early date, in the old Field residence. 

One of the first stores was kept by Field & Canedy, where the Congrega- 
tional parsonage stands. The first physician was Dr. William Stone. The 
first lawyer was Joshua N. Upham. The first record of a highway through 
the town was of one from the Pelham line to Chicopee, in 1754. 

MILITARY. 

Those citizens of the town who served in the Revolutionary war, were 

Joshua Crosby, Benjamin Rider, Giles Rider, Barnabas Rich, Pratt, 

Newcomb, and John Stevens. The latter was present at the battle of 

Bunker Hill, and only escaped being killed by the thrust of a British bayonet 
as he was leaving the fortifications, by having in his knapsack a loaf of bread 
that had been left in the oven too long before he left home, and had grown 
very hard. This checked the bayonet and saved his life. 

In Shays Rebellion there were many active partisans in the town, but the 
only citizens who are known to have taken part were Benjamin Harwood, 
Joseph Fobes, Jr., and John Rea. 

In the war of 181 2, Ichabod Pope, Daniel Ford, Roswell Underwood 
Henry Fobes, Joshua Crosby, Samuel Rich, Ruggles Harwood, Samuel Bar- 
ton, Packard Ford, Daniel Eddy, and Kingsley Underwood represented the 
town. 

In the late great war Enfield furnished 107 men, a surplus of nine over all 
demands, two of whom were commissioned officers. It expended $ 13,80 1.04, 

and loaned the state $4,564.21. 

t 

VILLAGES. 

Enfield Village, located in the central part of the town, on a branch of 
Swift river, and on the Athol railroad, contains the only postoffice in the 
town. The village is pleasantly located, in the midst of some very pleasing 
scenery, and is altogether a neat and prosperous little place. The postoffice 
was established here in 1820, and Elihu Lyman was the first postmaster. 

The dam at the village was built about fifty feet above the present location, 
prior to the year 1770, by Ephraim Woodward, who erected a saw-mill there- 
on. He sold to Ebenezer Rich, who built a grist mill, and Robert Field, 
about the year 1773, put up a clothier's shop. A blacksmith shop, with a 
tilt hammer, was soon after erected by Robert Field and others, who also 
operated an oil-mill. Reuben Colton had a fulling-mill and cloth-dressing shop 
just below Haskell's store. There were also other improvements at this 



TOWN OF ENFIELD, 



25^ 



point. Calvin and Charles Lawson made cut nails from plates by means of 
a machine, and headed them by hand. Under the bridge was a mill-stone 
for grinding whetstones, and about 1804 James Harrison, an Englishman, set 
up a carding-machine for making rolls from wool, it being the first of its kind 
in that part of the country. 

Smith's Station, or Enfield Upper Village, lies on the river just above En- 
field village proper. It contains the woolen-mills, grist-mill, saw-mill and box- 
factory of the Swift River Co., a store, about thirty-eight dwellings and about 
250 inhabitants. 

The dam here was erected in 181 2, and a cotton-yarn mill was built the 
year following by a company of neighbors, of which John Allen was superin- 
tendent and agent. It ran for a few years, when larger mills were erected, 
that made not only yarn, but wove it into cloth, which put a stop to domestic 
weaving. There were also a saw-mill, blacksmith shop, shingle mill, and 
other works erected on this privilege at an early day. 

MANUFACTURES. 

The Swift River Co. — This company dates its origin back to 182 1, when 
Alfred, David and Alvin Smith, under the firjn name of D. & A. Smith, began 
in a small way the manufacture of cotton. In 1836 the factory was burned, 
and immediately re-built. They carried on the enterprise till 1852. when 
they were joined by Edward Smith, and the present company incorporated. 
The new company started the mill on satinets, but continued to make cotton 
warps. They added several sets of satinet machinery, and made other im- 
provements. Finally, about the beginning of the war, or in 1862, the mill 
was increased to more than double its old size and capacity, the cotton and 
satinet machinery thrown out, and eight sets of machinery for the manufac- 
ture of fancy cassimeres put in, which business they have since continued. 
From time to time modern improvements have been added, and as the com- 
pany only manufactures number one cassimeres, it has gained an enviable 
reputation. The mills are built of wood, are operated by both steam and 
water-power, give employment to one hundred hands, and turn out about 
6,000 yards of goods per week. The company has a grist-mill, saw-mill, box 
factory and tenements for the accommodation of fifty families. The mills 
have been kept steadily at work through all the business depressions, furnish- 
ing steady employment to the hands, many of whom have been employed from 
fifteen to twenty years. Edward Smith is president and treasurer of the com- 
pany, and H. H. Smith, general manager. 

The Minot Ma/n/Jacluring Co. — The first mill for making cloth at the lower 
dam was built by Elihu Lyman and Ichabod Pope about the year 1825. It 
was used in the manufacture of satinets, and run by Elihu Lyman, Ichabod 
Pope, Abner Hale and Moses Woods. The enterprise was not a profitable 
one, and was succeeded by the Swift River Manufacturing Company, which 



252 TOWN OF ENFIELD. 



was organized by Marshall and Thomas Jones, Leonard and Josiah B, 
Woods, Ephraim Richards, George Howe and a few others. This company 
not only manufactured satinets, but also carried on the carding business, which 
Leonard Woods had established about 1820. Their factory was burned in 
1830. A stone mill was then erected, but the inside with all its machinery 
was burned out in 1848. The walls were not injured, and the factory was 
again re-built and is still standing. The Swift River Manufacturing Company 
was short lived. The business was divided up. M. S. & T. Jones continued 
the manufacture of satinet, and the Woods, with Marshall Jones, carried on 
the carding business, under the name and style of Jones, Woods & Co. In 
1837, M. S. & T. Jones failed, and the Minot Manufacturing Company was 
incorporated on April 7 of that year, having as incorporators Marshall Jones, 
Leonard Woods and Alvin Smith, with a capital stock of $75,000.00. The 
company, with an occasional change of members, has been running ever since, 
at first manufacturing satinets, but now Shaker flannels and light-weight cas- 
simeres. They have two mills, with five sets of machinery, and employ about 
sixty persons. 

A. J. hL Ward's steam saw-mill, located at Enfield, is operated by steam 
power, generated by a forty-five horse-power boiler and forty horse-power 
engine. He employs three men.in the manufacture of lumber and shingles. 

Gillett &• Flint's portable saw-mill is of twenty horse-power, and cuts 
1,500,000 feet of lumber per annum. 

CHURCHES. 

Congregational church. — A meeting-house on land presented by Capt. 
Joseph Hooker, was built in the parish in the years 1786 and '87, and ac- 
cepted October 15, 1787. Movable benches were first placed in this church. 
Pews were substituted in 1793. In 1814 a belfry was erected, and a bell, 
the gift of Josiah Keith, afterward placed therein. In the year 1835 the 
pews were displaced by slips, and other alerations and improvements made. 
The House was repaired about 1855 and an organ added. In 1873 it was 
again repaired and a considerable addition was made to the rear of the 
church, and an elegant organ took the place of the old one, at a cost of 
about $2,500.00. The edifice now presents an attractive appearance, the 
steeple being graceful and unique in design, and containing a costly town- 
clock. The interior of the church is neat and appropriately embellished, and 
its acoustic properties are excellent. The first regular pastor of the church 
was Rev. Joshua Crosby, who was called May 12, 1789, and installed De- 
cember 2d following. He was furnished with a farm bought of Barnabas 
Fay as settlement, and had a salary of ^70 a year, his fire-wood being also 
furnished by the parish The names of the first purchasers of pews in the 
meeting-house, in 1793, were Calvin Kingsley, Sylvanus Howe, Daniel Hay- 
ward, Simon Stone, David Newcomb, Joseph Hooker, Robert Field, John 



TOWN OF GOSHEN. 253 



Sawin, Benjamin Harwood, Benjamin Rider, Nathan Hunting, Caleb Keith, 
William Stone, Joseph Ruggles, Abner Eddy, Ebenezer Rich, Reuben Colton, 
Barnabas Rich, Nathaniel Boker, Joseph Fobes, David Swetland, William 
Morton, John Eaton, Moses Colton, Jonathan Hunting, Nathaniel Lane, 
John Bailey, William Patterson, John Mcintosh and William Mcintosh. 
Parochial afifairs were conducted by parish officers from 1787 until i8i6, when 
the town was incorporated ; by the town from that date until 1831, when the 
parish was re-organized and still continues. The present pastor is Elbridge 
P. McElroy. 

The Methodist Episcopal church was organized October 15, 1843, with 
sixteen members, and Rev. Samuel Tupper, pastor. The church building 
was erected in 1847-48. 



GOSHEN* is one of the northern hill towns of the county^ lying on the 
north line about midway between the Berkshire line and the Connec- 
ticut. It is bounded on the north by Ashfield, in Franklin county, east 
by a small part of Conway, in the same county, and Williamsburg; and as the 
town is triangular in form, the other bounds may be generally said to be Ches- 
terfield and Cummington on the south, southwest and west. The town has 
an area of about 6,951 acres. 

The outhne of Goshen is extremely irregular, there being no less than 
twenty angles in the boundary lines, and some of them far from right angles. 
As we come to glance at the surface of the little town, here too are angles. 
But these latter could hardly be dispensed with, for they, the law of " no 
beauty in angles " to the contrary, diversify the township's area into a most 
charming bit of landscape. In the northeastern part of the town is the prin- 
cipal elevation, Moore's hill, rising to an altitude of 1,713 feet. The wes- 
tern and central portions of the town are drained by tributaries of Westfield 
river, supplying water-power of considerable value. In the northeastern and 
central part of the town are found tributaries of Mill river, and here large 
reservoirs have been built for the benefit of the manufacturing establishments 
below. The waters that contribute to Mill river, and those that flow into the 
Westfield, are in the northern part of the town almost interlocked with each 
other, the dividing ridge which separates the basins being narrow and low, so 
that a dyke has been constructed to turn them in the direction desired. 

The tov/n is rich in minerals, having a good granite quarry, and furnishing 
specimens more or less abundant of tin ore, galena, graphite, spodumene, blue 
and green tourmaline, smoky quartz, beryl, zoisite, mica, albite and colum- 
bite. 

Grant and Settlement. — The territory which now makes up the town- 
ship of Goshen was formerly part of the military tract granted to satisfy the 

* For this sketch we are largely indebted to the writings of Hiram Earrus, of Boston. 



254 TOWN OF GOSHEN. 



claims of the heirs of the 840 soldiers in the Narragansett expedition in King 
Philip's war. But we have defined the conditions of these old grants in con- 
nection with the sketch of Chesterfield, and shall speak of them still further 
in the sketch of Greenwich, so it is only necessary to add at this point that 
" Narragansett Township " No. 4, located in New Hampshire, was reported 
unfit for settlement, and in lieu of it the territory of '' Quabbin " (Greenv/ich 
and vicinity) was granted. But this grant proving less than the required "six 
miles square," 3,000 acres lying west of Williamsburg was granted, which took 
the name of " Quabbin," " Quabbin Proprietary," or " First Additional Grant." 
This failing to supply the deficiency, " The Second Additional Grant " was 
made, consisting of about 3,500 acres, lying between "Quabbin " and Hunts- 
town (now Ashfield). This was also called "The Gore," and "Chesterfield 
Gore." The division line between Quabbin and the Gore extended from the 
northwest corner of Williamsburg westerly, passing just south of the present 
meeting-house, to the Cummington line. 

In 1762 Chesterfield was incorporated, including the territory called New 
Hingham and " Quabbin," or the " First Additional Grant." This brought 
its north line as given above, with " The Gore " on the north. 

In January, 1763, a petition was sent to the general court from the people 
of the Gore, asking to be annexed to Chesterfield. " This was so promptly 
done by the court that, no notice having been given, Chesterfield waked up 
one fine morning surprised to find its territory enlarged by the addition of 
3,500 acres of land it had never asked for. It rubbed its eyes, saw that it 
meant the removal of the church location to some unknown point northward, 
and sent at once a counter petition for a speedy divorce, which was granted 
in June following." 

The first settlers within the present limits of the town were David Stearns 
and Abijah Tucker, who came on from Dudley in 1761 and began a clearing 
on the farm now owned by Amos Hawks. In the fall they brought their fam- 
ilies and passed the winter. Stearns finally settled upon what is known as 
the David Beals farm. These men the first winter were often absent, seek- 
ing work in Northampton, and the families met the hardships of pioneer set- 
tlement alone for several days at a time. It is told of them that they had a 
cow and a horse that were pastured at the "Great Meadow ;" that in the 
deep snow of the following winter the cow wandered off to the same ground 
one day, and night came on before the absence was noticed. Then neither 
of the women could safely go after the cow alone, nor stay with the children 
alone, so one woman mounted the horse and took the five children on with 
her, the other woman led the horse, and so they went after the cow, two miles 
away and back, through the snow. 

The influx of immigrants in the spring of 1762 must have been quite ex- 
tensive all along the line of this town and Chesterfield. William White, of 
Charleton, was one of these. He received a deed of land here May 17, 
1762, from Gad Lyman, then of Northampton, but later of Goshen. 



TOWN OF GOSHEN. 255 



Col. Ezra May, from Woodstock, Conn., with ten men to assist him in his 
labors, came about the same time, with "old Mr. Corbin and wife to do their 
cooking." The north bound of his farm was a few feet south of the present 
church. White took the third hundred acre lot south of May's, and boarded 
with May during the first year. The next lot, north of May's, on which the 
church now stands, was taken by Lieut. Lemuel Lyon, also from Woodstock, 
and probably the same year. 

Capt. Robert Webster, from Dudley, with his wife and one child, also came 
this year. There may have been a few other arrivals upon our territory at 
this time, but probably not. Farther south, on land now included in Chester- 
field, there was, doubtless, a greater number. 

Other settlers upon our territory that came within a few years, were Asa 
■Grant, from Wrentham, John James and Zebulon Willcutt, from Cohasset, 
Joseph Blake and Edward Orcutt, from Hingham, Reuben and Moses Dres- 
ser, and Ebenezer Putney, from Charleton, Thomas and Daniel Brown and 
the five Banister brothers — John, Lemuel. Christopher, Barzillai and WiUiam 
— and probably Artemas and Sylvanus Stone, from Brookfield, Joshua Abell, 
from Reheboth, Capt. John Bigelow, Isaac Kingman, James and Joshua 
Packard, from Bridgewater, Dr. Benjamin Burgess and Samuel Mott, from 
Tisbury, John Smith, Timothy Lyman, Benjamin Parsons and his sons, 
Ebenezer, Justin, Solomon, Silas and Benjamin, from Northampton, Thomas 
Weeks and Ambrose Stone, from Greenwich, and William Hallock, from 
Long Island. 

WiUiam White was a man efficient and prompt to act in every good cause. 
He was one of the first that went to the country's defence, on the alarm that 
followed the battle of Lexington. He drew up the petition for the incorpora- 
tion of the town, was its town clerk for some thirty years, selectman for many 
terms, justice of the peace thirty-five years, representative to general court, 
and delegate to many important conventions. 

Col. Ezra May, a man of such acknowledged ability that upon the incor- 
poration of Chesterfield, which included his farm, he was, in the very first 
year of his residence here, chosen the moderator of the first town meeting in 
Chesterfield, and constable and chairman of the selectmen. He was first 
■deacon of the church in that town, went early into the army, rose to the rank 
of colonel, was in the battle of Saratoga, and at the taking of Burgoyne, 
where he took a violent cold, which resulted in his death a few months later, 
at the early age of forty-six years. Two of his sons, Nehemiah and Dexter, 
were in the army with him. 

Thomas Weeks, from Greenwich, went down to Lexington with a small 
company of men, and was with the army near Boston, in 1775-76. He was 
a man of more than usual education for his time, had been deputy sheriff in 
Worcester county for many years, and served as paymaster for the troops. He 
left many records and several journals of the scenes through which he passed, 
and from which it appears, that in 1777 he was at the surrender of Ticonder- 



256 TOWN OF GOSHEN. 



oga ; an event which he branded with the terms — " Shame, Infamy, Dis- 
grace." He was an able surveyor, laid out many of the highways of the 
town, was often employed in running the boundaries of the land, and was the 
first town clerk of Goshen ; the first subscriber to the papers for the organ- 
ization of the church, and a delegate to the convention that formed the con- 
stitution of the state. 

Dr. Benjamin Burgess came during the Revolutionary war, and for a long 
period was one of the leading physicians of this vicinity. He was a man of 
sound judgment and strong common sense, and was often called to serve in 
town aff"airs. He came from Martha's Vineyard, bringing his wife with him. 
Before setting sail for the main land, his wife quilted what money they had — 
$1,000 in gold — into the skirts of her dress for greater security if they fell 
into the hands of the British, whose vessels were troubling our coasters. They 
were once fired upon, but escaped unharmed. 

Dea. Oliver Taylor was another important man in the early afi"airs of the 
town and church. He was a man of great firmness of character, and seems 
to have had things pretty much in his own way. He was first deacon of the 
church, an office he held for nearly forty years ; was four times elected to 
represent the town in the legislature, and was justice of the peace for sixteen 
years. He enlisted in the army of the Revolution, but was sent home to 
work at his trade — that of a tanner — as his services for his country in sup- 
plying leather for shoes for the army were more important as a tanner, than 
they could be as a soldier. 

John James, the moderator of the first town meeting called by the select- 
men, and the first merchant in town, was a man of much force of character, 
and a successful man of business. He died in 1804, leaving to the town a 
donation of $100, to be kept on interest for one hundred years. After that 
time the income is to be devoted to the support of schools and the gospel. 
and for such other purposes as may be desirable. 

Reuben Dresser, from Charleton, was another of the sturdy yeomanry who 
was among the early settlers. He made large purchases of land, employed 
many workmen, set out extensive orchards, and built, it is said, on his own 
land fifteen miles of heavy stone wall, much of which stands to the present 
time. The farm is still in possession of his descendants. 

Joshua Packard was an early settler, locating here about 1770. He had 
born to him three sons, one of whom VVillard, alvva)'s lived in town, married 
Bathsheba Smith, and nine children were born to them, viz.: William S., Cor- 
delia, Edmund, Malesta, Julia,Willard, Emeline, Hiram and Freeman S. Hiram 
was born September 6, 18 16, married Lurane A. Carpenter, and has had born 
to him three children, namely, Henry W., Edward C. and Charles S. Henry 
died in New Mexico. Mr. Packard resides on road 9. 

To give some idea of the increase in the population we quote the following 
from the records, a list of those living in the several school districts of the 
town in October, 1781 : Samuel Old, John Hatch, Deborah Narramore, 



TOWN OF GOSHEN. 257 



James Packard, Isaac Kingman, Ezekiel Thomas. Wait Burk, Samuel Snell, 
Joshua Packard, James Orr, John Jepson, Moses Elwell, Ambrose Stone, 
Justin Parsons, Caleb Cushman, Barzillai Banister, Sylvanus Lyon, Nathan 
Bigelow and Thomas Hamilton, District No. i ; John James, Oliver Taylor, 
Lemuel Banister, Ebeneze r Amadon, Joel Gustin, Barnabas Potter, David 
Stearns, Cyrel Leach, JesseU^illcutt, William Banister, Benjamin Bourn, 
Christopher Banister, Samuel Grimes, Isaac Tower, Cyrus Lyon and Thomas 
Weeks, District No. 2 ; John Smith, Ebenezer Parsons. John Williams, Lem- 
uel Lyon, Nehemiah May, Benjamin Burger, Timothy Lyman, Artemas 
Stone, Widow Halbert, Reuben Lummis, Jedediah Buckingham, Stephen 
Grover, Thomas Brown, Daniel Brown, Dexter May. Edward Orcutt, Far- 
num White, Christopher Grant, Asa Grant, Adam Beal, William Hallock, 
Adam Beal, Jr., William Meader and Benjamin Abell, District No. 3 ; Joshua 
Abell, Williani Wlute, Ebenezer Putney, Reuben Dresser, Richard Tower, 
Moses Dresser, John King, Daniel Wyman, Nathaniel Vinton, James Lull, 
Joseph Blake, Ebenezer Paine, Ezekiel White, Widow White, Noah White, 
District No. 4. • ' — 

The population at the beginning of the several decades since then has been 
as follows: 1790, 681 ; 1800, 724; i 810, 652 ; 1820, 632 ; 1830, 617 ; 1840, 
556; 1850,512; 1860,439; 1870,368; 1880,327. 

Organization. — The " Gore " seemed to be, in some respects, unfortun- 
ately situated. Its early settlers, as already stated, had been at one time an- 
nexed to Chesterfield, but to restore peace, were again set off. Their neces- 
sities finally compelled them again to appeal to the general court, reciting 
their grievances, and asking to be incorporated as a town. Capt. Thomas 
Weeks presented the matter to the court in 1779, ^"^ again in 178 1. In Janu- 
ary of the latter year, moved by the '• petition of Thomas Weeks, agent to the 
petitioners of a part of Chesterfield," also of the " Gore of land called Chester- 
field Gore," a committee was appointed by the general court to repair to 
Chesterfield, hear the parties, and report at the next session of the court. 
The action of the committee may be inferred from a letter of which the fol- 
lowing is a copy : — 

"Norwich, May i, 1781. 

"Sir: I have left the report of the committee appointed on the matters 
relating to the Gore, Narragansett No. 4, and Chesterfield, with landlord Eli- 
sha Lyman and all the papers except yours, left with me, which are here en- 
closed. If you go down this session, remember to carry down to Court the 
plan of that part of Narragansett No. 4, as Capt. White proposed to the com- 
mittee when at Mr. May's representing those that were willing to be annexed 
to the Gore. Doct. Mather and Doct. Shepard propose not to go down this 
session, and I can't. You will do as you think best respecting going down 
this session or the next. We have closed our report, which if you send, you 
will have safely conveyed to the Secretary as directed. 

"^ I am Sr. your most Humble Serv't 
"John Kirkl.and. 

'' To Mr. Joshua Abell." 



258 TOWN OF GOSHEN. 



The act of incorporation finally passed May 14, 1781, and was approved 
by John Hancock^ governor. The name given in the act is Goshan — probably 
a clerical error. The origin of the name, as given by Dea. Oliver Taylor 
to his daughter, Mrs. Catheart, is said by her daughter, Mrs. Polly Tilton, 
to have been this : Goshen of old was the best part of Egypt, so the name 
was considered appropriate for what was claimed to be the best part of Ches- 
terfield. The town meeting, for organization, was held pursuant to a warrant 
issued by Jacob Sherwin, Esq., of Ashfield, May 23^ at the house of Johiv 
Williams, which then stood just above the burying-ground. Lieut. Thomas 
Weeks was chosen clerk ; Joshua Abell, treasurer ; Capt. William White, 
Lieut. Lemuel Lyon, Maj. Christopher Banister, selectmen and assessors; 
Thomas Brown and Ebenezer Parsons, constables; Farnum White, J-emuel 
Banister, Ebenezer Putney, Lieut. Timothy Lyman, Thomas Weeks and 
Barzillai Banister, highway surveyors ; John Williams, sealer of weights and 
measures ; Lemuel Banister and Farnum White, tithingmen ; John Smith 
and Maj. Christopher Banister, fence viewers; Samuel Olds, leather sealer; 
Barzillai Banister, deer-reeve; Nehemiah May, Daniel Brown, Barzillai Banister 
and Lemuel Banister_, hog-reeves. 

Education. — The earliest schools in the "Gore" or in "Quabbin" were 
kept in private houses. Capt. Thomas Weeks taught school in the house of 
John Williams, but names of other teachers of that date are unknown. The 
first shool-house in town was erected just west of the bridge, in the northwest 
district, near the former residence of Col. L. Stone. The first teacher in it 
was James Richards, of Plainfield. Another school-house was built near the 
meeting house, and a third near the house of Ebenezer Putney. The town 
was divided in four school districts in 1781. 

In 1799 the town passed a vote that the money raised by the tax on dogs 
should be used towards the support of the school. In 1869 the legislature 
passed a law making this rule throughout the state. 

In 1805 the town seems to have originated another idea that the state put 
into more general practice. The town voted that the selectmen have the 
care and charge of the school-books belonging to the town, and distribute 
them among the schools as they judge proper, indicating beyond question 
that the town furnished the books for the scholars, so that none should fail 
through poverty, or other cause, of having the necessary books for use in their 
studies. The state, it will be remembered, recognized the same benevolent 
principle in the law passed in 1873, giving towns permission to authorize their 
school committees to purchase text-books for use of the schools, to be owned 
by the town and loaned to the pupils under proper regulations. 

The town began to choose school committees a quarter of a century before 
the state required it by law. In 1799 William White, Reuben Howes, Justin 
Parsons, Ambrose Stone and Moses James were appointed to this office. In 
1826 Rev. Joel Wright, Capt. Joseph White, Capt. John Grant, Dr. George 
Wright, David Carpenter, Jared Hawks, Jr., and Emmons Putney were chosen 



TOWN OF GOSHEN. 259 



the first general school committee under the act of the legislature. This was 
the commencement of the new era in the history of Massachusetts schools, 
which, in a few years later, placed Horace Mann at their head as secretary of 
the board of education. 

Another important factor in the education of the early residents of the town 
was a first-class town library. In Captain Grant's journal he speaks of attend- 
ing a library meeting in 1796, and it was continued for many years after, but 
how long we are not informed. It contained valuable books, history, biogra- 
phy and travels, and we are told that the young men read them. Of one of 
them it was said that he was one of the most thorough students of history 
that could be found in his time. 

First Hig/nvay. — The first highway through Goshen was the old military 
road from Boston to Albany, established in 1758. The soldiers in passing 
over this road made camps from time to time, where small clearings were 
made. The road passed over tne farm of the late Captain Grant, where a log 
bridge was built which remained to his day. One of the old camping grounds 
was the spot where Col. L. Stone's "red house" w,aLS built. The remains of 
their bark huts were found here by Major Stone later than 1780. Joshua 
Packard once passed over the route with the troops, and on this camp-ground 
he lost his pocket-knife. After he became a resident of the town he searched 
for it and found it. John Williams, in 1786, owned the first wagon in the 
town. 

Alilitary. — A company of minute-men was early formed in Goshen, and 
when the news of the battle of Lexington, April 21, 1775, ^^^ received, this 
company started out for the scene, two daya after the battle. There were 
forty-four men in this company, with Robert Webster, captain ; Christopher 
Banister, lieutenant ; William White, first sergeant ; Timothy Lyman, second 
sergeant, and Jonathan Nelson, corporal. Thirty-nine of these men con- 
tinued in the service, joining Gen. Pomeroy's regiment, and fifteen returned 
home after terms of service, varying from seven to thirty-seven days. The 
men who returned received one cent per mile for expenses, and twenty-five 
cents per day as wages. The privates from what is now Goshen, were Tilly 
Burke, Benjamin Bourn, Caleb Cushman, Barzillai Banister, Nehemiah May, 
Cyrus Lyon, Oliver Taylor, Artemas Stone, Reuben Dresser, Samuel Thomas, 
Ebenezer Parsons, Samuel Olds, Christopher Grant, Adam Beals and Wait 
Burk. 

In the war of 18 12 it is probable that only one went out from Goshen into 
the regular service, John Manning. The following, however, went to the de- 
fense of Boston : Capt. Timothy Lyman, Asahel Billings, William Abell, 
William Tilton, Oliver T. Catheart, Enoch James, John Fuller, Robert Bar- 
rus, Abisha Williams, Arad Hasford and Moses Dresser. 

In the late great war Goshen furnished forty-seven men, a surplus of six 
over all demands; expended $5,374.50, and loaned the state, in aid to sol- 
diers' families, etc., $2,178.42. 



26o TOWN OF GOSHEN. 



Motes. — Among the natives of Goshen who have achieved prominence in 
the world may be mentioned the following: — 

Ezra Weeks, son of the first town clerk, removed to New York city, ac- 
cumulated a large fortune, owning at one time seven acres of what is now 
the most fashionable portion of that city, became president of a bank, and 
an author of a popular pamphlet on the treatment of cholera. 

William Lyman became a merchant, and was one of the leading citizens of 
Schenectady, N. Y. He educated his nephew and namesake, Dr. William, 
son of his brother, Captain Francis, whose residence was here. The young 
William became a physician of acknowledged skill, an orator of much elo- 
quence, a member of the Illinois legislature, and in the civil war, was medical 
director on General Logan's staff. 

Joseph H. White, grandson of the early settler, William, son of Joseph, was 
born on the White homestead in 1824. He was for many years the leading 
meniber of the firm of White, Browne & Co., the senior member of the firm 
of White, Payson & Co., the selling agents of the Manchester mills, and a 
principal stockholder and director. He soon accumulated a handsome for- 
tune and assisted his brothers in starting in mercantile business, one of whom 
is R. H. White, the head of the house of R. H. White & Co., whose business 
is not exceeded by more than three or four establishments in this country. 
Another brother, Hon. James White, was formerly in business with Joseph H. 

Dea. Benjamin Burgess, grandson and namesake of the long time physician, 
a prominent merchant and citizen for nearly half a century, and his brother 
Silas, a lawyer of Worcester. 

Enoch and L. L. James, grandsons of the early settler, John James, became 
successful merchants in their day, and Luther James, of Ann Arbor, Mich., 
all prominent as business men and capitalists. 

William Mayhew, the wealthy and generous Baltimore merchant, of national 
reputition, was a son of Freeborn Mayhew, for many years a resident of this 
town. 

Mrs. Martha J. Lamb, whose literary ability has placed her name high 
upon the roll of honor. Her History of New York is said to be the largest 
work of the kind ever accomplished by a woman. It is not only the largest, 
but has received the endorsement of eminent literary authorities as worthy 
of rank with the best. 

Lucretia Parsons, daughter of Rev. Justin, married Rev. D. O. Morton, and 
was the mother of Levi P. Morton, the New York millionaire, member of 
congress and United States minister to France. 

Mercy Burgess, daughter of Dr. Benjamin, married Mitchell Dawes, and 
was the mother of Hon. Henry L. Dawes, one of the honored and worthy 
senators of this state. 

This list might be largely extended. 

Goshen is a pleasant little post-village, located in the central part of the 
town. It lies principally on one street, has a store, hotel, two churches, and 



TOWN OF GOSHEN. 26 1 



a number of substantial residences. The postoffice was established here in 
1817, and John Williams was the first postmaster. 

Early mills and ?na7iufactories. — Reuben Dresser built a saw-mill, one of 
the first in town, more than a hundred years since, below the Dresser pond. 
A broom-handle factory was added about forty years ago ; and later, button 
moulds have beer) manufactured there. It now belongs to the heirs of C. C. 
Dresser. About two miles above, Emmons Putney built a saw-mill not far 
from 1835, which ran for twenty years or more, and was owned finally by Will- 
iam H. Webster. 

Ezekiel Corbin had a grist-mill on Swift river, a little below Shaw's bridge, 
near Cummington line, as early as 1796. James Patrick had a saw and grist- 
mill two miles or so above, on Swift river, near Ashfield line, built about 
1788. Daniel Williams, many years later, built a new mill and stone dam a 
few rods above the old mill, which has since been owned by Samuel Ranney 
and others, and later, for many years, by J. D. Shipman, who sold, in 1880, 
to Ansel Cole. Stone's saw-mill and broom-handle factory on Stone's brook, 
a branch of Swift river, were erected in 1828. It was the first factory for 
turning broom-handles by machinery in this vicinify. Planes were made here 
from 1854 to 1859, by Hiram Barrus & Brothers. At the present time the 
works comprise a saw-mill and brush-handle factory, owned by Amos H, 
Stone & Son. The second grist-mill in town stood about forty rods higher 
up the stream, built by Captain Bigelow. Maj. Ambrose Stone, in 1780, 
changed the works to a fulling-mill and clothier establishment, the first by 
nearly forty years for many miles around. Nearly a mile above, Willard and 
Hiram Packard had a saw-mill, which was abandoned more than twenty years 
ago. Still further up, on a branch of Stone's brook, at the outlet of Beaver 
Meadow, is Sear's saw-mill, formerly owned by Dea. Stephen Parsons. 
Beaver Meadow is connected by a small stream with the upper reservoir, 
which, in time of high water, discharged its waters in two directioos — one, 
through Stone's brook into the Westfield river, the other through Mill river 
into the Connecticut. Near the south end of the upper reservoir, built in 
1873, was another saw-mill erected by Francis and Thomas Lyman, about 
60 years ago. At the lower reservoir, on the street east of the meeting-house, 
there was an ancient saw-mill, owned by John Williams — called "Carpenter 
John," to distinguish him from " Squire John," the postmaster. It was after- 
wards owned by Abner Moore, who added a small grist-mill with broom- 
handle and button-mould factory. A little below is the saw-mill of Rodney 
Hawks, on the site of another built some forty years ago. 

Farther down Mill river is the remains of an old dam that marks the place 
where Nehemiah May and Ebenezer Putney about 1788 erected a mill for 
grinding sumac to be sent to Europe for tanning morocco. But it did not 
pay and was given up. Just below, Emmons Putney erected a saw-mill in 
1839. He has made button moulds here for many years. He states that 
one girl turned oft" for him in one day 150 gross of moulds, equal to 21,600 
18* 



262 TOWN OF GOSHEN. 



pieces. Below Putney's mill, was another, built about 1815 by Ebenezer 
White and Elias Lyon, and afterwards owned by Capt. Horace Packard & 
Sons. About a mile below, Nehemiah May built a grist-mill more than a 
century since, said to have been the first in town, which stood for fifty years. 
Not a vestage of the old timbers remain, but Maj. Hawks remembers going 
there to mill in his boyhood. On Harding's brook, a tributary of Mill river, 
coming down from the vicinity of Moore's hill, Asa White built a saw-mill 
nearly fifty years since, which run for only a few years. 

Cider-mills, run by horse-power, belonged to Dresser, White, James, Gloyd, 
Lyman, Packard and Naramore. The Packard mill, owned by Joseph Beals, 
still exists ; and E. C. Packard has recently set up another. 

In 181 2 Major Stone & Sons furnished considerable quantities of cloth for 
our army. It was narrow in width, but sold for a high price. In 1780 he 
bought wool at an average price of twenty-five cents per pound, which in 
181 2 was worth $2.00. Other mills of the kind becoming inconveniently 
numerous, Stone finally gave up the business, having pursued it for nearly 
fifty years. 

Levi Kingman, of Cummington, did a successful busmess here about 181 2- 
14, in the manufacture of patent overshoes, called " Tuscarora socks." They 
had an extensive sale, and were long a popular article 

Solomon Parsons and John James engaged quite largely in the manufac- 
ture of potash, and continued in the business for many years. 

There was formerly a tannery owned by Oliver Taylor where William H. 
Webster lived. It was in operation before the F^evolutionary war. Taylor 
enlisted and went into the army, but it becoming known that he was a tanner^ 
he was sent home to work at his trade, as he could be more useful in that de- 
partment, laboring for the soldiers, than by serving in the field with them. 
Another tannery near where William Tilton lived was owned for many years 
by his brother, Benjamin Tilton. 

CHURCHES. 

The Congregational church of Goshen was organized December 21, 1780, 
the foundation, indeed, of the town itself, which was incorporated some 
months later. This, it will be remembered, was the usual order in these mat- 
ters, the general court from the earliest period in the history of the state, 
never allowing the incorporation of a town till the formation, or " some good 
proceeding" was had toward the formation of a church within the limits of 
the proposed town. 

For seven years no pastor was settled, though many were called. When a 
minister was needed for special occasions in the absence of a supply, as in 
cases of discipline, admitting new members, administering the ordinances, 
the pastors from the neighboring towns on invitation, kindly assisted. In 



TOWN OF GOSHEN. 263 



one case this seems to have led to trouble as indicated by the following vote, 
passed November 2, 1786 : — 

" Then attended to a remonstrance which the Rev. Timothy Allen of 
Chesterfield, sent in against this church, for desiring him to assist m admit- 
ting a person into our church which he supposes was not a fit member. Voted 
to choose a committee of two of the Brethren to answer in behalf of the 
church the above remonstrance." 

Chose OHver Taylor and Thomas Brown. There may have been two sides 
to the story, but how it was finally disposed of the records do not say. We 
suspect, however, that the Chesterfield pastor did not consider that turning 
out a bad member was equivalent to receiving a bad one, and so was not 
conciliated, for in the latter part of the same month, the church wanted his 
assistance in excommunicating a member whom they considered bad, but he 
declined, and Rev. Mr. Bascom was invited to take his place. 

Rev. Samuel Whitman, of Ashley, a native of Bridgewater, was finally in- 
stalled as the first pastor of the. church, January lo, 1788. Rev. Mr. Allen 
was moderator of the council, offered prayer and preached the sermon. Rev. 
Joseph Strong, of Williamsburg, gave the charge.and Rev. James Briggs, of 
Cummington. offered the closing prayer. 

The church at this time had about fifty members. It had chosen one year 
previous two deacons, Oliver Taylor and Artemas. They were strong men 
and no church could have better material from which to select their leadino- 
officials. Among them were William Hallock and his two sons, Jeremiah 
and Moses, Nehemiah May, Ebenezer Putney, Joseph, Christopher and Lem- 
uel Banister, Farnum White, Justin Parsons and Dr. Benjamin Burgess. 

The church was early alive to the work of missions and a missionary soci- 
ety was formed for promoting the cause. One result of this is seen in the 
number of young men, natives, or sometime resident here, who engaged in 
missionary work. Among them was Rev. Levi Parsons, son of Deacon Jus- 
tin, who was one of the first two missionaries from the United States to Pal- 
estine. Rev. Horatio Bardwell, D. D., missionary to Bombay and afterwards 
agent of the American board, of whom his biographer said, "The key to his 
entire life and character is found in his consecration to the work of missions." 
Rev. Ralph Cushman went to Kentucky as a home missionary, and was after- 
wards appointed general secretary of the American Home Mission Society for 
the Western States. Calvin Cushman, Elijah Bardwell, brother of Rev. Ho- 
ratio, together with Mr. John Smith, went out as missionaries with their fam- 
ilies, to the Choctaws in Mississippi in 1820. Miss Electa May, daughter of 
Nehemiah, married Rev. Cyrus Kingsbury, the missionary, and accompanied 
the Choctaws across the Mississippi to their new home. Sarah Bardwell, sis- 
ter of Rev. Horatio, married Rev. James Richards and went as a missionary 
to Ceylon. Hannah, daughter of Ebenezer Putney, was the wife of John 
Smith, and went with him to the Choctaw mission. Alvan Stone, in the early 
history of Illinois, went out to that state and engaged in active work as a 



>64 TOWN OF GOSHEN. 



home missionary till removed by an early death. Jeremiah Hallock and his 
brother Moses, both long in the field and efficient laborers — Jeremiah forty 
years at Canton, Conn.; Moses a still longer term in Plainfield, father of Rev. 
William A. Hallock, the long time secretary of the American Tract Society in 
New York, and Girard Hallock, of the Journal of Commerce. It is said that 
Rev. Moses Hallock fitted more men for the ministry than any other man of 
his time, and that they were so well fitted for college that his own sons were 
educated by the college without charge. Then follows Rev. Justin Parsons, 
one of a large family that came from Northampton, a man of energy, good 
judgment, honored by the town and church with the highest offices in their 
gift, turning his attention to the ministry when more than fifty years of age, 
preaching more than forty years, building a church for his people at his own 
expense, helping Lane seminary in its early struggles for existence, giving a 
son to labor and die as a missionary in Palestine, having a daughter who mar- 
ried a clergyman — the parents of our new United Slates Minister to France, 
Hon. Levi Parsons Morton, of New York. Justin Parsons had also two 
brothers who lived here and finally became preachers — Rev. Silas and Rev. 
Benjamin Parsons. Silas also had a son Erastus, born here probably, became 
a preacher and labored with remarkable success during a short but active life. 
Rev. Rufus Cushman, brother of Rev. Ralph, was twenty two years pastor of 
a church in Fair Haven, Vt., was a man full of good words, faithful and be- 
loved. His son, Rufus Cushman, D. D., thirty-four years in the ministry, 
died a few years since in Manchester, Vt., And many others might be men- 
tioned. • 

The pastors of the church who succeeded Mr. Whitman, many of whom like 
him had each their share in the work of fitting and inspiring some one or 
more of this large number of men and women for their noble work, were Rev. 
Joel Wright, Henry B. Holmes, John C. Thompson, Royal Reed, Robert 
Crossett, Thomas H. Rood, Sidney Holman, H. M. Rogers, Townsend Walker, 
George Juchan, D. B. Lord, and the present pastor. Rev. J. E. M. Wright, 
son of one of the worthy daughters of Goshen. 

The society now has eighty-two members ; their church building will com- 
fortably accommodate 300 persons, and is valued, including grounds, at 
$3,000.00. The church has a fund of $5,000.00, known as the " Mrs. Mary 
Williams fund," which turns in an annual income of $250.00. 

The Second Advent Society v.'as organized by its first pastor, Elder Henry 
Pratt, in 185 1. About forty members came into the society, some of them 
from adjoining towns. The church building was erected in 1878. It is a 
small affair, capable of accommodating 125 persons, and cost $600.00. The 
society now has thirty members. 



TOWN OF GRANBY. 



265 



GRANBY* is one of the smallest towns in the county. To one stand- 
ing on Mt. Holyoke, looking northward, the old town of Hadley, lying 
on the east bank of the Connecticut river, presents a very beautiful 
picture, scenery as lovely as any to be found in the state ; fertile fields, lux- 
uriant orchards, broad and productive farms, with fine buildings, indicative of 
thrift and comfort. Then, to the beholder looking southward and south- 
easterly, her two lovely daughters. South Hadley and Granby, present an 
equally comely appearance — beautiful farms, with acres of woodland inter- 
spersed, fruitful orchards, commodious barns, and comfortable houses, which 
are the homes of an intelligent, independent and cultured people. 

The town of Granby lies east of South Hadley, west of Belchertown, south 
of Amherst, and is bounded on the south by Ludlow and Chicopee. It was 
incorporated as a separate town June 11, 1768, before which time it was 
reckoned a part of the precinct of South Hadley, which became a town in 
1775. Eff"orts were made from time to time, though without success, to unite 
the two as one town. 

Early Settlement. — The first grant of land sooth of the mountain by the 
mother town to Thomas Selden was made in 1675. Others were made soon 
after, some of which appear to have become void; for it was a half century 
later that the first permanent settlement was begun. 

In 1727 twenty one men settled south of the mountain, four of them in 
Granby. The latter were Ebenezer Taylor, John Smith, Ephraim Nash and 
John Lane. During the next four years their number was increased by five, 
the new neighbors being Timothy Nash, Joseph Nash, William Dickinson, 
Jr., Nehemiah Dickinson and Thomas Taylor. Six others were added dur- 
ing the next nine years, viz. : Stephen Warner, Sr., James Smith, Noah 
Ferry, Samuel Moody, John Moody and Hezekiah Smith. From 1740 to 
1750 there were twelve additions, viz.: William Eastman, Aaron Nash, 
Phinehas Smith, ist, Seth Clark, Noah Clark, John Preston, Experience 
Smith, Eleazar Nash, Martin Nash, Hezekiah Smith, Jr., Jonathan Selden 
and Samuel Dickinson. Of these, Seth and Noah Clark came from North- 
ampton. 

After 1750 the increase was much more rapid, and at the time Granby 
was incorporated as a town the population numbered about four hundred. 
This was forty years after the first settlement was made, and a hundred and 
nine after the settlement of the mother town. The population at different 
periods has been as follows : 1776,491; 1790,596; 1800,786; 1810,850; 
1820, 1,066; 1830. 1,064; J^'^40, 971; 1850, 1,104; 1855, T.ooi; t86o, 
907; 1865,908; 1870,863; 1875,812; 1880,753. 

Organization. — The Second Parish of South Hadley was incorporated as 
the township of Granby, June 11. 1768. The first town officers were Nathan 
Smith, clerk, who served until 1781, and was succeeded by Phinehas Smith, 

* Prepared by Pliny S. Boyd. 



266 TOWN OF GRANBY. 



Jr. ; and selectmen, Aaron Nash, Samuel Moody, John Moody, Waitstill 
Dickinson and Stephen Warner, Jr., who served one year and were succeeded 
by an entirely new board, namely, Phinehas Smith, Eleazer Nash, Jacob 
Taylor and Eleazer Warner. It was not thought best to change the entire 
board the next year, for Aaron Nash appears again, the other members 
being Benjamin Eastman^ Thomas Hovey Moody, Asaph Stebbins and Sam- 
uel Vinton. The fourth year, Asahel Smith and Israel Clark were new mem- 
bers, the other three, Phinehas Smith, Eleazer Nash and John Moody, having 
served before. 

Not until the town was nine years old did it have again an entirely new board 
of selectmen; but in 1777 the records give, as having been chosen to this 
office, Reuben Moody, Ebenezer Bartlett, Aaron Ayres, Joseph Lane and 
Joseph Dickinson. But not another such complete revolution has occurred 
since. In 1826 the board was reduced to three in number, but every year 
one or more has been chosen who had served before. 

It was the custom from the first, though not a uniform custom, to choose 
three of the selectmen to serve as assessors. The person chosen town clerk 
was elected to serve also as treasurer. 

The other officers chosen at the first meeting were Asahel Smith, consta- 
ble; Samuel Warner, sealer of leather; Benjamin Eastman, sealer of meas- 
ures, packer and clerk of the market, who was continued in this office twenty- 
four years, and was succeeded by Perez Cook ; Eleazer Warner, Seth Clark 
and Joseph Montague, surveyors of highways ; Samuel Elmer and Reuben 
Moody, wardens ; David Barton and Samuel Warner, tithingmen ; Israel 
Clark and John Ayres, deer-reeves; and Jonathan Selden, James Preston 
and William Negus, hog-reeves. 

Deer-reeves were chosen up to the year 1793, and hog-reeves up to a much 
later date. All the town officers were sworn to a faithful discharge of the 
duties of their office. The town has, from the first, been highly favored in 
being able to call to its service men of intelligence, ability and integrity, to 
fill the various official trusts to be administered. A full list of all the town 
officers would make a long chapter ; we venture only to mention a icw names 
prominent among them, some of whom have rendered signal service to the 
town in various official positions. The order of mention is alphabetical, 
rather than chronological : Aaron Ayres, John Ayres, Rodney Ayres, Samuel 
Ayres, C. C. Aldrich, E. J. Aldrich, David Barton, James M. Barton, J. H, 
Barton, William D. Barton, William Belcher, William Carver, Orlando Cha- 
pin, Philo Chapin, Daniel Church, Samuel Clark, Noah Clark, Israel Clark, 
Israel Clark, Jr., Jotham Clark, Charles F. Clark, Spencer Clark, Perez Cook, 
Jr., S. M. Cook, Waitstill Dickinson, Eli Dickinson, Joseph Dickinson, 
Henry A. Dickinson, Abner M. Dickinson, William B. Dickinson, Benjamin 
Eastman, William Eastman, Reuben R. Eastman, Luther Ferry, Lucius 
Ferry, Charles Ferry, Charles S. Ferry, W. W. Ferry, Harry W. Gridley, 
Elijah Kent, Monroe Keith, Chester Kellogg, Samuel Moody, John Moody, 



TOWN OF GRANBY. 267 



Simeon Moody, Reuben Moody, Enos Moody, Gideon Moody, Augustus 
Moody. Eli Moody, Albert Moody, Aaron Nash, Lorenzo S. Nash, Asa Pease, 
John Preston, Jeriel Preston, Dexter Preston, William J. Patrick, Nathan 
Smith, Phinehas Smith, David Smith, Medad Smith, Enos Smith, Aaron 
Smith, Chester Smith, Samuel Smith, Dr. Cyrus B. Smith, S. C. Smith, Will- 
iam A. Smith, Simeon C. Stebbins, Levi Taylor, Willard Taylor, Francis E. 
Taylor, Frederick Taylor, Sylvester H. Taylor, Willard A. Taylor, John 
Tilley, Dr. Samuel Vinton, Stephen Warner, Jr., Eli Warner, Park Warner, 
E. D. Witt, Andrew White and A. S. White. 

Educational. — In matters of educational interest Granby has held a place 
in the front ranks from the first. At the first town meeting after the organ- 
ization it was voted to raise twenty pounds "for schooling," and that it be 
expended in " hirmg schoolmasters." The amount was increased from time 
to time till it amounted to $1,500.00 annually, and more recently to $1,800.- 
00. For a great many years it was the custom of the town to make an ap- 
propriation for the encouragement of singing, and a committee was chosen at 
town-meeting to see that the money was judiciously expended. 

In the early days the parents exercised large liberty with reference to what 
school they would patronize. And in 1789 it was "voted that any man 
shall have liberty to go to what District to a school he pleases, provided he 
shall make it appear to the committee that it is reasonable." It was then 
voted that the committee chosen should be elected to " divide the school 
money," although it appears that the duties of the committee were consider- 
ably more extensive. For a good many years it was customary to choose a 
general committee of the school, and then in addition a separate committee 
for each district. At present a committee of three has the entire charge of 
the schools of the town, one being elected each year. The present able and 
efficient committee consists of S. M. Cook, Willard A. Taylor and C. E. 
Hunt. The schools maintained are seven district schools, one conjointly 
with the town of Ludlow, and the high school. 

Public Bequests — The town has received some valuable gifts, the first of 
which was a lot for the meeting-house, given by Samuel Moody in 1762, of 
which the deed was given by his sons in 1769. The same day James Smith 
gave a lot of one acre by deed, " in consideration of the respect and affec- 
tion he bore for and towards the people of the town of Granby, for accom- 
modating them with a convenient place for burying the dead." 

In 1821 John Montague gave to the first parish "three acres of land to 
serve as the location of a meeting-house and a common." Twenty-four 
years later his son, Joseph Montague, gave for the purpose of enlarging the 
common an addition of two acres and a half. In 1886 Dexter Taylor gave 
to be maintained as a public park, or used for a public library building, the 
lot south of the common, opposite his home. 

Military. — The history of the town in military affairs, like that in civil 
affairs, is such as to reflect great honor upon the people. It has been marked 



268 TOWN OF GRANBY. 



by great prudence, vigilance and determination, by genuine independence 
and patriotism. Nothing was undertaken through strife or vainglory, but for 
the liberties and rights of the people. It was voted in 1774 that the town 
should be represented by Mr. Phinehas Smith " at the Provincial Congress 
to be holden at Concord, on the second Tuesday of October, to hear, con- 
sider and determine, on all such matters and causes as shall then be thought 
necessary in this critical, dark and distressing day." 

On May 20, 1776, it was voted that "the Selectmen purchase a drum 
and fife for the use of the Training Band of this town." And on the 20th 
of June, the same year, it was voted that "we of this town will support the 
independence of the American Colonies with our lives and fortunes, Pro- 
vided the American Congress shall declare these Colonies Independent of 
the Kingdom of Great Brittain." 

During the dark and bloody days of that period it was the custom to choose 
every year a committee of correspondence, direction and protection. At one 
meeting it was " voted to give Martin Nash 400 dolers to serve during the 
Present war for this town." And later it was " Voted to give Robert Owens 
the sum of two hundred Dolers for past services, and as an encouragement 
for him to serve for this Town during the present war." 

In 1 78 1 it was ''voted to raise ten thousand pounds to procure beef for 
the continental army." It was voted that the pay of the soldiers should be 
in silver or gold, and Continental money or grain at certain specified rates. 
Great forethought was taken to secure to the people the liberties for which 
the war was carried on. A committee of nine men was chosen to examine 
the form of constitution proposed, and to report their opinion concerning the 
business contained therein ; and after their report the town voted to accept 
the constitution with such amendments as the committee suggested. 

Town meetings were held with great frequency for the consideration of 
the public business. For the year 1781 the records report the doings of 
thirty-five meetings of the town. 

The spirit of the people is shown in the vote that " The Town of Granby 
will use all means in their Power to render the intentions of the Gen'l Court 
of this State effectual Touching all things expressed in an act entitled an act 
to Prevent Monopoly and Oppression, &c." 

The people did not hesitate to call their officers to account when they 
thought there was occasion for it ; nor to warn out of town any whose pres- 
ence seemed likely to interfere with the general and public welfare. There 
independence was matched by their courage ; and their courage was tempered 
with prudence. 

It is told of Levi Taylor, who at the age of sixteen joined the army of the 
Revolution, that when he left his home his mother said to hmn, " Levi, never 
let me hear of your being a coward." That determined spirit of the mother's 
found expression in the heroic services of noble sons, and is cherished and 
honored by an appreciative posterity. 



TOWN OF GRANBY. 269 



Three generations later the same courage and patriotism were illustrated 
in the enlistment of a great-grandson, Joseph Knight Taylor, in the Union 
army in the war of the Rebellion, who, counting not his life too dear if only 
his country could live, gave himself a sacrifice, to die a patriot, and to Hve in 
memory a hero. He died in 1864, only 24 years of age. On his monument 
in the Granby cemetery, may be seen the expressive epitaph : " Sweet after 
battle is the tired soldier's rest." 

The history of the town gathers luster also from the record of Capt. Will- 
iam B. Clark, in the war of the Rebellion. Of him it was said by one who 
knew him well, Surgeon Pease, also a son of Granby who served in the war, 
that " he was always perfectly cool and brave, and always led his men into 
action." 'Few have had a better record; none could have had a more 
honorable death." It was said of him by a brother captain, "■ I have ever 
found him the same under all circumstances, —a kind, generous, noble- 
hearted, brave and Christian man. He combined the two qualities of bravery 
and prudence in a remarkable degree." In noble service he lost his life, 
struck down in battle, a hero and patriot, the tr^^e son of an honorable an- 
cestry. Others, animated by the same spirit, shared their perils, but lived to 
enjoy the privileges and blessings they had saved to their country. 

They went bravely to battle, some to sup with death and some to share the 
joys of victory. Their deeds have lent brightness to rhe annals of their coun- 
try, and the muse of history has graven their names upon her enduring page. 
They were, George N. Fletcher, Samuel A. Chapin, Eliot P. Ferry, Lucien 
E. Robinson, Charles Bachelor, Frederick Bachelor, Edwin Smith, Andrew J. 
Converse, Danforth L. Converse. Lemuel Warner, Orlando Wilson, Cyrus B. 
Smith (surgeon), William Bartlett, William F. Pease, Robert M. Smith, Chapin 
Warner, Loren E. Goldthwait, Alexander P. Cook, William H. Cook, Michael 
O'Neil, George S Stebbins, Dwight A. Barrett, Frederick P. Converse, Charles 
A. Rhodes, Hiram Tilley, Charles W. Fletcher, John Warner, Malcolm 
Bridgman, Asaph P. Barton, Charles H. Bates, David Casey, Samuel B. Dick- 
inson, Francis H. Gardner, Charles W. Hunter, Edwin N. Hunt, Dwight C. 
Morgan, Dwight Preston, Samuel C. Smith, William A. Smith, Charles 
Spooner, Sylvester H. Taylor, John Tilley, Frank H. Stearns, Charles H. 
Church. 

While they were at the front, the home-guard of patriots sustained them 
honorably by vote, sympathy, material aid and kindly ministries. The record 
of the town during the war is a patriotic one. At the outset, "the sum of a 
thousand dollars was voted to pay the soldiers while drilling, and for the sup- 
port for the space of a year thereafter, of the families of such as should lose 
their lives in the contest." And action in keeping with this beginning was 
maintained throughout the contest. 

It may be added in a final word, that as in the war for independence and 
the war for union and liberty, the town can boast of an honorable record, so 
in all the great reformatory movements her people have shown a real devotion 



270 TOWN OF GRANBY. 



to the best interests of humanity. In wealth of character the town is as rich 
as in natural beauty and attractiveness. In this she is almost unrivale'd, 
showing a great variety of hill and dale, mountain and meadow, upland and 
lowland, field and forest, rich in flowers and foliage, the fitting ornamentation 
of a land flowing with milk and honey, a land well suited to be the home of 
patriots and heroes, worthy citizens of a Paradise regained. 

Notes Biographical. — David Church, son of Josiah, was born in South Had- 
ley, and made the first settlement upon the farm now owned by Monroe 
Keith, and resided in Granby the larger part of his life. He married Rachel 
Moody, daughter of John Moody, one of the early settlers. She bore him five 
children, David, Jonathan, Nadoiah, Benjamin and Rachel. David married 
Lucy Scranton, who bore him nine children, namely, Lois, John, Rufus, Allen, 
Ruel, Augustin, Mary, David and Marilla, all of whom except Ruel and three 
daughters are livmg, and three, John, Rufus and Augustin, in Granby. 

Noah Ferry was born 17 [2, and lived on the farm now owned by Charles 
Kellogg. He married Experience AUis, and both are buried in the cemetery 
at Granby. They reared four children, Noah, Charles, Daniel and Rebecca. 
Noah, Jr., was born in this town October 18, 1748, married Hannah, daugh- 
ter of Joseph Montague, and reared ten children. Capt. Luther Ferry was 
born in Granby, and reared nine children, viz.: Lucius, Luther, Addison, Ed- 
win, Alvin, Susannah, Lois, Azuba and Julia. 

Elihu Clark, son of Israel, and a descendant of Lieut. William Clark, was 
born December 7, 1785, married Roxa Ayres, and had born to him six chil- 
dren, viz.: Clinton, who was a graduate of Amherst college, Climena, Sarah 
E., Spencer and Mercer. Spencer married Aurilla, adopted daughter of Alvan 
Davis, of Royalston, Mass., and lived on the farm now owned by Mrs. Clark, 
until his death, which occurred may 14, 1883, aged sixty-four years. He had 
born to him one son, Wilham S., who is attending Yale college. 

John Giddings was one of the early settlers of this town, and settled on 
the farm now owned by Angeline Kellogg. His son James was born in this 
town, and his children were as follows : Mary, Daniel, Sally, Patty, John, 
Joseph and Huldah. The last mentioned married Calvin Shaw, of Belcher- 
town, who was a sea captain, and died at Savannah, June 10, 181 2. They 
had one child, Calvin, who resides in this town. 

Jonathan Burnet came to Granby, from Long Island, about 1770, and pur- 
chased the farm now owned by Nelson Smith. He married Mehetable Dick- 
inson, and had born to him seven children. Bela, son of Jonathan, married 
twice, first Clarissa Warner, who bore him three children, all deceased, and 
second, Sally (Johnson) Alden, and had two children, only one of whom is 
living, Salena, the wife of Nelson Smith. 

Dolphin D. Chapin, son of Dormer, who was a son of Capt. Phineas. and 
a lineal descendant of Dea. Samuel Chapin who came from Wales and settled 
in Roxbury about 1635, was born in 1810, married Achsah M., daughter of 
Amos Ferry of this town, and in 1842 moved on to the place where he now 



TOWN OF GRANBY. 271 



resides. His children are Edmund M., Dennison, Norman O., Dolmer F., 
Delia L. and Sarah E. 

Israel Clark, Jr., was the sixth in lineal descent from Lieut. William Clark 
who came to this country from England, in 1630, and located in Northamp- 
ton about 1659. Israel was the son of Israel and Sarah (Smith) Clark, was 
born in Granby, October 15, 1791, married Tibbel Clark in 1822, and had 
born to him two daughters. He was promment in the building of the meet- 
ing-house, and served as an officer of the town for over twenty years. He was 
a clothier by trade, and owned a farm in the eastern part of the town. He 
had a saw-mill, a grist-mill and a satinet-mill on Forge pond. He also had a 
paper-mill on Swift river in Belchertown. He died March 20, 1865. 

Phineas Smith was an early settler of this town, and was the first settler 
on the farm now owned by his grandson, Austin Smith. He married Mary 
White, of South Hanley, and reared eight children, viz. : Phineas, Irene, 
Medad, Adolphus, Giles, Calvin, Titus and Chester. Phineas, Jr., married 
Susan Ayres, and had born to him five children, namely, Cephas, Austin, 
Alva, Mary and Austin, 2d. Cephas, Mary and Austin all reside at the 
homestead. Austin married Mary S. Pease, and has had born to him five 
children, viz.: Susan, Charles A., Willis A., Edwin P. and Robert C. Adol- 
phus, .son of Phineas, was born in this town, married Susannah Ferry, and 
reared nine children, viz. : Emeline, Giles, Eliza, Finley, JuUa, Edwin, Loman, 
Elliot and Susan. He made the first settlement on the farm now owned by 
his son, Elliot Smith, and built the house in which he now resides. Elliot 
married twice, first, Susan E. Hunt, who bore him one child, Edward H., and 
died in 1873, and second, Lucy Barrell, and has one child, George C. 

VILLAGES, 

Granby, the location approaching the dignity of a village, is located in the 
central part of the town. It has a store and a postoffice. Congregational 
churcfh, town-house, high school, and twenty or thirty dwellings. 

INDUSTRIES. 

With regard to the industries of Granby, little need be said, except that 
they have been pursued, chiefly in the agricultural line, with patient and con- 
tinuous application, and rewarded with honest and 'moderate gains. Thirty 
years ago, in his historical sketch. Dr. Holland, a resident of the town, re- 
marked that "The manufacturing interest in Granby is limited." It has not 
grown in importance since that brief sunimary. Bachelor brook, in the north 
part of the town, has furnished power for the principal enterprises that have 
been undertaken. Fifty years ago a woolen factory was established and run 
successfully for a time, by Samuel Ayres, Jeriel Preston and Levi Taylor, 
under Mr. Taylor's superintendence. After Mr. Taylor's death in 1849, the 
business was continued by Ayres &: Aldrich. Now, only a grist-mill is run in 



272 TOWN OF GREENWICH. 



the same locality, by Mr. Aldrich. Near the outlet of Forge pond Israel 
Clark, long active and prominent in town affairs, was engaged in the manu- 
facture of satinet. The power is now employed by Samuel C. Smith in run- 
ning a grist-mill and saw-mill. In tlie early part of the present century an 
iron-forge was run there by Elijah Kent. About the middle of the present 
century Frederic Taylor and Anson Brown engaged in the manufacture of 
paper on Bachelor brook; their mill was burned and was never re-built. In 
the southeast part of the town, George Carver has a mill for manufacturing 
reeds, and Henry Carver runs a saw-mill and makes machines for manufac- 
turing butter. 

ECCLESIASTICAL. 

The Church of Christ Congregational Society. — The long contest which 
existed between South Hadley and Granby at the time they formed the south 
or second precinct of Hadley, regarding the location of a meeting-house, 
which should equally accommodate each section, resulted in a division and 
the establishment of a separate church organization in Granby. The original 
church edifice was erected and the church organized in 1762, and in October 
of that year Rev. Simon Backus, of Norwich, Conn., and a graduate of Yale 
college, was settled as pastor. The church was influential and prosperous 
from the first, but owing to an unhappy difference in reference to the site ot' 
a new meeting-house in 182 1, a division occurred, and two churches were 
maintained until 1836. Since the reunion, it has continued to prosper, as a 
strong and influential Christian body. The present church building was 
erected in 1822. The society now has 222 members. 

The town, has been served in the gospel ministry by Simon Backus, 1762- 
84; Benjamin Chapman, 1790-96; Elijah Gridley, 1797-1834; Chester 
Chapin, 1822-30; Joseph Knight, 1830-36; EU Moody, as colleague with 
Mr. Gridley, 1530-34, then as pastor of the united churches until 1840; 
James Bates, 1840-51 ; Henry Mills, 1854-63; H. S. Kelsey, 1863-66; J. 
P. Cushman, 1867-70; Rufus Emerson, 1871-74; R. Henry Davis, 1875- 
78; F. R. Wait, 1879-81; and Fritz W. Baldwin, 1882-84. The present 
pastor, Pliny S. Boyd, was installed March 4, 1885. 



GREENWICH Hes in the extreme eastern part of the county, and is 
bounded north by Prescott, east by the county line, south by Ware, 
and west by Enfield and Prescott. It is a long, narrow township, 
nearly eight miles in length, and less than three in width, containing an area 
of about 14,000 acres. 

The town has a pleasingly diversified surface and a fertile soil. It is de- 
cidedly a valley town, with skirting hills on either side, and drained by the 



TOWN OF GREENWICH. 273 



east and west branches of Swift river, with their affluents, while several ponds 
lend a decided picturesqueness to the scenery. Into one of these, Moose 
pond, the east branch discharges its waters. The other ponds are Warner 
pond, in the north part of the town, Curtis pond, about a mile further south, 
and Davis pond, southwest of Greenwich Village. The principal elevation is 
Pomeroy mountain, just north of Greenwich Village, attaining an altitude of 
about 800 feet. Mt. Liz, south of the Village, attains about the same alti- 
tude. Cooley's hill, another elevation, is situated near the Enfield Une. 
Added to attractive scenery, Greenwich has a decidedly healthful climate. 
Many from a distance make it their summer home on these accounts. 

Grants Settlement and Subsequent Growth. — In the well-known Narragan- 
sett expedition^ during King Philip's war, the 840 soldiers who took part 
therein, were promised, " if they played the part of men, took the fort, and 
drove the enemy out of the country, they should have a gratuity in land 
besides their wages." Pursuant to this promise, the general court, on June 
30, 1732, granted to their descendants seven townships, each six miles square, 
which thus gave one such township to each 120 soldiers. 

These townships were located in Maine, New Hampshire and Massachu- 
setts, and were designated as " Narragansett Township No. i," etc., through 
the numerals to seven. Of these, Narragansett Township No. 4 was located 
in New Hampshire. It was subsequently reported that this New Hampshire 
land was unfit for settlement, and on November 17, 1735, ^ committee was 
appointed " to search out better land in exchange." 

The land now included within the limits of Greenwich and Enfield was 
called '^ Quabbin," a name obtained, it is said, from " King Quabbin," an In- 
dian sachem, who early dwelt with his tribe near the junction of the two 
branches of the river, in the southern part of the present town of Greenwich. 
The committee appointed to look up another location for Township No. 4, 
selected Quabbin, which is described as bounded as follows : — 

" North by Salem town ; easterly by Lambstown [now Hardwick] ; south- 
erly by the Equivalent Land; and westerly by William Reed's land." 

In 1737 this territory was surveyed, and found to lack considerable of the 
allotted six miles square, so additional grants were made, corresponding with 
the present towns of Chesterfield and Goshen, as we have detailed in the re- 
spective histories of those towns. 

On January 14, 1736, the general court issued the grant of Quabbin to 
" Narragansett No. 4, especially granting 1,200 acres of it to James Patter- 
son, Robert Fenton, Edward Miller, James Wheeler, John Patterson, Andrew 

Turner, Thomas Powers, Arthur Gary, Robert Evans, Robert Carlile, 

Thorp, and Holden, to each of them fifty acres for a house-lot, to be 

laid out by a committee of the general court, and the remaining fifty acres 
to be included in the general division." These twelve men are supposed to 
have been actual settlers on Quabbin 's territory, and hence to them we look 
as the pioneers. They were from Brookfield, Connecticut and the North of 



2 74 TOWN OF GREENWICH. 



Ireland. The conditions of this grant were that they severally dwell thereon 
with their families for four years, put ten acres under good cultivation, and 
grant 300 acres to the first settled minister, the same to the second, and an- 
other for a school lot. 

On May 12, 1737, a committee, consisting of John Foster, Shubael Con- 
ant, Samuel Childs, Samuel Tildake and Ebenezer Mun, was appointed to 
lay out and allot the land of Quabbin, and were directed to lay out ten acres 
of land for a meeting house and burying-ground, highways, and a lot of the 
contents of sixty acres to each proprietor, besides ministry and school lots. 

On June 20, 1787, the southern part of the town was incorporated as the 
"South Parish " of Greenwich; and on February 15, 1816, the town of En- 
field was incorporated, reducing the area of Greenwich to its present limits. 

Of the early settlement of Quabbin little is defiinitely known. Its first set- 
tler is supposed to have been John Patterson, as we have detailed in the 
sketch of Enfield, where we have also given a long list of the early settlers. 
Families by the name of Gibbs, Hinds, Powers, Rogers and Cooley have also 
advanced claims to the honor of having furnished the first settler. The 
records, however, do not seem to corroborate their claims. The name of 
Thomas Gibbs first appears in the records in 1740. A little later Jeremiah 
and David Powers appear, together with William Carpenter, Simon Davis, 
John Rea, John Townsend, Nathan Fiske, Abraham Gibbs, John Harwood 
and Timothy Rugbies. A little later is found the names of Hopestill Hinds^ 
Benjamin Cooley, James Nevins, James Wright, James Whitcombe, William 

Rogers, Luke Hitchcock and Holmes. These families were prominent 

in the affairs of the town during the first thirty years of the town's history. 

Later, families of prominence have been the Hales, Cutlers, Ayres, Blod- 
getts, Walkers, Shumways, Davises, Marcys Trasks, Sprouts, Richards, 
Sears, Blackmers, Vaughns, Roots, Fullers, Haskells^ Hookers, Fields, Robin- 
sons, Douglasses, Jordans, Stones, Warners, Snows, Doaks and Earles. 

Elias Haskell was an early settler of this town, came here from Rochester, 
Mass., and located on the place where his son, at the advanced age of nmety 
years, now resides. The latter was born on the homestead. May 28, 1796, 
married Mary Raymore and has reared four children, namely, Ira D., Elias, 
who died at the age of two years, Mary, who married E. W. Sanderson, of 
Northampton, and Harvey T., who died at the age of ten years. Ira D. 
married Adeline E., daughter of Ezra Ayres of this town, and moved to En- 
field in 1858, where he has since been engaged in mercantile trade. He has 
one child, Charles D., who is engaged in the store with his father. 

Peter Blackmer was born in Warren, moved to Greenwich at a very early 
day, and settled on the place now owned by George Wheeler. He married 
Esther Shepherd and reared ten children, viz : Roland, who was a promi- 
nent man in town, having held the offices of treasurer, selectman and others ; 
Mary, David, Peter, Susan,, Esther, Thankful, Asa, Amos and Moses. Amos 
married Margaret Gray in 1802, lived in the northern part of the town after 



TOWN OF GREENWICH. 



275 



his marriage, and moved to Prescott in 1810. He died April 18, 1823, and 
his widow died March 7, 1853. ^'^ six children were as follows : Mary D., 
born in Greenwich in 1805 ; Daniel G., born in 1809 ; Peter, born in i8ri ; 
WiUiam H., born in 1814; Esther S. and Amos H. The last mentioned is 
the only surviving member of his father's family, and married Lydia Sanger 
in 1859. He met with an accident in 1835, which has since debarred him 
from hard labor. He moved to Greenwich Village in 1869. 

James Richard, Jr., was born in Greenwich, South Parish, now Enfield, 
March 20, 1801, married Priscilla Newcomb, August 22, 1822, and reared 
nine children, namely, Maria F., Charles W., William W., George H., Sarah 
J., John W., Mary M., Louise F. A., and Marshall N. Maria F. married 
A. F. Newcomb, and ha? two children, Fannie and Charles. The latter 
married Azubah Powell. William W. married Alice Currier, and has had 
born to him three sons, all deceased. George H. married twice, first, Julia 
Stackney, and second, Lydia Newell, and has two sons, Edward N. and 
Louis H. Sarah J. married Erastus Marsh, and three of their four children 
are living, James E., George H. and NeUie. John W. married Ann Currier, 
and only one of their four children is living, namely, Harry. Mary M., born 
March 7, 1836, has always lived at home. Louise F. A. married Austin 
Shumway, and has had nine children. Marshall N. married Louise R. Munroe, 
and four of their six children are living, namely, Fannie L., Lottie M., 
Gracie and James R. James Richard, Jr., died February 16, 1886, aged 
eighty-four years, and his wife died November i, 1881, aged eighty years. 

Lorenzo Davis, son of Philip, was born in Stafford, Conn., September 2, 
1808, and came with his father to Greenwich in 181 1. He learned the car- 
penter's trade, and helped put up the first shafting in the first cotton -mill in 
Holyoke. He bought four acres of land in 1837, built the house where he 
now resides, and has continued to add to his farm, until he now has 290 
acres. He married twice, first, Sophronia Shumway, who bore him four 
children, namely, Erasmus C, who served in the late war, in Co. I, Mass. V. 
L, died while there, Philip S., who died in infancy, Lucy S., who married 
Henry Pomeroy, and Ellen S. The mother of these children died in 1844, 
and Mr. Davis married for his second wife, Mary M. Esterbrook, in 1846. 

Charles S. Record came to Greenwich Village in 1829, at the age often 
years, was apprenticed to Gen. John Warner, who was at that time engaged 
in the manufacture of scythes, and worked for him twenty-one consecutive 
years. He has held various offices of trust, has been town treasurer, road 
commissioner, and has been constable and collector for ten years. He has been 
chorister at the Congregational church for twenty-five years, and a member 
of the said choir for forty-seven years. He married Mary L., daughter of 
Cyrus Loud, in 1850, and has one daughter, Clara L., born in 1853. The 
latter married Ambrose E. Walker, of this town. 

Mrs. Selina Morse, is the widow of Jeremiah M., and daughter of Ephraim 
Thayer, of Dana, Mass., and came to Greenwich Village with her husband, 



276 TOWN OF GREENWICH. 



soon after marriage. Mr. Morse was a shoemaker, and died in this towu in Feb- 
ruary, 185 1, leaving four children, Oscar F., Charles P., Frances E. and Sarah 
L. Oscar F. was born in 1833, married Sxrah J. White, in 1866, and has 
two children, Arthur L. and Mabel B. Charles P. married Clara Barns, and 
has two children. Frances married Daniel W. Parker, and has had born to 
her two children, Frank L. and Charles M. Mr. Parker died in 1875, and 
Mrs. Parker married for her second husband, Abel O, Parker, and has one 
child, Webster M. Sarah L. married Eugene Barrows, and died in 1872. 

Ezra Alden, son of Festus, was born at Hardwick, Mass., in October, 185 1, 
and came to this town with his parents while quite young. He married Mary 
Stevens, December 23, 1872, and has had born to him two children, Frederick 
E. B., born in 1873, and Sarah E., born in September, 188 1. 

The fluctuations in the town's population may be seen in the following 
figures: In 1776 it had 890 ; 1790, 1,045; 1800, 1,460; i8ro, 1225; 1820, 
778; 1830, 813; 1840, 824; 1850, 838; 1855, 803; i860, 699: 1865, 
648; 1870,665; 1875, 606; 1880,633. 

Organizations. — On June 20, 1749, an act was passed by the general court 
incorporating Quabbin into a parish. On the 4th of November of the same 
year the first parish meeting was held, when the following officers were chosen : 
Thomas Gibbs, moderator ; William Carpenter, clerk ; Thomas Gibbs, 
Jeremiah Powers and David Powers, prudential committee; John Townsend, 
William f^ilarpenter and Nathan Fiske, assessors ; and Abraham Gibbs, col- 
lector. 

On the 20th of April, 1754, the general court passed an act incorporating 
the parish into a township with all the privileges belonging thereto, though 
it included the present towns of Dana and Petersham, in Worcester county, 
and a large portion of Enfield. The name of the town was given in honor of 
General Greenwich. 

The first meeting for the organization of the town under its new dispensa- 
tion was held at the meeting-house on Thursday, August 15, 1754, when the 
following officers were elected : John Worthington, moderator ; Nathan 
Fiske, clerk ; Jeremiah Powers, James Nevins, Benjamin Cooley, John Rea 
and John Townsend, selectmen ; Nathan Fiske, Abraham Gibbs and Benja- 
min Cooley, assessors ; and several other minor officers. 

Military. — In the war for independence, the records show that Greenwich 
performed well its part. Of those who entered the service were the following : 
David Blackmer, Charles Bruce, Roland Sears, Moses Robinson, Barnabas 
Rich, Giles Rider and Pratt. 

In the war of 181 2 the town sent out the following: Andrew Harwood, 
Luther Root, Ezra Sprout, Chester Hale, Daniel Tourtelott, Benjamin Rider, 
Henry Forbes, Samuel Barton, Daniel Eddy, Ichabod Pope and Kingsley 
Underwood. 

In the late great war Greenwich furnished sixty-three men, a surplus of two 
over all demands, expended $6,893.29, and loaned the state $3,033.91. 



TOWN OF GREENWICH. 



277 



VILLAGES. 

Greenwich Village is a thriving little post-village, located in the north- 
eastern section of the town, on the east branch of Swift river. It is made of 
several stores, a hotel, the usual compliment of mechanics' shops, etc., and has 
some very pretty residences. The postoffice was established here about 1 807 , 
and Warren P. Wing was the first postmaster. 

Greenwich, or Greenwich Plain as it is locally known, is somewhat smaller 
than the "Village," but surely is as pleasantly located, near the geographical 
center of the town. About 1810 the postoffice was established here, and the 
present postmaster is Eugene G. Kellogg. 

HOTELS. 

The first hotel in the town is said to have been kept by Dr. Trask, on the 
" Marcy place." About the same time, however, Timothy Hinds kept one 
on the old Ayres place, and these two were for a long time the only ones in 
town. The next prominent place of public resort was kept for a great many 
years, beginning about the first part of the present century, by Col. Thomas 




JJ4i-bz>Fg!i^yifjS 



^ili4^Si^i^iliPi^ 



(Riverside Hotel, H. M. Brown, Proi'rietor.) 



Powers, on the old Powers place, at Greenwich Village. It was afterwards 
kept, either in the same place or on the site of the present hotel, by Edmund 
Raymore. The present house here, of which we give the accompanying en- 

19* 



278 TOWN OF GREENWICH. 



graving, is called the " Riverside Hotel," with Henry M. Brown, proprietor. 
It is pleasantly situated on the main street, in the midst of a fine maple grove, 
and is a delightful summer home. It runs a free 'bus to the railroad station, 
and has a good livery connected. 

At the " Plains" is the " Greenwich Hotel/' with Edward O. Williams, pro- 
prietor. This, too, is pleasantly located, and in the midst of a region that is 
popular with summer boarders. 

INDUSTRIES. 

In the early part of the century a scythe factory was established at Green- 
wich Village, by Gen. John Warner. He was afterwards joined by his son-in- 
law, David Allen, who finally succeeded him in the business. The factory 
was destroyed by fire in 1858. About 18 18, Ezra Ayres, at the old " Ayres 
place," engaged in the manufacture of pewter buttons. Nathan Powers had 
a woolen-mill, at an early date, and later Warren P. Wing engaged in the 
manufacture of " cards" at the village. The first saw and grist mill was built 
in 1745, by a Mr. Holmes, at Greenwich Village. 

■5". J^. Bailey s lumber-mill, at Greenwich Village, is operated by water- 
power, gives employment to three hands, and turns out about 300,000 feet of 
lumber per year, and also furnishes considerable material for builders. 

M. J. Wheeler s brush and broom factory at Greenwich Village, turns out 
about 2,500 dozen brooms and brushes per year. 

Towtellott &> Walker s saw and grist-mill, on the east brand', has three 
runs of stones and the capacity for sawing 1,000,000 feet of lumber per year, 
while they also manufacture shingles and chair stock. 

John Powers' s saw-mill, located on the outlet of Brown's pond, in the 
northern part of the town, has the capacity for sawing about 8,000 feet of 
lumber per day. 

llie Congregational church. — The church in Greenwich is among the older 
ones in Hampshire county, established in 1849, and for 137 years has had an 
honorable record in its relation to Christ's kingdom upon earth. Its first 
minister for eleven years, was the Rev. Elijah Webster. In 1760 Rev. Rob- 
ert Cutler became its pastor, and for twenty-six years continued to break 
to them the bread of life. In 1786 he was succeeded by the Rev. Jo- 
seph Blodgett, who for forty-three years continued in the pastoral ofiice. The 
words on his monument : " He was a meek, faithful and holy minister," are 
without doubt a just tribute to his worth. The Rev. Joseph Patrick was in- 
stalled his successor and colleague, and continued in faithful service until 
1842. The present pastor is Rev. Edward P. Blodgett, who also is in the 
forty-fourth year of his ministry to this church, being ordained and installed 
in July, 1843. He has only one his senior in service as pastor of the same 
church in 'the Commonwealth connected with the evangelical ministry, the 
Rev. Edmund Douse, of Sherborn. He came a young man directly from 



TOWN OF HADLEY. 



279 



his seminary life to this field, and is now past his three score years and ten. 
During his ministry he has officiated at funeral services among the people, 
and has followed to the grave more in number than the present population of 
the town. The organization of the church dates back farther than that of 
the town itself. Its record i^ worthy of note. Its children are scattered 
from Vermont to Florida and from Massachusetts to Kansas. The great 
wish of the pastor has been to fit young men and women for service else- 
where — to enrich churches in larger places. Thus it has sent away neary ten 
to help others, where it has received one from other churches. And although 
so many have been removed to the future world, and such drafts made upon 
it to enrich others, yet, through the grace of God, the names upon its record 
are more in number to-day than forty years ago. In its early formation and 
along its earHer history it was blessed with men and women of Puritan stock, 
who were rooted and grounded in the truth, who in storm and in sunshine 
held to the faith once delivered to the saints, and who in their Uves as well 
as by their belief were ever ready to vindicate the truth and honor of God. 

To what this worthy pastor has thus written we will add, the first church 
building was erected in 1744-45. The present structure at the " Plain " was 
built in 1824, and is now valued, including grounds, at $5,000.00. The so- 
ciety now has 132 members. 

There is also a neat Spiritualist church here, built by Henry W. Smith ; 
but those who we depended on for a sketch of the same failed to send in 
statistics. 



HADLEY* lies in the central part of the county, and is bounded north 
by the county line, east by Amherst, south by South Hadley, from 
which it is separated by Mt. Holyoke, and east by the sinuous course 
of the Connecticut river, which separates it from Northampton and Hatfield. 
It has an area of about 17,000 acres. 

The surface of Hadley is varied, or rather while it has considerable plain land, 
it has yet diversity enough to lend a pleasing picturesqueness to its scenery. 
Along the river the surface is nearly level, and at the village of Hadley spreads 
to the westward, forming an extensive peninsula, inclosed by the Connecticut 
on the north, west and south. South and east of Fort river is a considerable 
table-land, called "Lawrence Plain," whose general surface is from thirty to 
fifty feet above the river bottoms, and extends southward and eastward to the 
vicinity of the mountain range. Most of the eastern-central portion of the 
town consists of rolling land, whose connection with the lower surface to the 
westward is, for some distance, sharply defined by a low terrace or bluft'. Mt. 
Warner rises from the central part of the northern half of the town. North of 



*For much of this sketch we are indebted to the kindness of Bishop Huntington, now of 
Syracuse, N. Y. 



2 8o . TOWN OF HADLEY. 



Mill river the surface foams a low, undulating plain, except in the northeast 
corner of the town, where are still lower lands called the "Great Swamp." 
Another small tract of low land lies east of Mt. Warner, near the Amherst 
line, and is called " Partrigg Swamp." 

In an agricultural point of view, the lands of Hadley are of the richest in 
the Connecticut valley. In the river-flats the soil is made up of a sandy 
alluvium. The uplands are principally of loam, with more or less sand. 
Intervals composed chiefly of light clay are also found. 

The streams are Fort and Mill rivers. The former flows a westerly and 
southwesterly course through the southern half of the town, emptying into the 
Connecticut just above Hockanum. The latter flows in the same general 
direction across the northern half of the town, dropping into the Connecticut 
at North Hadley. 

Grant and Settlement. — Of the general causes which led to the settlement 
of this section we have spoken, in the general county narrative, in the sketch 
of Northampton, and in other places in this work, so that to go over the 
ground again would be a needless repetition; while the same may be said of 
the scenery, description of Mt. Holyoke, and the geology. At this point, 
then, we will simply say that the settlement of Hadley was brought about by 
certain troubles existing in the churches of Hartford and Wethersfield, in 
Connecticut —troubles that had long been a subject of contention, but were 
more vigorously stirred up about two years before the grant of the plantation, 
which was given by the general court May 25, 1658. 

As we have said, ab;jut two years before this town was planted, a church 
council, sitting in Boston, composed of delegates from the Massachusetts and 
Connecticut colonies, has so far innovated upon previous ecclesiastical usage 
as to declare that the rite of baptism might be administered to the children 
of non-communicants, if themselves baptized, and of a decent external life. 
Among the places where this rule of the half way covenant introduced a di- 
vision of sentiment, was Hartford. Perhaps there were other occasions of 
difference. Cotton Mather says that " from the fire of the altar " in Hart- 
ford, '' there issued thunderings and lightenings and earthquakes through the 
colony," but that " the true original of the misunderstandmg was about as 
obscure as the rise of the Connecticut river." Rev. Mr. Hooker, who had 
moved there from the First church in Cambridge, eminent and judicious, had 
died ten years before. His colleague and successor, Samuel Stone, leaned to 
the new way, was possibly a little disposed besides to extend the recognized 
conditions of church membership, and at the same time to favor some of the 
measures of the Presbyterians. A minority of the church opposed these 
tendencies, to the extent of a controversy, venerating the measures and the 
memory of Hooker, and standing firm on the Cambridge platform. That 
the origin of these difficulties, however, was earlier than the Boston synod, 
appears from the fact that special local councils had been previously held at 
Hartford, three years in succession. At last, an apparent agreement, called 



TOWN OF HADLEY. 



a " pacification," was reached ; but this was soon broken, and as several of 
the recusant minority, including Governor Webster, having been threatened 
with discipline, were on the point of withdrawing, for the purpose of joining 
the church under Rev. John Russell, at VVethersfield, the general court inter- 
fered and peremptorily laid an injunction on both parties, toi bidding at 
once the excommunication and the secession — a characteristic illustration of 
the existing relations between the civil and ecclesiastical power. Just now 
the minority sagaciously bethought them of a less offensive expedient for 
getting rid of the obnoxious connection : that of moving up the river into 
the Massachusetts colony. A formal and pious petition to that effect was 
entered at Boston, by John CuUick and William Goodwin, expressing a hope 
that " through the grace of Christ," " the conversations " of the petitioners 
should "be without offence." A grant was secured for lands '' East of North- 
ampton," with a condition affixed that a new council should be called for an 
orderly composing of the Hartford troubles — a condition that shows how 
scrupulously the authorities guarded both the purity and the peace of their 
religious organization. They would not suffer a diplomacy which merely 
separated the antagonists without healing the discord. The upshot was a 
censure of both sides, acceptable terms of reconciliation, and a continued 
fellowship between the Hartford and Hadley churches. There had evidently 
sprung up a sympathy between these Hartford emigrants and a portion of 
the church at Wethersfield, including their minister, Mr. Russell, which re- 
sulted in a transfer of a majority of the latter, with Mr. Russell himself, to 
Norwottuck, or Hadley. Thus it appears that the founders of Hadley were 
strict and determined Congregationalists, as opposed to the half-way bap- 
tismal covenant on the one hand and to Presbyterianizing tendencies on the 
other. 

The meeting at Hartford, at which the engagement to move was drawn up 
and signed, was held April i8, 1659, at the dwelling house of "Goodman " 
Ward. Among the names of signers which are still known in the living gen- 
eration of the present town are Porter, Warner, Marsh, Russell, White, Field, 
Dickinson, Smith, Hooker, Hitchcock, Montague, Billings and Hubbard. 
The name of Partrigg also occurs, being undoubtedly the sime from which 
the considerable district east of the mountain has been called " Patrick's," 
or Partrigg's "Swamp." The whole number of the withdrawers' names is 
sixty, more than half of which belonged to Hartford, the rest being divided 
between Wethersfield and Windsor; but only forty-two men appear to have 
actually joined the expedition. It was stipulated that house-lots, embracing 
eight acres each, should be laid out on the east side of " the great river," 
leaving " a street twenty rods broad betwixt the two westermost rows of 
house-lots." To this wholesome provision at the outset is due the ample 
breadth of this avenue, unsurpassed in New England, which, with its two rows 
of sentinel elms, supplied by the taste of successive generations, has left an 
image of beauty in the memory of admiring travelers scattered in all lands. 



282 TOWN OF HADLEY. 



On the part of the Northampton settlers it had been voted, in October of 
the previous year, to " give away Capawonk " — the Indian name of the 
lower meadow in Hatfield — provided the Hartford men should " settle two 
plantations, one on each side of the river; " provided they should •' main- 
tain a sufficient fence against hogs and cattle;" provided they should " pay 
ten pounds, in wheat and peas," and provided, fourthly, they should " inhabit 
here by next May." 

An order was adopted by the general court. May 28, 1659, directing five 
persons, viz. : " Capt. Pinchon, Left. Holyhoke, Deacon Chapin, Wm. 
Holton and Richard Lyman," — three being of Springfield and two of North- 
ampton — to "lay out the bounds of the towne at Norwottocke" — "not only 
to carry on a towne but Church-worke also," " that this wilderness may be 
populated, and the maine ends of our coming into these parts may be pro- 
moted." By their report, the limits were defined ; being fixed at " the head 
of the Falls" on the south, near "the hills called Petowamachu," our Hol- 
yoke ; at the little brook called Nepasoaneag and Mount Kunckquachu, our 
" Toby," on the north; at a line nine miles from the Great River Quienec- 
ticott, eastward ; together with a strip on the west side of the river north of 
Northampton, two miles wide, extending from a "little riverett " running by 
Capawonk up to " a great mountain called Wequamps." These two last 
boundaries are readily recognized now as Mill river in Hatfield and Sugar 
Loaf mountain. In the actual allotment, the town on the eastward never 
extended nine miles. Among those who settled on the west side we find the 
names of Dickinson, Graves, Belding, White, Warner and Billings, with Allis 
and Meekins, of Braintree, in the Massachusetts colony. The three sachems 
of Nolwotogg, or Norwottuck, of whom Pynchon procured the deed of this 
territory, were ChickwoUop, Umpanchella and Quonquont. The price was 
about seven hundred feet of wampum and a few trinkets. In money the 
whole cost of the town territory was one hundred and fifty pounds, and this 
was thought to be a higher rate than was paid for any other plantation in 
New England. It serves to show the rapid increase of value, that only in 
1664, seven hundred acres of the " Bradstreet farm " in Hatfield were bought 
for two hundred pounds in money — fifty pounds more than the original price 
of the whole settlement — besides a thousand acres in Whately and five hun- 
dred elsewhere given in exchange. 

The name Hadley — adopted for no very apparent reason, probably the 
early associations of some settlers from the Hadley of Suffolk county, in Old 
England — was applied by the general court in 1661. Commissioners were 
required to be appointed to sit as magistrates at the local courts in North- 
ampton and -Springfield ; and Mr. William Westwood was "authorized to 
joine persons in marriage." 

By the first plan of the village in 1663, it would appear that the general 
and unusually regular features remain essentially unchanged. Forty-seven 
house-lots were arranged on the two sides of the single street. There 



TOWN OF HADLEY. 



283 



were three highways leading into the meadows, one at the north end, on 
ground since abraded by the river, another at the south end as now, and 
the third the same that still, as it did at first, conducts by the grave-yard. 
There were also, as now. North and South and Middle highways running 
■eastward, toward Pine Woods, or the Pine Plain, — the middle one. since 
"Academy Lane/' and later yet ''Russell Street," ending with a gate. Of these 
house-lots ^a few seem to be, or to have been during the present generation, 
held by persons of the same name and blood as their original owners — as 
those of Montague, Porter, and White. The spot occupied by the "Russell 
church," or a little north of it, was reserved as town property, and was next 
north of the residence of Rev. Mr. Russell. After Mr. Russell, the settler 
that was found most frequently in public connections was Peter Tilton, a 
man of great energy and activity, sagacious and trusty ; the ancestor of the 
Eastmans. 

According to the general principle of the settlements, all settlers were 
assigned land, though not in the ratio of their previous possessions ; and it 
does not appear that there was any case of serious discontent or breach of 
harmony, in what, judging by the common characteristics of human nature, 
and the Yankee human nature in particular, we should pronounce a very 
delicate and difficult undertaking. It was clearly the approved policy to 
make as many citizens as possible proprietors in the soil, thereby laying 
what has always proved one of the surest foundations not only of local pros- 
perity, but of patriotism and civil stability. Consider the democratic equal- 
ity. It is proved by the records, that the largest difference of ownership 
among the original assignments, was as the difference between one and four; 
that is, that the largest landholder owned only four times as much as the 
smallest. 

The outlying portions of the township were ultimately distributed in a 
similar way to the inhabitants — "Forty acre Meadow," to the north, between 
the main village and "School Meadow," — "Fort Meadow" to the southeast, 
— "Hockanum Meadow," so called from a similar district of land in East 
Hartford, on the south, and the "Great Meadow" occupying the body of the 
peninsula; including "Meadow Plain" next the home-lots, "Aquavitae," or 
"Aquavitce Bottle," from some resemblance to such a vessel, southward, 
"Maple Swamp" adjoining, and a region on the northwestern extremity, 
named ' Forlorn" or otherwise "Honey Pot," either from a deep place in the 
river, or, as some have supposed, from being the resort of wild bees, or as is 
less likely, from the richness of the soil. Besides these there were four mead- 
ows on the west or Hatfield side of the river, viz. : the "Great North," the 
"Little Meadow," the "South Meadow," or Wequettayag, including an In- 
dian "reservation" called "Indian Bottom," or "Indian Hollow," and the 
"Southwest Meadow," toward Northampton, or "Capawonk," the two latter, 
separated by Mill river, being sometimes called Great and Little "Pansett." 

It was only eight years after the laying out of the town that the people of 



284 TOWN OF HADLEY. 



the West-side, to the number of fourscore and ten, sent to the colonial gov- 
ernor and deputies a petition for a separate organization — setting forth the 
distressing and intolerable inconveniences of the ferry, especially as creating 
a violation of the Lord's day in the labor and time of crossing, in rough 
weather causing the women and children to '"screech" and be made "unfit 
for ordinances," bringing the men into the water and through the ice, wetting 
them to the skin, and obliging them to leave many of their number at home> 
exposed as "a prey to the heathen." One house was already burnt to the 
ground while the men were gone to worship. The people of the East-side 
opposed this dismemberment, conceiving that their neighbors had "no call 
of God thereto." The matter was debated with spirit by both parties some 
three years, when in 1670, the incorporation was granted, and the territory set 
off was called Hatfield, or " Hattsfields," after an English town. By the 
terms of the separation, a large portion of the meadow land next the river, 
west of the ferry, was reserved to Hadley. In 1692 Hatfield moved for a 
transfer of this land to her own domain, which was not obtained till after a 
series of hard legal contests extending over forty-one years. 

From time to time, on petition of the inhabitants, the general court ex- 
tended the bounds of Hadley towards the east and south. The contents at 
the largest were eighty square miles. Oliver Partridge, of Hatfield, surveyed^ 
in 1739, from a point six miles east of the old meeting-house, five miles north 
and tour miles south^ and from each extremity a line straight to the river — a 
very regular outline. A difficulty in settling with Sunderland the north line, 
which had formerly terminated at the mouth of Mohawk brook, led to the 
grant of an equivalent at " Deerfield Falls," above Sunderland, called Hadley 
Farm, sold in 1749. Middle Street was called " the hill over the low valley." 
In 1 68 1 Isaac Warner had a grant of a house-lot on the river bank, extending 
from the main street up towards " Coleman's brook." 

The vote for a tier of lots on what is now Middle Street was first passed in 
1684 ; but very few lots were taken till the close of that century, on account 
of danger from savages. Swamp lands east of forty acres, between Coleman's 
brook and the upper mill, were fenced in 1699, and called "The Skirts of 
Forty Acres." Traces of the " old ditch " connected with this skirt fence are 
still visible. All this region above Coleman's brook, including the land which 
afterwards, as the " Phelps Farm," was enthusiastically described by Presi- 
dent Dwight, in his New England Travels, was kept as a common field till 
after 1750, about which time Capt. Moses Porter built there. Two gates, on 
the highway, had to be opened and shut by all travelers. Lots were laid out 
north of Patrigg's swamp in 17 14. 

But there came a time when Hadley was called upon to part with a still 
larger part of her territory, viz. : Soutii Hadley was made a separate pre- 
cinct, also including the present town of Granby, in 1733, and Amherst was 
set off in 1734, as detailed in the respective sketches of those towns. 

The settlement of the town was slow, owing to the danger attending 



TOWN OF HADLEY. 285 



frontier settlements, a bar that existed till well into the next century. The 
progress may be comparatively estimated from the following statement of Mr. 
Judd as to the condition in 1770. viz.: — 

"The progress of the town was slow. There may have been in 1770 about 
108 or TIG families, and 600 inhabitants. Only a small portion of the 13,000 
acres of Inner Commons, distributed long before, had been cleared, and not 
more than six or eight houses had been built on the commons. Some of these 
were at North Hadley. A few began to build on the Boston road about this 
time. There were no inhabitants at Plainville, nor further south in the east- 
ern part of Hadley, nor on the Sunderland road north of Caleb Bartlett, nor 
between Charles Phelps and the back street. Samuel Wright had settled in 
the northeastern part of Hadley, where his son Silas and his grandson Silas, 
the late Senator and Governor of New York, were born. Lieut. Enos Smith 
erected the house in which his son, Dea. Sylvester Smith now lives, and fin- 
ished one room in 1770. Gideon Smith had a house northeast of him, Stephen 
Goodman had built a house beyond the mill, and Nathaniel White farther 
east, where he long kept a tavern. There was a house near the mill for the 
miller." 

The population at various times since then has been as follows : In 1776, 
681; 1790, 882; 1800, 1,073 ; 1810, 1,247 J 1820, 1,461 ; 1830, 1,686; 1840, 
1,814; 1850, 1,986; 1855, 1,928; i860, 2,105; 1S65, 2,240; 1870, 2,301; 
i875> 2,125; 1880, 1,938. 

Organization — The town was duly incorporated by the general court May 
22, 1 66 1. The first officers, elected from time to time as occasion required. 
The first selectmen chosen at a regular town meeting, December 14, 1660, 
were Andrew Bacon, Andrew Warner, Nathaniel Dickinson, Samuel Smith 
and William Lewis. Other officers were chosen as follows : Nathaniel Dick- 
inson, recorder of orders or town clerk, December 17, 1660. He was suc- 
ceeded by Peter Tilton, September 4, 1661, who was made also "to record 
lands," February 9, 1663, and who served more than thirty one years ; Samuel 
Barnard, who followed in 1693, was "clerk"; Samuel Smith and Peter Til- 
ton, measurers of land, 1660; Stephen Teery, constable, March 1662; Mr. 
William Westwood and Brother Standley, fence-viewers, " to view the meadow 
fences," April 24, 1661 ; Goodman Richard Montague, hay ward or field-driver, 
May II, 1661 ; Edward Church and Chileab Smith, east side of the river, 
and Nathaniel Dickinson, Jr., west side, surveyors of highways, January 27, 
1663; John Barnard sealer of weights and measures, 1663; Richard Mon- 
tague, grave-digger, March, 1663 ; Timothy Nash, Samuel Moody, Samuel 
Church, Chileab Smith, tithingmen, appointed by the selectmen, 1678; 
Samuel Partrigg, packer of meat and fish, 1679. Hog-reeves, hog-ringers, 
cow-keepers and shepherds were chosen at times in the early days. 

First Things. — The first school-house was previously the dwelling of Na- 
thaniel Ward, who gave it with a portion of his home lot for school purposes, 
and it was so used for many years. Mr. Ward died in 1664. The house was 
"ready to fall down " in 17 10, and two years later the property was leased to 
Dr. John Barnard for ninety-seven years, at eighteen shillings per year. The 



286 TOWN OF HADLEY. 



first building erected as a school-house was built in 1796, in the broad street 
''in the middle of the town," and was twenty-five by eighteen feet in size, 
and was seven feet between joints. The first meeting house stood in the 
wide street, opposite Richard Montague's; was framed in 1665, but not fin- 
ished until January 12, 1670. A house for meetings was hired in 1663 and 

1664. The first inn or ordinary was kept by Richard Goodman in 1667, in 
which year it is probably the first general training occurred, Mr. Goodman 
entertaining the officers. The first marriage in Hadley was that of Aaron 
Cooke, Jr., and Sarah Westwood. daughter of William Westwood, magistrate, 
May 30, 1 66 1. The ages of bride and groom were respectively seven- 
teen and twenty-one years. She died March 24, 1730, aged eighty-six. He 
died September 16, 17 16, aged seventy six. The children of this marriage 
were Sarah, who married Thomas Hovey, Aaron, of Hartford, Joanna, born 

1665, married 1683, Samuel Porter, Jr., and died in 17 13, Westwood born 
1670 or '71, Samuel born 1672, Moses born 1675, Elizabeth, born 1677, mar- 
ried 1698, Ichabod Smith, Bridget born 1683, married first, 1701, John Bar- 
nard, second. Deacon Samuel Dickinson. The first, and it is believed, the 
only couple, belonging to Hadley who were ever divorced were negroes. 
Ralph Way obtained in January, 1752, a divorce from his wife, Lois, on the 
ground of adultery with a negro named Boston. The first male child born 
was Samuel Porter, son of Samuel, one of the first settlers. He died July 
29, 1722. The first death was that of an infant without name, child of Philip 
Smith, which was buried in Hadley cemetery, January 22, 1661. John Web- 
ster, who died April 5th the same year, an ancestor of Noah Webster, was 
the second person buried there. The first minister was Mr. John Russell, 
Jr., an Englishman by birth, who came with the first planters to Hadley and 
remained until his death, 1692. Dr. John Westcart was the first physician 
resident in Hadley. He came in 1666, and was the first Indian trader. 
Richard Montague, baker ; Asahel Wright, butcher ; Oliver Warner, hatter ; 
Timothy Nash, blacksmith; John Russeli, Sr., glazier; William Partrigg, 
cooper; Samuel Gaylord, Jr., and Jonathan Smith, weavers; Hezekiah Por- 
ter, and possibly his father, Samuel, carpenters. John Barnard had a malt- 
house in Hadley prior to 1664. Elijah Yeomans, goldsmith, was in Hadley 
from 177 I, for twelve years, and made clocks and articles of jewelry. Sam- 
uel Porter, who died in 1722, was probably the first merchant. 

Highways. — Roads were laid out in Hadley while the land was common, 
the lots upon them being appropriated afterwards. A cart-path was made 
through "Forty Acres " to Mill Brook, now xVorth Hadley, in 1667. Mend- 
ing highways was then a somewhat extensive town practice. Communication 
had to be kept up with Hartford; and in one instance itseems that the teams 
of Hadley and Northampton were called out to repair the roads in Suffield, 
Conn. Even so late as the close of that century, the records show that the 
people had a difficulty in keeping down the bushes in the highways. The 
Northampton ferry was long at the south end of Hadley street, and by that 



TOWN OF HADLEY. 287 



the Northampton people went principally to Springfield. Towards Massa- 
chusetts bay the lirst settlement that offered a lodging — and that not till 1664 
— was at Quaboug, or Brookfield. Beyond there, the Bay road branched into 
three routes — one by Nashua, now Lancaster, another by Worcester, and a 
third by Grafton. These, however, were Httle more than savage trails for 
traveling " Indian file," — paths for a single horse or man. No wheeled vehi- 
cle passed between Hadley and Boston till about the close of that century. 
The first bridge in that direction, except for foot-passengers, crossed Fort river 
near the south end of Spruce hill, was built in 1675, and was succeeded some 
thirteen years later, by Lawrence's bridge, near the site of the one now in use. 
Produce for Boston was carried around by water. It was carted to William- 
ansett, below the Falls. Skillful boatmen navigated the Enfield rapids. The 
grist-mill was at Hatfield; and the grist from the east side was carried over 
by two ferrymen, on certain days of the week, for three pence a bushel, pay- 
able, like other toll, in grain. In 1670, however, the east side farmers set up 
a mill of their own, on the North Stream, now North Hadley. In Philip's 
war this mill was turned into a mihtary garrison, and shortly after was burnt 
by the Indians; but it was re-built and became the nucleus of enterprise in 
the upper village. Flour was sent down the river. Joseph Smith, the first 
permanent settler there, was the miller, and brought up his sons to the craft. 

Indian Depredations and Military. — As we have stated, Hadley was for 
years exposed to Indian depredations, and the inhabitants lived constantly in 
fear. A garrison of soldiers were quartered here, and in 1676 the settlement 
was fortified with palisades. These were placed some distance in the rear of 
the buildings, on both sides of the street, and extended across the street at 
both ends, enclosing a space about a mile long and forty rods wide. Gates 
were made wherever the palisades crossed any of the lateral highways, and at 
the ends of the principal street, through which alone ingress and egress were 
permitted. 

The first attack was made in 1675, at which time the inhabitants, tradition 
affirms, were led on to the repulse by Gen. William Goffe, the regicide, who 
with his father-in-law, Gen. Edmund Whalley,* were living, under assumed 
names, in the family of Rev. John Russell. Dr. Timothy Dwight has given 
the following version of the aftair ; but there are several which contradict it, 
and still others that pronounce the whole matter a myth : — 

" In the course of Philip's war, which involved most all the Indian tribes 
in New England, and among others, those in the neighborhood of Hadley, 
the inhabitants thought it proper to observe the first of September, 1(^75, as 
a day of fasting and prayer. While they were in the church and employed 



* These judges of Charles I. arrived in Boston July, 1660; thence they went to New 
Haven, in March, 1661. Here they secreted themselves at West Rock and at other places, 
as well as they could, until October, 1664, when they came to the house of Rev. John Rus- 
sell, of Hadley, where they resided in secrecy more than fifteen years. At one time they 
were joined at IMr. Russell's house by Col. John Dixwell, another of the prescribed judges 
of the unfortunate Charles I. 



288 TOWN OF HADLEY. 



in their worship, they were surprised by a band of savages. The people in- 
stantly betook themselves to their arms, — which, according to the times, they 
had carried with them to the church, — and, rushing out of the house, attacked 
their invaders. The panic under which they began the conflict was, however, 
so great, and their number was so disproportioned to that of their enemies, 
that they fought doubtfully at first, and, in a short time, began evidently to 
give way. 

"At this moment an ancient man with hoary locks, of a most venerable 
and dignified aspect, and in a dress widely differing from that of the inhab- 
itants, appeared suddenly at their head, and with a firm voice, and an example 
of undaunted resolution, re-animated their spirits, led them again to the con- 
flict, and totally routed the savages. When the battle was ended the stranger 
disappeared, and no person knew whence he had come, or whither he had 
gone. The relief was so timely, so sudden, so unexpected, and so providen- 
tial, the appearance and the retreat of him who furnished it were so unac- 
countable, his person was so dignified and commanding, his resolution so 
superior, and his interference so decisive, that the inhabitants, without any 
uncommon exercise of credulity, readily believed him to be an angel sent by 
Heaven for their preservation. Nor was this opinion seriously controverted, 
until it was discovered several years afterward, that Gofife and Whalley had 
been lodged in the house of Mr. Russell. Then it was known that their de- 
liverer was Goffe, Whalley having become superannuated some time before 
the event took place." 

The first fatal attack occurred on the first of April, 1676. A number of the 
inhabitants had gone, under protection of a guard of soldiers, to Hockanum to 
work in the fields. Here they were ambushed by a party of Indians who killed 
Dea. Richard Goodman and two of the soldiers, and captured a third soldier 
named Thomas Reed. These unfortunate ones seem to have strayed away 
from the main body, and thus came to grief. 

The nextj and last attack attended with fatality to the inhabitants, was on 
the 1 2th of June of the same year, of which Rev. Increase Mather gives the 
following account : — 

" June 1 2th the enemy assaulted Hadley. In the morning, the sun an hour 
high, three soldiers, going out of the town without their arms, were dissuaded 
therefrom by a sergeant who stood at the gate, but they, alleging that they 
intended not to go far, were suffered to pass ; within a while the sergeant 
apprehended that he heard some men running, and looking over the fortifi- 
cation he saw twenty Indians pursuing those three men, who were so terrified 
that they could not cry out, — two of them were at last killed, and the other 
so mortally wounded that he lived not above two or three days, — wherefore 
the sergeant gave the alarm. God, in great mercy to these western planta- 
tions, had so ordered by his providence that the Connecticut army was come 
thither before this onset from the enemy. Besides English, there were near 
upon two hundred Indians in Hadley, who came to fight with and for the En- 
glish against the common enemy, who was quickly driven off at the south 
end of the town. Whilst our men were pursuing of them here, on a sudden 
a great swarm of Indians issued out of the bushes and made their main assault 
at the north end of the town. They fired a barn which was without the for- 
tification, and went into a house where the inhabitants discharged a great 
gun upon them, whereupon about fifty Indians were seen running out of the' 
house in great haste, being terribly frightened by the report and slaugh- 



TOWN OF HADLEY. 289 



ter made amongst them by the great gun. Ours followed the enemy 
(which they judged to be about five hundred, and, by Indian report since, it 
seems they were seven hundred) near upon two miles, and would fain have 
pursued them further, but they had no orders so to do. But few of ours lost 
their lives in this skirmish, nor is it yet known how many the enemy lost in 
this fight. The English could find but three dead Indians, yet some of them 
who have been informed by Indians, that when the Indian men were thus 
fighting against Hadley the Mowhawks came upoa their headquarters, and 
smote their women and children with a great slaughter, and then returned 
with much plunder." 

During all the period of the Indian wars, down as late as 1757, Hadley 
had furnished men to aid other localities, and the names of many who went 
out for this purpose are on recortl, but our limited space prevents their inser- 
tion in this sketch. 

When the Revolutionary war came on, it found men here inured to hard- 
ships, practiced in border warfare, and of these the town made a generous 
contribution to the great cause. 

In the late war Hadley furnished 224 men, a surplus of twenty-three over 
all demands, three of whom were commissioned officers. The town expended 
$27,700.00, and loaned the state $8,378.56. 

Prominent Meti and Biographical. — Charles P. Phelps, graduate of Harvard, 
1791, Giles C. Kellogg, and iVtoses Porter each served several years in the 
legislature. Mr. Kellogg, a graduate of Yale, was admitted to the bar in 1804, 
was instructor in Hopkins academy a number of years, and became register 
of deeds for Hampshire county in 1833, and remained in office twelve or 
thirteen years. John Porter, son of William, graduate of Williams college, 
18 10, has served in both branches of the New York legislature, and has held 
the office of surrogate. Joseph Smith was senator, 1853-54. Worthington 
Smith, D, D., late president of Burlington university, who died February 30, 
1856; Parsons Cooke, D. D., graduate of Williams college, 1822, founder of 
the New England Puritan ; Rev. Jeremiah Porter, Gen. Joseph Hooker, 
distinguished in the Mexican war and in the late war of the Rebellion ; Will- 
iam Porter. Charles P. Huntington, and Rev. Frederick Dan Huntington, 
sons of Rev. Dan Huntington, — all, many years since, went forth from Hadley, 
their native town, and have not failed to do her honor. 

Hon. Charles Porter Phelps, only son of Dea. Charles Phelps and Eliza- 
beth Porter, and grandson of Capt. Moses Porter, was born in Hadley, Au- 
gust 8, 1772, and died December 22, 1857. He was fitted for college by the 
Rev. Dr. Lyman, of Hatfield, entered Harvard college at the age of fifteen 
and was graduated in the class of 1791, givmg the Latin salutatory at their 
commencement. He then entered the law office in Newburyport of the 
Hon. Theophilus Parsons, afterwards chief justice, whose niece, Sarah Da- 
venport Parsons, he mirrie 1 in January, 1800, having com'nenced the prac- 
tice of law in Boston. He remained about twenty-one years in that city, 
and was connected during a part of that time with mercantile life, holding 



2 go TOWN OF HADLEY. 



the position at one time of cashier in the old Massachusetts bank. He was 
much interested in the formation of the celebrated old Hussar company of 
Boston, and became one of its officers. This company, of which Hon. Josiah 
Quincy was the first captain, was famous for its brilliant uniform of green, 
white and gold, and scarlet cape or cloak thrown over one shoulder, and was 
a conspicuous feature of the pageants of that day. At the end of the first 
year Captain Quincy resigned and Mr. Phelps was unanimously chosen his 
successor. In the war of 1812 the Boston Light Dragoons and the Hussars 
were united, and Captain Phelps was chosen their commander under the title 
of major. In 1816, his father having died, and his own health requiring a 
change, Major Phelps returned to settle in Hadley, where he had built a 
house on his share of the farm left by his father, his sister Elizabeth, wife of 
Rev. Dan. Huntington, occupying the old homestead. The new house was 
built on the east side of Central street, a little south of the old home and 
about one mile south of the village of North Hadley. Major Phelps's farm 
originally comprised over 200 acres of meadow and woodland, extending 
along the east bank of the Connecticut, and including a great part of Mt. 
Warner. The estate now comprises about fifty-eight acres, nearly square, 
lying directly south of Bishop Huntington's farm. The return of Major 
Phelps to Hadley was shadowed by the death of his wife, October, 18x7, 
just before leaving Boston, and their family of six surviving children were 
left motherless. After a few years Major Phelps made a second marriage 
with his wife's cousin, Charlotte, born 1793, daughter of Chief justice Par- 
sons, by whom he had five children, and her death on July 11, 1830, left him 
again a widower. In August, 1833, he married an estimable widow, Mrs. 
Judkins, of Castine, Me., who was born October 8, 17S7, and who survived 
him. During his residence in Hadley, where he passed his remaining years, 
Major Phelps was frequently chosen representative to the general court, and 
once as senator. He held the office of county commissioner for many years, 
besides holding numerous town offices of responsibility and trust. Continu- 
ing, to some extent, his legal practice, he was an authority on points of law 
and equity, and his advice was constantly sought by his fellow townsmen. A 
man of striking personality, he was eminent for his strict integrity and inflex- 
ible decision of character. His estate passed at his death to his children, and 
several of them now make it their home there. Charles Phelps, born 1801, 
died in 1882; Edward, born in 1803, died in 1807; Sarah, born in 1805^ 
died in 1886; Francis, born in 1807, was graduated from Harvard college, 
and soon after became a teacher in the Boston Latin school, and was subse- 
quently for many years, a private teacher in Boston, where he still resides ; 
Elizabeth, born in 1808, died in 1809; Marianne, born in 1810, and married 
to Alfred Belden of Whatelyin 1849, now living at the Phelps' home ; Louisa, 
born in 181 2, died in 18 13; Caroline, born in 1814, married Rev. S. G. 
Bulfinch, of Boston, in 1842, now left a widow, with one daughter, residing 
in Cambridge; Arthur Davenport, born in 1817, married Harriet N. Pratt, 



TOWN OF HADLEY. 



291 



of Boston, aii'l after holding an office of trust in the United States sub- 
treasury for more than twenty years, resigned on account of ill health, 
and is now living on his father's estate in Hadley; Theophilus Parsons, 
born in 1821, living at the home; William Porter, born in 1823, died 
in t88o ; Charlotte Elizabeth, born in 1825, married P. M. Bartlett in 1869, 
died in 187 1 ; Frederick Ashley, born in 1826, Hved one day; Susan Davis, 
born in 1827, died in 1865. 

Rev. Dan Huntington, of Hadley, was born in Lebanon, Conn.. October 
II, 1774, and was the second son of William and Bethia (Throop). He was 
graduated at Yale college in 1794, and was afterwards a tutor in the college. 
He was successively pastor of the Congregational societies of Litchfield and' 
Middletown, in his native state. He had married, in 1801, Elizabeth Whit" 
ing, only daughter of Charles Phelps, of Hadley, and on the death of 
the latter, he removed v,^ith his family (in 1816) to Hadley and took 
charge of the estate. This consisted of three hundred acres of land and the 
house, still standing on the road running south from North Hadley along 
the river. It was built in 1753-54, by Mrs. Hunti-igton's grandfather, Capt. 
Moses Porter, who was killed in the French and Indian war at the "Bloody 
morning Scout" at Lake George, September 8, 1755. On the death of 
Charles Phelps, the farm was divided, and his son Charles Phelps built 
a house farther south on the east of the main road, where several of his 
children still reside. Another ancestor of Mrs. Huntington was Rev. 
John Whiting, of Hartford, whose widow afterward married Rev. John Rus- 
sell, of Hadley, in whose house the regicides Goffe and Whalley were con- 
cealed. After removing to Hadley, Rev. Mr. Huntington was for a, time 
the principal of Hopkins academy. He preached constantly in neighboring 
towns. After 1820 he was connected with the Unitarian denomination. 
Among his printed sermons are discourses delivered at the Connecticut 
"Anniversary Election," in 18 14, and before the Massachusetts legislature, in 
1821. He died in 1864, at the age of ninety years, and was buried in the 
family lot in Hadley. His children were Charles Phelps, Elizabeth Porter, 
(married George Fisher, of Oswego, N. Y.), William Pitkin, Bethia Throop, 
Edward Phelps, John Whiting, Theophilus Parsons, Theodore Gregson, Mary 
Dwight, Catherine Cary, Frederick Dan. 

Charles Huntington, born in 1802, and graduated at Harvard college, was 
a lawyer, first in North Adams, and for many years in Northampton. After 
his appointment to the bench of the superior court he resided in Boston. 
His first wife was Helen Sophia, daughter of Hon. E. H. Mills. She died 
in 1844. and he afterwards married Ellen, daughter of David Greenough, of 
Cambridge. His widow and seven children are still living. 

Rev. William P. Huntington, born in 1804, was graduated at Harvard col- 
lege in 1824, and taught an academy many years in Kentucky. He married 
Lucy, daughter of Luther Edwards, of Chesterfield. After practicing medi- 
cine in Hadley, he settled as a Unitarian minister in Wisconsin. He became 



2g2 TOWN OF HADLEY. 



a farmer, and late in life was ordained to the ministry of the Episcopal 
church. His last years were spent in Amherst. His wife and eight children 
survived him. 

Theophilus P. Huntington, born in 1811, took the nortb.ern portion of the 
original farm and built a house there. He was a farmer. He married Eliza 
Fitch, daughter of S. H. Lyon, of Abington, Conn. His wife and three 
children are living. 

Theodore G. Huntington was a farmer, living for a time at the homestead. 
He took much interest in town and state affairs and was at one time a mem- 
ber of the state board of agriculture. He built two houses in different parts 
of Hadley, and afterwards built a house in Amherst where he lived many 
years. Latterly he resided in Eastford and died there. His widow, Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Azel Sumner of that place, survives him. They had no 
children. 

Frederick D. Huntington, S. T. D., bishop of the Episcopal diocese of 
Central New York, was born in this town May 28, 18 19. He graduated at 
Amherst college, 1839, as valedictorian of his class, and at the Divinity 
school of Harvard University, in 1842. He was the minister of a Unitarian 
congregation in Boston for thirteen years; from 1855 to i860 he was profes- 
sor of Christian morals in Harvard college, and preacher to the university. 
He also served as chaplain and preacher to the Massachusetts state legisla- 
ture. He married Hannah D. Sargent, of Boston, a sister of the poet Sar- 
gent. The bishop's two sons are priests in the Episcopal church. He re- 
ceived the degree of S. T. D. from Amherst, in 1856. His researches led 
him to renounce Unitarianism and apply for orders in the Episcopal church. 
He was ordered deacon September 12, i860; ordained priest March 19, 
i86r. He organized Emmanuel parish, Boston, became its rector, and re- 
mained there until his elevation to the episcopate. He was consecrated first 
bishop of Central New York in Emmuanuel church, Boston, April 8, 1868. 
His writings which have been given to the public through the press are nu- 
merous, and many of them deservedly popular. They are chiefly of a religi- 
ous character. He was also editor of the Church Monthly of Boston, and of 
two other religious periodicals. He was chosen by the house of bishops to 
write the " pastoral letter/' and to read the same at the general convention 
of the Episcopal church in Philadelphia in 1883. Although the bishop 
has attained an age when most men look for rest from cares and arduous la- 
bors, he still works with an untiring energy for the social, moral and religious 
elevation of his fellow-men, for whom his love seems never to grow cold, nor 
his zeal to abate. The seat of his diocese is Syracuse, N. Y., where no man 
stands higher in the respect and estimation of his towns people than he. The 
schools and charitable institutions which he has founded within his diocese 
he has zealously fostered until they have attained that degree of usefulness 
that they have become indispensable to the towns and cities where they are 
located. 



TOWN OF HADLEY. 293 



Franklin Bonney, M. D., was born in Hadley, Mass., February 2, 1822. 
He is the son of the late Oliver Bonney, who was born in Hanover, Mass., 
in 1790, sixth in descent from Thomas Bonney, who came from Sandwich, in 
Kent, England, in the ship " Hercules," in 1634 or '35, and settled in Dux- 
bury, Mass. The ancestor of the family in England was named De Bon, who, 
according to one account, was a Huguenot driven from France. Another tra- 
dition is that he was a Knight of Normandy under William the Conqueror, 
His mother was Betsey F. Hayward, daughter of Elijah Hayward, of West 
Bridgewater, Mass. Dr. Bonney obtained his preliminary education princi- 
pally at Hopkins academy, in Hadley. After a three years' course of study 
at the Dartmouth Medical school, and an attendance upon a course of 
lectures at the Bowdoin Medical college, he graduated from the former insti- 
tution in 1847, ^ri<^ ^t once commenced the practice of his profession in his 
native town, which he still continues. He is a member of the Massachusetts 
Medical society, and of the Hampshire District Medical society. Of the 
latter organization, he has been vice-president and president for the period of 
three years, and he has held most of the minor offices of the same society. 
He is also a member of the American Social Science society. In 1869 he 
was given the honorary title of A. M., by Amherst college. During the war 
of the rebellion he was surgeon for the preliminary examination of recruits 
for the army from his vicinity. In 1864 he also did service for a time, as a 
volunteer surgeon at City Point, Va. He has been for many years, a trustee 
of the Hopkins academy fund, and is secretary of the board of trustees. For 
some years he was a member of the school committee of his town. In 1873 
he served his district in the legislature. In addition to his ordinary profes- 
sional labors, he has occasionally prepared papers for the District Medical 
society, and for the Medical Magazine^ and he has made frequent contribu- 
tions to agricultural and other journals. He has been twice married. His 
first wife, Priscilla P. Whipple, was a daughter of Hon. Thomas Whipple, of 
Wentworth, N. H. Of the two sons and two daughters born of this mar- 
riage, one son and the two daughters are living. His second marriage was 
to Emma W. Peck, daughter to the late Sherman Peck, Esq., of Honolulu 
Sandwich Islands. Of this union there are three sons. As a citizen, Dr. 
Bonney has always felt a deep interest in the welfare of his native town, and 
has given a cheerful and helping hand to every enterprise that promised to 
add to her prosperity. 

Elbridge Kingsley, the artist engraver, was born at Carthage, near Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, September 17, 1842. His parents were Hatfield people, and when 
he was but a few months old they returned to their former home, where they 
are still living. Elbridge was the oldest of six children, all boys, and was 
brought up in the regulation manner on a farm. His school education was 
finished at the Hopkins academy, when, at sixteen years of age, he entered 
the office of the Hampshire Gazette as an apprentice. Here he worked till 
he was of age, often obliged to be up by four and five in the morning to start 

20* 



294 



TOWN OF HADLEY. 



the office fires, and spending his spare time in making all sorts of imaginative 
drawings. He found many of his subjects in the Bible, one picture being an 
elaborate Belchazzer's Feast, in water colors. Indians, too, were possessed 
of a great fascination for him. When his apprenticeship ended he went to 
New York, and for a short time studied in the Cooper Institute. He next 
entered the Tribune o^ct as a compositor, but soon left and presently became 
interested in wood engraving. To begin with, his work was the engraving of 
machinery, but finally, after changing employers two or three times, he be- 
came connected with a firm where he had an opportunity to do blocks for 
Harper s Magazine. While in New York he was for some time city corres- 
pondent of the Hampshire Gazette. The year 1871 finds him in Northamp- 
ton once more, in the printing and engraving business with C. A. Snow and 
G. L. Harris. Here he became acquainted with two such artists as J. Wells 
Champney and the late C. A. Burleigh. He at this time began to work in 
oil colors, out of doors, and one winter walked daily to Amherst in order to 
draw from the casts in the college gallery. In 1874 the Northampton part- 
nership was dissolved, and he drifted back to New York, where in time he 
engraved a block for Scribner s Monthly. They were pleased with the result 
and since that time his connection with the magazine (npw the Century) has 
been continuous. His family in the meantime lived in Hadley. This brought 
him into the country every summer and led to the building of his famous car 
to faciHtate his open air sketching. In the spring of 1882, while out with his 
car in the Hatfield woods, he engraved a block which gave him a distinctive 
place among engravers and made no small stir in the art world. This ap- 
peared as a full page cut, in the fall of the year in the Century Maga- 
zine, accompanied by a short article written by Mr. Kingsley himself, 
descrive of. his methods. Ever since then these original engravings 
have appeared from time to time in the Century and St. AUcholas, 
most of them being made from, or suggested by the scenery of Hamp- 
shire county. In 1885 he illustrated Poems of Nature., by Whittier. Years 
ago Mr. Kingsley was ranked by Hammerton, perhaps the ablest of English- 
art critics, in his Graphic Arts, as one of the best wood engravers in the 
world. Since then he has made a decided advance and the power, delicacy^ 
and refinement shown in his landscape work has never been excelled. Mr. 
Kingsley has written an entertaining lecture on wood engraving, historical and 
descriptive, which he has delivered a number of times about home and before 
art clubs in New York and Brooklyn. He is still a young man, and undoubt- 
edly the most perfect results of his genius are yet in the future. 

Caleb Dexter Dickinson was born on a farm in Amherst, May 23, 1806. 
He attended the common schools until fifteen, when desirous of earning his 
own living, he started out with his eff"ects tied up in a handkerchief, and 
walked to Goshen, where he apprenticed himseif to Asahel Billings, black- 
smith, with whom he remained until twenty. Returning to Amherst, he re- 
mained at home a few months and then went to Pittsfield, where he worked 



TOWN OF HADLEY. 295 



at his trade about a year. Returning again to Amherst he did business on 
his own account in the same building with Benoni Rust, nearly opposite where 
the first National Bank now stands. On January 13, 1830, he married Try- 
phena Russell, of Russellville, Hadley, and went to Greenfield, where he con- 
tinued ordinary blacksmithing about two years, after which he formed a part- 
nership with John Russell, of New York, and commenced the cutlery busi- 
ness, Mr. Russell furnishing the capital and Mr. Dickinson the mechanical 
skill, which had already become quite celebrated. He continued this busi- 
ness, which has since greatly developed and is now the John Russell Cutlery 
Co, of Turners Falls, until 1840, when to please family relatives he moved 
to North Hadley. There, in partnership with C. A. Lyman, until June 15, 
1842, under the title of Dickinson & Lyman, he did general blacksmithing 
and made a few tools for the manufacture of brooms, of which this vicinity 
was then the center. His wife died March 29, 1848, and on October 10, 
1848, he married Louisa W. Billings, of Shrewsbury, Vt., who died July 18, 
1864. He married again December 27, 1867, Mrs. Harriet N. Moseley, of 
Albany, N. Y., who died October 27, 1880. He has been the father of four- 
teen children, three of whom, one son and two daughters, are now living. 
Mr. Dickinson has always been public spirited, well informed on general top- 
ics, and a devoted Christian. In 1847 he was a member of the board of se- 
lectmen of Hadley. During the winter of 1851-52, beside managing his 
business at home he worked at the U. S. armory at Springfield. He is now 
probably the oldest business man in town, and retains his energy and vigor to 
a surprising degree. 

Francis Newton, son of Francis, was born in Hadley, mariied Abigail 
Dickinson, July 21, 1794, and his children were Theodosia, Obed and John. 
Obed was born in Hadley, November 29, 1800, learned the carpenter's trade, 
and married Eliza Walker, in October, 1822. He had born to him six chil- 
dren, namely, Jason W., Julia E., Sarah A., Francis L., Eliza A. and Mary N. 
The mother of these children died in 1835, and he married for his second 
wife, Catherine Bugbee, and had born to him three children, George, Charles 
and Elizabeth. Jason and Francis are farmers, residing in this town, and 
Eliza A. married Charles B. Armstrong, of Buffalo, N. Y. 

Winthrop Cook, a descendant of Capt. Aaron Cook, the first of that name 
in town, was born in 1785, married twice, first, a daughter of Joel Smith, and 
second, Sophia, daughter of Erasmus Smith, and died in 1854. Horace, son 
of Winthrop, was born in 1S24, married Cornelia Asenath, in 1855, and had 
born to him two children, Herbert S., who died in i860, and Fannie A., born 
in 1863. Mr. Cook represented the town in 1862 and in 1876, has been 
selectman seventeen years, has been assessor, and has held other offices. His 
house was built previous to 1800. 

Aaron Cook, son of Dan, was born April 21, 1800, married Catherine Ly- 
man in 1832, and his children were as follows: Julia, who married Amasa 
B. Davis, Henry L., who married Harriet A. Morton, and resides on road 40, 



296 TOWN OF HADLEY. 



and Rufus, who served in the late war, in Co. D, 27th Mass. Vols., and died 
in the hospital at Newburn, N. C. 

Joseph Marsh was born in Worthington, in 1786, a son of Dr. Job Marsh, 
who came to Hadley when Joseph was about eight years of age, and died here 
soon after. Joseph subsequently, after a few years' residence at North Am- 
herst, went to Hatfield, and learned the joiner's trade of Cotton White. He 
then came back to Hadley, located on the farm now owned by his son Henry 
M., and died here in 187 i, aged eighty- five years. He was the husband of 
four wives, and reared five children, four of whom, Elvira, Mary, Charles C. 
and Henry M., are living. 

Luther Baistow was born on the place now owned by him, on road 45, De- 
cember 27, 1 813. His father, Septimias, came here from Connecticut about 
1805. Luther married Llizabeth C, Graves, May 5, 1847, who bore him 
seven children — Asaph S., Harriet E., John S., Susan S., Hannah, Sophia G. 
and Sarah O. Mrs. Barstow died December 24, 1881. All of the children 
are living, four of them residing in town. 

Hiram Thayer located in Hadley about 1820, coming from Williamsburg, 
and located upon the farm now owned by E. and C. N. Thayer. He married 
Calista P. White, who bore him nine children, three of whom are hving, Mor- 
ris, Ezra and Eben. For his second wife he married Laura M. Stiles, who 
bore him three children, Charles S., Francis and Hiland H. Hiram died in 
1854, aged fifty-three years. Mrs. Thayer died in 1850. 

Elam Cutler was born in Leverett, Mass., in 1792, married twice, first, 
Judith Thayer, in 1816, who bore him one child, Judith O., and died about 
18 1 7. He married for his second wife, Mary M. Gaylord, of Amherst, in 
1820, and had born to him eight children, viz. : Lizzie, Mary G., Elijah B., 
Elan B., Fanny M., George H., Charles H. and Jennie E. In 1829 he 
moved to North Hadley, and bought the place where he died in 1883, 
aged ninety years. 

Zachariah Hadley was born in Amherst, married Anna Howard, and reared 
ten children, viz. : Roswell, Esther, Zachariah, Louis, Eli, Anna, Malinda, 
Gideon, Eliza and Clarrissa. He moved to Hadley, and died on the place 
now owned by Albert Hawley, in October, 1836. Zachariah, Jr., married 
twice, first, Malinda Belden, who bore him three children, two of whom are 
living, Allen and Emily. Mrs. Hawley died in 1862, and he married for his 
second wife, Maria A. Bancroft, in March, 1863, and has had born to him 
one son, Charles, who lives at home. Mr. Hawley is now nearly eighty 
years of age. 

Edward Cunningham was born in September, 1816, married Honorah 
Dalton.. about 1846, and came here from Ireland, in 1850. He has had born 
to him six children, four of whom are living, John, Edward P., William J. and 
Mary A. Edward P. and William J. reside at home and help carry on the 
farm with their father. This place is noted as having been at an early period 
the camping-ground for the Indians. 



TOWN OF HADLEY. 297 



Wooster H. Tuttle and Albert Tuttle, brothers, came to Hadley from 
Holyoke, in 1850, and bought about fifty acres of land on Front street. 
Albert died about 1863. Wooster married Margaritha Helmsing^ who bore 
him four sons and four daughters, viz. : Edward W. , George A., Charles A., 
Franklin E., Anna, Clara, Maria and Eurania. Two of the sons are graduates 
of Amherst college, and a third is attending that college. The mother of 
these children died in 1872, and two years later Mr. Tuttle married Mrs. 
Caroline Smith, widow of Jacob Smith, The oldest daughter, Anna, married 
Dwight Morton, and resides about a half mile from the homestead. Clara 
has been twic emarried, but is now a widow. Maria L. married George Fen- 
ton, and resides in Nebraska. 

Jesse L. Delano, of Hadley, is a native of Sunderland, the adjoining town 
north, having moved from there to Northampton in 1883, and from thence to 
Hadley in 1884. His ancestors came from France and settled in Marsh- 
field, his great-grandfather, Lemuel, moving from there to Sunderland about 
1779, and his son William held the office of postmaster there for thirty-six 
consecutive years. A part of the family still reside there on the old home- 
stead that has been in the family for over 100 years, while other members 
of it have migrated far and wide, though very few have ever settled in Hamp- 
shire county. The late Charles Delano, who died in Northampton in 1883, 
belonged to the same family, the genealogy of which is easily traced back to 
Philip De La Noye, a French Protestant who joined the English at Leyden, 
when they were about to start for America, and was allowed to come with them 
in the second vessel, ''The Fortune," which arrived at Plymouth Rock, Novem- 
ber 9, 162 1. He settled in Marshfield. 

VILLAGES . 

Hadley, the largest of the two villages, settled in 1659, is situated chiefly 
on the neck of the large peninsula which projects westward — within a large 
bend of the Connecticut river — from the western border of the town, and is 
somewhat south of the town's central line of latitude. It contains upwards of 
one hundred and fifty dwellings, a postoffice, town-hall, two church edifices, 
and a high school building, besides four others for the minor schools ; also a 
grist and saw-mill. The ancient cemetery lies immediately west of the vil- 
lage. "'West" and Middle streets, running north and south, contain the 
major portion of the dwellings, and are bordered with elms and maples of 
magnificent growth and graceful proportions, some of which have braved a 
century's storms. West street, with its generous breadth of nearly three hun- 
dred feet, its marginal elms and intervening meadow, fronted sparsely by 
dwellings, some quaint and olden, its charming vista southward, enriched, 
though interrupted, by stately Holyoke, has not a peer in all New England. 
Russell street, lymg east and west, — the old "Middle highway to the woods," 
— is handsomely fined with forest-trees, chiefly maples. 



298 TOWN OF HADLEY. 



North Hadley is a small village on Mill river, between two and three 
miles north of Hadley, and near the Connecticut. It contains from sixty to 
eighty dwellings, two stores, a postoffice, a public hall, connected with a 
grammar school building, one meeting-house, a grist and saw-mill, and a few 
other manufacturing establishments. The village has also a small park and 
cemetery. 

Five other thickly settled neighborhoods are called, respectively, Russell- 
ville, Plainville, Fort River, Hart's Brook and Hockanum. 

Stores of North Hadley. — The earliest account of a store in the north part 
of the town is that of Windsor Smith & Co., at North Hadley, Chester Smith 
being the junior partner. In January, 18 18, they sold to John and Elias 
Hibbard, who sold on August 21st of the same year to Erastus Smith, 2d, 
Chester Smith and Cotton Smith, who then owned the grist-mill. The next 
we find is John Hibbard selling to Albert Jones, on August 12, 1822, who 
kept the store till 1829, when Edward Huntington took it, and on May i, 
1 83 I, we find that Albert Jones sold the store building to Edward P. Hunt- 
ington, probably the same man named just above. On the same day Mr. 
Huntington leased the land on which the store stood, of the mill owners, 
John Hibbard, Cotton Smith, EUas Hibbard and Albert Hibbard, at $2.00 
per year. In 1834 Ebenezer W. Skerry took the store, Mr. Huntington 
going to Northampton. From 1835 to '37 it was run by Skerry, Hibbard & 
Co. On February 8, 1837, Ehas Hibbard sold one-fourtn of the store to 
Thaddeus Smith and Alonzo Dougherty, and two days later Mr. Skerry sold 
one-twelfth to the same parries, and on the nth of the following July, Tru- 
man Hibbard sold one-fourth to Mr. Dougherty. 

From 1837 to '40 the firm was known as Skerry, Smith & Co., and their 
assignees. Cotton Smith and Erastus Smith, Jr., sold on April 27, 1841, to 
Dexter M. Leonard, who took the store in 1840 and kept it till he went to 
Providence, in 1851, when Dexter S. Cooley, of Springfield, had it about a 
year, or until his death, when, in 1852, his brother Simon F. Cooley of the 
same place carried it on, and on April 10, 1855, bought the store of Mr. 
Leonard. Mr. Cooley owned it till it was burned, with the mills, in 1875. 

In the spring of 1877 Geo. C. Smith, owning the land, rebuilt the store on 
the old site and business was conducted by G. C. & G. M. Smith, until the 
fall of 1885, when they sold out to their clerk, John H. Mordoff. 

A store was once kept in the house just north of the old hotel and later 
owned by Hubbard Lawrence. Dwight Ben. Smith had charge of it for a 
time, and we think it was this one for which O. Marsh & Co. were taxed in 
1836 and Skerry, Hibbard & Co. in 1838. 

A new store lot was at one time sold by Albert Hibbard to D. M. 
Leonard. 

Austin Lyman sold a few groceries in connection with a bar in the building 
which stood in the saw-mill yard and was later used as a carpenter shop by 
Darius Howe. 



TOWN OF HADLEY. 



299 



When the present school-house was built the old one at the north end of 
the street, opposite the parsonage, was converted into a store, which was 
conducted by Thaddeus Smith & Co., Francis Smith being the junior part- 
ner. G. Myron Smith succeeded Thaddeus Smith and the firm was known 
as F. Smith & Co. In a few years F. Smith conducted the business alone, 
excepting a year or two when Fred S. Smith was a partner. 

In 1875 when Mr. Cooley's store was burned he moved his goods into this 
building, which had been vacant for a time, and kept it about two years, 
when it was given up. 

Alvah Park opened a store in the first house south of the grist-mill^ on the 
same side of the street, and in six months (1870) moved into the building he 
now occupies as a store and dwelling. 

A Frenchman, Peter Parenteau^ kept a store a short time, about 1875-76 
in the second house south of the grist-mill on the east side of the street. 

MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 

The history of North Hadley, which until about fifty years ago was called 
Hadley Upper Mills, begins with the establishing of a saw-mill on the east 
side of the stream, a little over a quarter of a mile above the point where it 
empties into the Connecticut river. The town granted on January 27, 1662, 
Thomas Meekins and Robert Boltwood the privilege of setting on this stream 
a saw-mill, which was probably built about three years later. The first dam, 
which was probably built in 1662, was located nearly thirty rods above the 
present one, and beside which the first grist-mill was probably located in 167 1 
or 1672. This mill was burned by Indians in September, 1677, and re-built 
by Robert Boltwood, encouraged by the town, about 1678; the grammar 
school obtained it again in 1683; Samuel Boltwood, by aid of the town, in 
1685; and in 1689 it was delivered up to the Hopkins school, in whose pos- 
session it remained for years. It was probably in 1692 that the dam was re- 
moved to its present site, and the mill built by it. A new mill is recorded in 
1706, and another in 1721. John Clary was the miller in 1683, and in 1687 
Joseph Smith began a long service in that capacity, and is recorded as the 
first permanent settler at " Mill River," now North Hadley. 

We are unable to find any records v/hich give us a history of the events of 
interest concerning the mills for about a century, or until January 25, 1796, 
we find Isaiah Washburn deeding one-half of the grist-mill as a security. 
September 11, 1812, Lewis Jones, Jr., sold one-half the grist-mill to Isaac 
Abbercrombie, of Pelham, who, on October 24, 1818, sold to Charles and 
Calvin Lamson, of Greenwich, who bought the other half of Erastus Smith 
on the same date, when also they leased the stream and dam of the Hopkins 
academy for ninety-nine years, at $20.00 per year. On January 3, 18 18, they 
sold to Erastus Smith, 2d, Chester Smith and Cotton Smith. The 12th of the 
following December Chester Smith disposed of his interest to John Hibbard, 



300 TOWN OF HADLEY. 



who, on April i8, 182 1, sold to Elias Hibbard, who probably sold one-half of 
his interest to William Montague, Jr., a blacksmith. On December 25, T824, 
Krastus Smith, 2d, sold his third to John Hibbard and Albert Hibbard, the 
latter of whom also bought one-twelfth of Elias Hibbard and William Mon- 
tague, ]r., and on the same date Cotton Smith sold a twelfth to John Hib- 
bard, thus making a new arrangement and division into quarters, with John 
Hibbard, Albert Hibbard, Hibbard & Montague, and Cotton Smith, as the 
owners. 

We find up to this time in relation to the saw-mill, which had for years 
been held in sevenths, that Daniel Bartlett sold, on September 23, 1808, three- 
sevenths to John Hibbard and Chester Smith, the latter of whom sold to the 
former January 2, 1810, one-fourteenth part. On March 8, 1822, Chester 
Smith's administrator sold two sevenths to John Hibbard '' who owns the 
other parts," thus making him Ihe sole owner of the saw-mill, which, however, 
he shared with Albert Hibbard on June i8, 1822. On December 25, 1824, 
the day mentioned of the re-arrangement of ownership of the grist mill, there 
was a like exchange of the saw-mill property. Albert Hibbard sold one-half 
of his interest to Elias Hibbard and William Montague, Jr., and John Hib- 
bard sold a half of his part to Cotton Smith, thus making the saw-mill and 
grist-mill owned alike by the same parties. 

After William Montague, Jr., sold his interest in the mills to his special 
partner, Elias Hibbard, on February 23, 1828, there was no change of owner- 
ship until February n, 1835, when Elias Hibbard sold his quarter to Cotton 
Smith. September 23, 1835, John Hibbard disposed of his quarter of the 
saw-mill to Albert Hibbard, and soon after, on October 16, 1835, his quarter 
of the grist-mill to Elias Hibbard and Albert Hibbard, the latter of whom 
bought the former's eighth on April 9, 1836, thus making Cotton Smith and 
Albert Hibbard the proprietors of the mills. 

Albert Hibbard soon retired by selling, on August 7, 1837, to John Smith, 
2d, and Lorenzo N. Granger. After the death of John Smith, 2d, August 13, 
1843, his interest in the saw-mill was set off to Frederick D. Smith, and sold 
by his guardian to L. N. Granger, on April 24. 1845. The quarter of the 
grist-mill left by John Smith, 2d, was bought, as personal property, by L. N. 
Granger. After the death of Cotton Smith, on June 25, i860, his son, 
George C. Smith, assumed title to his father's half of the mills and sold it to 
Ij. N. Granger, on May i, 1874, who bought of the trustees of Hopkins 
academy, on August 24, 1875, the water and dam, thus terminatitig the 
ninety-nine-year lease. Mr. Granger died March 27, 1876, and his widow, 
Sophronia Granger, chose as part of her interest in his estate the mills, which 
she sold on December 25, 1876, to George C. Smith, who conveyed them to 
his mother-in-law, Martha Smith, on October 26, 1877. The trustees of 
Hopkins Academy gave to Martha Smith, on March 30, i88r, a quit-claim 
deed to the land on which the grist-mill stands. Upon the death of Martha 
Smith, August 4, 1882, her will gave possession of the mills to Nancy B. 



TOWN OF HADLEY. 3OI 



Smith, who sold them, on September 14, 1884, to the present proprietor, 
John C. Howe. 

Most of the above named men have been of the foremost importance in 
the history of the village. John Hibbard was an innkeeper and a very influ- 
ential man. It is said of Cotton Smith that he could count off lumber with 
surprising rapidity and converse fluently at the same time. 

There was a flax carding machine in connection with the grist-mill for many 
years, but it is not spoken of after the disaster of the fall of 1847, which was 
the tipping of the grist-mill and wire-mill just south, into the water, caused by 
a sudden freshet in the night breaking away the flume during repairs. 

From 1840 to 1850 the firm ofC. and J. Smith and Co., afterwards Smith 
& Granger, had an extensive lumber trade down the river. They furnished 
Springfield and Hartford and even New Haven with quantites of lumber 
which they delivered in rafts. Besides drawing on the local timber supply to 
fill their bills, they floated down logs from Vermont and New Hampshire. 
Mr. Granger did a large contracting business from i860 to 1874, building 
several of the Agricultural college buildings at Amherst ; Memorial hall, at 
Northampton ; and other important buildings in the vicinity. 

The mills were destroyed by fire the 27th of June, 1875, and immediately 
rebuilt. Mr. Granger is remembered by those who knew hmi as a successful 
large-hearted business man. 

Under the present ownership there have been extensive repairs and im- 
provements made. In 1884 grinding plaster was discontinued, the machinery 
taken down and the mill turned into a store-house. Early this summer ( 1 886) 
a new elevator and store-house was built as an addition to the grist-mill, 
which increases the storage capacity from six or eight to twenty or twenty-five 
car loads accordmg to the feed or grain put in store. 

The water privilege consists of a fall of about fourteen feet with a pond of 
about one hundred acres surface. In the grist-mill there is a flouring-mill 
with its cleaning and bolting machinery, and two corn mills, which are kept 
busy most of the year. 

There have been three different wire-works started in connection with the 
grist-mill, which are now prosperous concerns in other places. The first one 
was that of Nathan Clark, of Spencer, who bought of the mill owners on 
April 28, 1834, the building standing just south of the grist-mill, and the 
privilege of a certain quantity of water, where he manufactured piano-string 
and other wire, until the disaster of 1847. On April 5, 1849, he re-sold his 
right to the mill owners, and continued his business in the second story of the 
new grist-mill, until either late in 1851 or early in 1852, when he moved his 
business to Holyoke, which is probably now that of Geo. W. Prentiss & Co. 
His place here was immediately fitted by Horace Lamb, of Worcester, who 
conducted the wire business over the grist-mill until late in 1859, or early in 
i860, when he moved it to Northampton, where he still carries it on. 



302 TOWN OF HADLEV. 



George C. Prouty was the next wire manufacturer over the mill. He went 
to Charleton in about 1868, where he continues the same business. 

The manufacture of broom-tools here is the only one in America, and 
undoubtedly m the world. It was estabhshed in 1840^ by C. D. Dickinson. 
For years the demand for tools was limited to this immediate vicinity, but it 
gradually spread with the migrations of the broom manufacturers, until 
now they go to Canada and Australia, and are scattered through most of the 
states and territories. Mr. Dickinson carried on the business at the black- 
smith's shop just east of the bridge and opposite the saw-mill, using what 
power he needed at the grist-mill for about twenty-five years. During the 
summer of 1848 his shop was burned and soon re-built. In 1865 the busi- 
ness had so increased that he had to abandon all other work and devote his 
entire attention to that, and on April i8th bought the water privilege formerly 
the seat of an oil-mill and later a saw-mill, just below the center of the vil- 
lage. Here he carried on the business until 1870, when it had so developed 
that he required an assistant manager and so admitted his son-in-law, John 
C. Howe, as an equal partner in the business, which has since been conducted 
under the firm name of C. D. Dickinson & Son. The company's buildings 
were burned in September, 1875, and re-built the same year. Additions 
were made in the fall of 1883, when they were just starting in the manufac- 
ture of razors and kitchen cutlery, and all burned again on January 10, 1884. 
Not discouraged, they had their new buildings up and were at work m them 
before the first of April. With the brick forging shop added during the fall 
of 1885, they are now model buildings for this limited but sure business. 

G. M. Smith! s broom jactory is also located at North Hadley. He employs 
twenty hands, his goods being manufactured principally for the export trade. 

Hadley grist-mill, on Fort river, operated by William Phillips, was built by 
Rodney Smith and his father, in 1852. The present proprietor leased it in 
1879. It has three runs of stone, a cracker, bolt, etc. The mill is operated 
by water-power, and has the capacity for grinding 500 bushels of grain per 
day. Mr. Phillips does both custom and merchant grinding. 

Alfred S. Willard's i,oap Jactory and cider-mill, at Hadley, was built by 
him in 1880. He manufactures about 2,500 barrels of cider, about six tons 
of hard soap, and 400 barrels of soft soap per year. 

Hopkins Academy. — This well-known school came into existence as follows : 
Three years before the settlement of Hadley, Governor Edward Hopkins, 
then of England, died in London, and by his last will bequeathed a part of 
his property for the encouragement of learning in New England. He had 
been in earlier life a London merchant, but removed to New England in 
1637, and established himself at Hartford, Conn., and was governor of that 
state every alternate year from 1640 to 1654. In his will he says : " And 
the residue of my estate there (in New England), I do hereby give and be- 
queath to my father, Theophilus Eaton, Esq., Mr. John Davenport Mr. John 
CuUick and Mr. WiUiam Goodwin, in full assurance, and trust, and faithful- 



TOWN OF HADLEY. 303 



ness of disposing of it according to the true intent and purpose of me, the 
said Edwin Hopkins, which is to give some encouragement in those foreign 
plantations for the breeding up of hopeful youths, both in the grammar 
school and college, for the public service of the country in future times." He 
afterwards bequeathed ";^5oo to be made over to New England " for a Hke 
purpose. Mr. Davenport, one of the trustees, was a minister in New Haven, 
and Mr. Goodwin seems, at this time, to have resided in Hadley, though he 
had previously been an inhabitant of Hartford. Taese two gentlemen soon 
became the only survivors of the trustees, in whom was vested the power of 
disposing of the funds. They decided to " give to the town of Hartford the 
sum of ;^4oo, * * * for and towards the erecting and pro- 

moting of a grammar school at Hartford. We do further order and appoint 
that the rest of Dr. Hopkins' estate, both that which is in New England, and 
the ^500 which is to come from Old England, when it shall become due to 
us after Mrs, Hopkins' decease, be equally divided between the towns of 
New Haven and Hadley, to be in each of the towns respectively managed 
and improved towards erecting and maintaining a grammar school in each of 
them." Mr. Goodwin, in a certain agreement with the town, desired that 
the " name of the school may be called the Hopkins school." Such was the 
foundation of this institution. Other donations were made by various indi- 
viduals, and the income of the funds is between five and six hundred dollars 
per annum. It appears that but a small portion of the sum bequeated by 
Mr. Hopkins ever reached Hadley. Three hundred pounds were invested in 
building a " corn-mill," which was burnt by the Indians ; and two hundred and 
fifty pounds, to be paid at the decease of Mrs. Hopkins, never came to Had- 
ley. The corporation of Harvard college, hearing that such a legacy was left 
for the benefit of New England, took measures to secure it for that college, 
and appointed an agent in London, remitting forty pounds sterling to stimu- 
late and aid him. He was successful. In 1840, according to president 
Quincy, these funds, "on a foundation of productive and well-secured capi- 
tal, amounted to nearly thirty thousand dollars." 

In 18 16 the Hopkins school became an incorporated institution, under the 
name of Hopkins academy. The new building was dedicated December 9, 
1817, a brick structure facing the south on Russell street, about fifty rods 
east of West street. In i860 it was destroyed by fire, and never rebuilt. 
The trustees of the fund maintained an advanced high-school department 
in the present town's high-school building, erected in 1865. The trustees 
hold over $30,000.00. 

CHURCHES. 

The First church in Hadley, Trinitarian Congregational. — The church 
and town were planted at one and the same time in Hadley, as we have 
shown. Just at what time the formal organization took place is not known. 



304 TOWN OF HATFIELD. 



owing to the loss of the church records in 1766, but it was doubtless in 1660, 
and certainly before 1661. Rev. John Russell was first pastor. The first 
church building was completed in 1670, and did services till 1714, andin 
1808 the present building was erected, and removed to its present location 
on Middle street in 1841. It is a wooden structure capable of seating 500 
persons and valued, including grounds, at $5,000.00. The present pastor 
{emeritus) is Rev. Rowland, Ayres, D. D., with Rev. George W. Stearns, 
acting pastor. The society has 194 members. 

The Second Congregational church, located at Nortli Hadley. was organized 
October 26, 1831, with twenty four members, and the first settled pastor was 
Rev. Ebenezer Brown, installed in 1835. The church building was erected 
1834, a wooden structure capable of seating 350 person, and valued, includ- 
ing grounds, at 8,000.00. The society now has 144 members, with Rev. 
John W. Lane, pastor. 

The Russell Cotigregational church, located on West street, was organized 
in 1841, with eighty-seven members from the First church, and Rev. John 
Woodbridge, D. D., pastor. The church building, a wooden structure cap- 
able of seating 350 persons, was built during that year. The society now has 
ninety members, with Rev. Edward S. Dwight, D. D., pastor. 



HATFIELD lies in the center of the county's northern tier of towns, 
upon the west bank of the Connecticut. In area one of the smallest 
towns of the county, yet one of the most important. Its earlier his- 
tory, the causes which let to its settlement, etc., are given in connection with 
the history of Hadley, of which it formed a part till May 11, 1670. 

Two years later, October ig, 1672, the town purchased of the widow of 
the Indian chief Quo?iquont a tract to the north comprising what is now the 
town of Whately and a portion of the north part of Hatfield. The Hatfield 
of then included within its geographical limits also the present towns of Wil- 
liamsburg on the west and Whately, north. The town is finely situated, as 
we have said, upon the west bank of " ye Great River Quinnaticot," whose 
general course is north and south, and which by its great bend to the west on 
the southern border makes the river both the eastern and southern boundary 
of the town, separating it from the town of Hadley, v/hich is located east and 
south. Its northern bound was Pocomptuck, the town line running west 
about nine miles, from where the Pocomptuck path crossed the Sugar Loaf 
brook. It was also bounded on the south by Northampton for a distance of 
six miles, abutting on the unclaimed wilderness west, comprising a territory 
of about sixty-five square miles. After its territory was shorn by the incor- 
poration of the towns of Williamsburg and Whately, its area was reduced to 
about sixteen square miles. It is watered by the Capawonk (Mill river) and 
Its tributaries, Beaver brook. Running gutter. West brook and several smaller 



TOWN OF HATFIELD. 305 



brooks. On the westerly side of North Meadow was Great pond, which fed 
a brook running from it to the Connecticut. 

The topography of the town is peculiar. Along the line of the Connecti- 
cut river lie fertile meadows, extending westerly in varying widths, from two 
hundred rods to two miles. Beyond this is a plain, elevated about fifty feet, 
which extends westerly one and one-half miles, including the mill swamp 
lands to the foot of "the Rocks." The highest ground within the town limits 
is Horse mountain, which is about eight hundred feet. 

The territory described includes about two-thirds of the area of Hatfield, 
most of it very fertile, and much of it still occupied by the descendants of the 
first white settlers, who located the house lots on Main street in the year 
1660 From the foot of the Rocks to the Williamsburg line at the summit 
of Horse mountain is a wild and desolate region abounding in gravel and 
rocks, better suited for the growth of wood and timber than for agricultural 
purposes. This territory of six square miles does not contain a single human 
habitation, and is but little changed from what it was when first seen by the 
English settlers. Running gutter starts from an immense spring near the 
north line of the town in this region, and runs southerly a sparkling trout 
brook of clear cold water about two miles to its junction with Beaver brook. 
Its waters were first utilized by Ebenezer Fitch, who built his linseed oil mill 
about a half-mile north of the junction, more than one hundred years ago — • 
and the greater part of this section has since been known as Linseed woods. 
It was laid out into lots running west to the town limits by the early settlers 
and called the ''Third Division of Commons." The tillage land for the 
first century after the settlement of Hatfield was with the exception of the 
house lots on Elm street, in the meadows. The top of the hill which sepa- 
rates the meadows from the plain was marked by a ditch and at its top was 
erected a strong post and rail fence, which extended from the Great river at 
the southwest point of Capawonk meadow (Little Ponsett) to the north line 
of the town and thence east to the Great river. All of the territory outside 
of this line of fence was the " Commons," or the common pasture where the 
farmers summered their cattle. A system of brand and ear marks was 
adopted and recorded on the town records. These marks settled all disputes 
among the proprietors about the ownership of cattle after the grand "round 
up" in the fall. As each farmer had his special and distinctive brand re- 
corded, no questions could be raised. Each year after the corn was gathered 
into the barns, the cattle and sheep were turned into the meadows until the 
snow came. 

The whole territory of the town wa.s divided up among the original settlers 
and their children during the first fifty years after the incorporation of the 
town. It consisted of eight grand divisions, viz. : First, the forty-four home 
lots on Main street, containing from four to eight acres each ; Second, the 
Meadows ; Third, the Mill Swamp, which extended from the grist-mill built 
by Thomas Meekins in 1661, northwesterly to the Deerfield Une, and on the 



3o6 TOWN OF HATFIELD. 



higher ground at the edge of the swamp east and west two highways were 
laid out ten rods in width ; Fourth, the First Division of Commons, which 
extends from the Meekms mill northerly to a point within the present town 
of Whately, and bounded east by the top of the hill adjacent to Great pond, 
the home lots and the North Meadows and west by the East Mill Swamp 
highway ; Fifth, the Second Division of Commons, which extends from the 
First Division to the Deerfield line, the whole Division being now within the 
town of Whately in Franklin county ; Sixth, the Third Division of Commons, 
now partly in Hatfield, but including Haydenville and the center of the town of 
Williamsburg, bounded on the south by Northampton and east by the West 
Mill Swamp highway ; Seventh, the Fourth Division of Commons located 
north of the Third Division now wholly within the towns of Williamsburg 
and Whately, including about one-half of the territory of each town ; Eighth, 
the Dennison and Bradstreet grants — i,ooo acres located north of the North 
Meadows, now lying partly in Hatfield and partly in Whately. 

These grants were early purchased by the town of Hatfield. The Mead- 
ow lots were small, and the land of the First and Third Divisions of Com- 
mons were divided into long, narrow strips by parallel lines running west 
through each division and numbered from the Northampton line northerly to 
the lines of the second and fourth divisions, which are similarly run and 
numbered. 

The Meadows were sub-divided. Capawonk Meadow (Little Ponsett) 157 
acres was purchased of Northampton. It is separated from the other South 
Meadow by Capawonk river (Mill river) and Great Ponsett Meadow, is 
bounded west and north by this river. East Division, Middle Division, In- 
dian Hollow and Indian Field form the eastern divisions of South Meadow. 
Lower Plain is situated south of the home lots on the Hill, and is bounded 
south and east by the Capawonk river. 

Little Meadow is at the north end of Main street, and separated from 
North Meadow by a high ridge extending from King's Hill to the Connecti- 
cut. The other divisions of the North Meadow were Cow bridge, Long lots, 
Fifty pound lots, Bashan, Old Farms and Great Pond. 

Seiileme>it and Growth. — At the first town meeting held in Hadley, October 
8, 1660, the following vote was passed : — 

'' Voted that all who sit down on the west side of the river (Hatfield) shall 
be one with those on the east side in both ecclesiastical and civil matters that 
are common to the whole, they paying all charges from their engagement and 
all purchase charges from the beginning. Those admitted for inhabitants on 
the west side of the river are to be inhabiting there in houses of their own 
by next Michaelmas (Sept 29, 1661), and to sign an engagement by themselves 
or some others for them." 

Most of those who wished to settle on the west side of the river signed an 
engagement for themselves or their friends to be dwellers there before Sep- 
tember 29^ 1 66 J. Some signed at the meeting October 8th, others Novem- 
ber ist, and some in January, February, or March, 1661. Twenty-five per- 



TOWN OF HATFIELD. 



307 



sons '• manifested an intention " before March 25, 1661, to establish them- 
selves on that side of the river in the new town, viz.: Aaron Cook, Thos. 
Meekins, \Vm. AUis, Nathaniel Dickinson, Jr., John Coleman, Isaac Graves 
(with his father, Thos. Graves), John Graves, Samuel Belden. Stephen Taylor, 
John White, Jr., Daniel Warner, Richard Fellows, Richard Billings, Edward 
Benton, Mr. Ritchell (with his son), Ozias Goodwin, Zechariah Field, Lieut. 
Thomas Bull, Gregory VVilterton, Nathaniel Porter, Daniel White, William 
Pitkin, John Cole, Samuel Church, Samuel Dickinson. Of these twenty- 
seven persons, Aaron Cook and Samuel Church did not remove to the west 
side of ihe river. Ozias Goodwin, Lieut. Bull, Gregory Wilterton, and Will- 
iam Pitkin continued to reside at Hartford; Nathaniel Porter at Windsor; 
Mr. Ritchell (and son) and Edward Benton at Wethersiield. Seventeen ap- 
pear to have become permanent residents on the west side, and thus consti- 
tuted the first settlers of Hatfield. They were from Hartford, Windsor, and 
Wethersfield, Conn., except Thomas Meekins and William AUis, who belonged 
to Braintree, Mass. Several families, whose names were afterward very 
prominent in all the public business of Hatfield, as Hastings, Partridge, Will- 
iams, Smith and others, settled a few years later. 

"The home-lots in Hatfield village were assigned so that they were owned 
from 1668 to 1672 about as follows, commencmg at the north end, east side 
of the street, at the old highway to the river [present Bliss Hotel corner] :. 
Thomas Bracy ; Hezekiah Dickinson, twenty rods wide ; William Scott, 
t venty rods wide ; Daniel Belden, sixteen rods wide ; Samuel Allis, sixteen 
rods wide ; Samuel Marsh, sixteen rods wide ; Nathaniel Foote, sixteen rods 
wide ; a space left for a street ; Philip Russell, four acres ; Samuel Gil- 
ett, four acres; John Wells, four and one half acres ; John Coleman, sixteen 
rods wide; Samuel Belden, eight acres; William Gull, eight acres ; Samuel 
Dickinson, eight acres; Edward Benton, Nathaniel Dickinson, Sr., six acres; 
John White, Jr., Nicholas Worthington, eight acres ; Nathaniel Dickin- 
son, Jr., eight acres ; Richard Billings, Samuel Billings, eight acres ; 
Daniel Warner, eight acres ; Thomas Bull, by the town to Mr. Atherton, 
eight acres. Returning to the north end, and beginning on the ^west 
side of the street, opposite the Bliss Hotel, the proprietors were Will- 
iam King, afterward Samuel Field, sixteen rods wide ; Benjamin Wait, 
sixteen rods wide; John Graves, Jr., sixteen rods wide; Samuel Foote, 
sixteen rods wide; Robert Danks, sixteen rods wide; space for Deerfield 
lane; Isaac Graves. Jr., sixteen rods wide; Samuel Northam, sixteen rods 
wide ; Richard Morton, twenty rods wide ; a town-lot sixteen rods wide ; 
space reserved for street; John Hawks, four acres; Mill lane ; Samuel Kel- 
logg four acres; Obadiah Dickinson, four acres; John Allis, eight acres; 
Daniel White, eight acres ; Wm. Allis, eight acres ; Thomas Meekins, Thomas 
Meekins, Jr., eight acres; Eleazer Frary, eight acres; John Graves, eight 
acres, Isaac Graves, eight acres ; Stephen Taylor, Barnabas Hinsdale, eight 
acres ; Ozias Goodwin, Mr. Hope Atherton, eight acres ; Zechariah Field, 
John Field, eight acres ; highway to Northampton ; John Cowles & Son, eight 
acres ; Richard Fellows, Widow Fellows, eight acres. 

This plot or survey seems to have been made as early as i66r, for in the 
Hadley records it appears that a committee was appointed! for that purpose 
January 21st of that year. 



3o8 TOWN OF HATFIELD. 

The Hill, so-called, west of Mill river, was not settled until after King 
Philip's war. But the mill is of very early date, and by the time the oath of 
allegiance was administered, 1678, there were doubtless some living out there. 

The comparative growth of the town may be seen by the following figures 
placed after the respective years: 1776, 583, 1790, 703; 1800, 809; 
1810,805; 1820, 823; 1830, 893; 1840, 933; 1850, 1,073; 1855, 1,162; 
i860, 1,337; 1865. 1,405; 1870, 1,594; 1875, 1,600; 1880, 1,495. 

Among the prominent Hatfield residents may be mentioned Jonathan 
Dickinson (1688-1747), clergyman and author; Elisha Williams (1694-1755), 
president of Yale college from 1726 to 1739; Oliver Partridge (1712-1792), 
member of the first colonial congress; Col. Samuel Partridge (1645-1740), 
representative to the general court, judge of probate, one of his Majesty's 
council, "and the most important man after the death of Col. Pynchon, in 
1703, in all the western part of the province;" Col. Israel Williams (1709- 

1788), prominent as a military officer; Col. Ephraim Williams ( i7S5); 

founder of Williams college ; Hon. John Hastings, member of the state gov- 
ernment for thirty years ; Dr. Joseph Lyman, pastor of the church fifty-six 
years; Oliver Smith, (1766-1845), founder of Smith Charities, of North- 
ampton, and Sophia Smith, founder of Smith college, of Northampton, and 
of Smith academy, and this list might be largely extended. 

Nathaniel Dickinson, the ancestor of most of the family of this name now 
residing in Hatfield, Hadley and vicinity, came from Weathersfield, Conn.^ to 
Hadley in 1659, and died there June f6, 1676. William, a descendant in the 
sixth generation from Nathaniel, was born in Hatfield, June 13, 1783. He 
married Fannie Smith, and reared three children, of whom William H. is the 
only one now living. The latter was born March 4, 1820. He married Ange- 
lina Waite, a. descendant in the sixth generation of Benjamin Waite, Novem- 
ber 30, 1842. Their children were James W., Mary S., Sarah E. and Will- 
iam Cooley, the latter of whom is the only one now living, at home with his 
parents. J. D. Bardwell, son of Sarah, also resides with Mr. Dickinson, and 
a granddaughter, Mary J., resides in New York city. 

Samuel H. Dickinson is a son of Solomon, and a grandson of Daniel, and 
came here as one of the early settlers, and located on the place now owned 
by John Brown, a descendant of the family. 

John Cowles, the ancestor of the family of that name now residing in this 
town, was one of the early settlers here, and lived on the place now owned 
by Rufus Cowles. Jr. Rufus, Sr., was born in 1783, married Lucy Osborne 
in 1804, and had born to him six children, namely, Rufus, Alpheus, Augustus, 
Erastus, Orsamus and Elizabeth. Erastus was born in 1805, married Olive 
Dickinson, and reared seven children, four of whom are living, Elizabeth 
(Mrs. Billings), of Deerfield, Edward C, of Deerfield. Charles L. and Rufus 
H., who resides on Meadow street. Rufus, Jr., married Fanny P. Moody, 
and has one daughter, Lucy O., who resides with her father on Maple street. 



TOWN OF HATFIELD. 



309 



Alpheus married Sophia Wells, and has had born to him one child, Henry, 
deceased. 

Capt. Silas Billings, son of Col. Erastus, and a descendant of one of the 
early settlers of this town, was born October 30, 1800, married Mary Smith 
Graves, daughter of Lewis Graves, and had born to him eight children, viz.; 
Samuel F., Abbie F., Samuel F., 2d, Abbie A., Mary C, Jane M., Cornelia, and 
Sarah A. Of these, four are living, Samuel F., Abbie A., Mary C. and Cor- 
nelia A. Abbie A. married Lyman Clapp, and has one child. Samuel F. 
married Elizabeth H. AUis, and has had born to him six children, four of 
whom are living. 

John Fitch was one of the early settlers of this town, and is supposed to 
have located on the farm now owned by Mrs. B. M. Warner. Ebenezer, son 
of John, was for many years a surveyor here. 

Dea. John Brown lived in Heath, Mass., and reared thirteen children. His 
son Jonas was for many years a physician in Cazenovia, N. Y. Aaron, son 
of Dea. John, married Rebecca Dickinson, daughter of Daniel, and moved to 
this town about 1826, located on the farm now owned by John. 

The Morton family traces its establishment in Hatfield to Richard Morton, 
who moved from Hartford, Conn., to Hadley, and thence to Hatfield about 
1668. His wife's name was Ruth, and she bore him nine cnildren. From 
these have descended the Hatfield Mortons of to-day, in the sixth and seventh 
generations. Richard died April 3, 17 10, and his wife survived him till De- 
cember 31, 1714. 

Jonathan Porter, a descendant of Ichabod Porter, an early settler of this 
town, married Electa AUis, and reared five children, viz.: Moses C, of South 
Amherst, Henry S., of Griswold, Conn., Sophia, of Sunderland, Mass., and 
Jonathan and James who still live in Hatfield. 

Jacob, Fred and Philip Carl, sons of Christian Carl, came to America from 
Germany, Jacob in 1857, and Fred and Philip in 1858. Jacob married Abbie 
Pardenhiner, and has three children, Nellie A., Henry W. and Emma L. 
Fred married Mary Pardenhiner, and has two children, Hatlie A. and Lillie 
A. PhiUp married Minnie Smith, and has two children, John S. and Ella M. 
All at present are living in Hatfield. 

Eli A. Hubbard was born in Hinsdale, Mass., December 11, 1814, gradu- 
ated from Williams college with the class of 1842, was tutor there till 1844 
teacher in Williston seminary in 1848, and for twelve years thereafter was 
superintendent of schools in Springfield, from 1865 to 1873; agent of the 
Massachusetts board of education, from 1875 to 1883. His grandfather and 
grandmother were both descendants of John Hubbard, the first one of the 
name in Hatfield, the grandmother being the great-granddaughter, and the 
grandfather being the great-great-grandson of said John, of Hatfield. 

Organization. — Meetings were held in the " West Side," as Hatfield was 

known from the very first, on account of the difficulty in crossing intu Hadley 

to attend town gatherings. For this reason when the town was legally set off 
21* 



3IO 



TOWN OF HATFIELD. 



its municipal machinery was already in motion. The selectmen for 1670- 
71 were Nathaniel Dickinson, Sr., William AUis, John Cowles, Sr., Isaac 
Graves and John Coleman. John AUis was tlie first town clerk, and Samuel 
Partridge was the first representative to the general court. 

Military. — The sufferings of Hatfield in the Indian wars are well-known 
facts of 'general history, and anything more than the following brief recapitu- 
lation would be out of place in a gazetteer sketch. On the 19th of October, 
1675, a band of about 800 savages burst upon the town. They were 
expected, however, for this was only two days after the terrible affair of 
Bloody Brook, only fifteen miles distant, and the people here had prepared 
for an attack. Capt. Appleton's company, from Hadley, held the left, Capt. 
Mosely the center, and Capt. Poole the right. A regular battle ensued ; but 
the Indians were repulsed at every point. The whites killed were Thomas 
Meekins, Nathaniel Collins, Richard Stone, Samuel Clarke, John Pocock, 
Thomas Warner, Abram Quiddington, William Olverton and John Petts, 
mostly from Hadley. 

On May 30, 1676, about 700 Indians again attacked Hatfield, this time 
succeeding in destroying many buildings. The flames were seen in Hadley, 
and twenty-five young men came to the rescue and the Indians were driven 
off. Of the five whites killed, John Smith was from Hadley, two others were 
from Connecticut, and two from the garrison at Hadley. 

The greatest loss, however, was effected by only about fifty Indians, who 
fell upon the settlement about eleven o'clock on the morning of September 
19, 1677. The killed were Isaac Graves, Sr., John Graves, Sr., John Atchin- 
son, John Cooper, Elizabeth, the wife, and Stephen, son of Philip Russell, 
Hannah, the wife, and Bethia, daughter of John Coleman, Sarah, the wife 
of Samuel Kellogg, and their son, Joseph Kellogg, Mary, the wife of Samuel 
Belding, Elizabeth, the daughter of John Wells, and Thomas Meekins, thirteen 
in all. The captives were two children of John Coleman, Goodwife Wait 
and three children, Mrs. Foote and two children, Mrs. Jennings and two chil- 
dren, Obadiah Dickinson and one child, a child of Samuel Kellogg, a child of 
William Bartholomew, and a chili of John Allis, seventeen in all. Six or 
seven others were wounded and not carried off by the Indians. One of Mrs. 
Foote's children was killed by the Indians afterwards, and one of Mrs. Jen- 
nings's. " A child was born to Mrs. Wait in Canada. The prisoners, with 
others from Wachuset, were all taken, a sad and weary company, to Sorel, 
Canada. Efforts to rescue them were immediately made. Benjamin Wait 
and Stephen Jennings obtaining a commission from the Governor of Massa- 
chusetts, proceeded by way of Albany, the Hudson River, and Lake Cham- 
plain to Chamblee, in Canada, arriving there late in December. The nego- 
tiation was long and tedious ; by the aid of the French authorities and the 
payment of ;^2oo ransom, the captives that survived were finally gathered. 
The homeward route could not be taken till spring ; the captives were at 
Albany May 2 2d. The almost triumphal procession home, the re-uniting of 



TOWN OF HATFIELD. 



311 



families, the tearful memories of the dead mingling with the joy of the saved, 
— all this must be left for the imagination to paint." 

The following rough diagram will give one an idea of the holders of house- 
lots on each side of Main street in 1677, those at the north end of the street 
being mentioned first : — 



Bracy, 

H. Dickinson, 
William Scott, 
Dan. Belden, 
Samuel AUis, 
Samuel Marsh, 
Nathaniel Foote, 
Philip Russell,' 
Samuel Gillett, 
John Wells,' 
John Coleman,' 
Samuel Belden,' 
VViUiam Gull, 
Samuel Dickinson, 
Edward Benton, ) 

Nathaniel Dickinson, j 
John White, )_ 

"N. Worthington, | 
N. Dickinson^ Jr., 
Richard Billings, ) 
Samuel Billings, f 
Daniel Warner, 
Thomas Bull, 
M. Atherton. 



William King,' ) 
Samuel Field, j 
Benjamin Wait,''' 
John Graves, 
Samuel Foote,' 
Robert Danks, 
Stephen Jennings,'' 
Deerfield Lane. 
Isaac Graves. Jr., 
Samuel Northam, 
Richard Morton, 
Mill Lane. 
S. Kellogg,* 
O. Dickinson,^ 
John Allis," 

D. White, 
William Allis. 
Thomas Meekins, 

E. Frary, 
John Graves,' 
Isaac Graves," 
S. Taylor, ) 
B. Hinsdale, | 
O. Goodwin, ) 
Hope Atherton, ) 
Z. Field, \ 
John Field,) 

Highway to Northampton. 
John Cowles, 

John Cowles, Jr., 
Richard Fellows, 

Apropos of this sketch, we print the following extract from a communica- 
tion from Mr. S. G. Hubbard of Hatfield : — 

"The rough sketch herewith of Hatfield street with home lots and occu- 
pants is substantially correct. It proves that the published accounts of the 
Indian attack of 1677 are incorrect, in stating that the attack was made at 
the north end of the street. There is a tradition in the Graves family that 



1. Three persons killed. 

2. Four captives taken and two buildings burned. 

3. Three captives taken. 

4. One captive taken, two killed, and two buildings burned. 

5. Two captives taken and a building burned. 

6. A captive taken and a building burned. 

7. One killed. 

8. Two killed. 
Two killed, two captives taken and building burned. 



10. One killed and a captive taken. 



312 



TOWN OF HATFIELD. 



John and Isaac Graves were shot from their barn which the}' were roof- 
ing, near the south end of the street, as seen on the plan. The Indians 
coming in from the western woods first went down Mill Lane and struck the 
street at the center, where they burned five buildings and killed eight 
persons, while only three persons were killed at the north end and two 
buildings, the house and barn of Benjamin Wait, were burned. It is evident 
that the center was the safest point for them to attack, as most of the men 
were at work in the Meadows adjacent to both the north and south ends of 
the street — the river being on the east and the plain woods on the west, 
which was the natural point of retreat, where they would not be likely to 
meet any men from the Meadows or re-inforcements from Hadley or North- 
ampton. 

"Samuel Kellogg lived where the Academy now stands. His wife and babe 
were killed and his house burned. The Coleman place was opposite Mill 
Lane, now School street, at present the home of J. H. Howard. Coleman's 
wife and babe were killed and two children taken captive. Capt. John Allis's 
house was on the spot where I live. His barn was burned and his little daugh- 
ter taken captive. Within thirty rods on, four homesteads five buildings were 
burned by the foe. Eight persons, consisting of mothers and infant children, 
were killed within a space of fifty rods on Main street at the center. Three 
men were killed at the north end, and two at the south end of the street. 

"Samuel Belden, whose wife was killed, was one of the selectmen of the town 
that year. It was no fight — simply a massacre of helpless women and 
children, the men being at work in the Meadows. Of the seven buildings 
burned, five were at the center and two at the north end, all within the line 
of the palisades. It is a wonder that Judd, author of the Hadley history, who 
visited Hatfield frequently, did not put these facts together and give a reason- 
able account of the alTair, rather than copy accounts of men who probably 
never visited the town and knew nothing of its top )graphy. 

"The plan shows all of the inhabited portion of the town in 1677, and 
that the attack was probably made at three points — the main body at the 
center, with detached parties both at the north and south ends, and that the 
Indan retreat was up the Deerfield Lane, which run northwesterly — the 
Great Pond separating it from North Meadow, preventing any attack upon 
them from that direction. 

"Taken in connection with the rescue of the captives by that heroic old 
Indian fighter, Benj. Wait, makes this one of the most thrilling stories of that 
early period. If there was a hero par excellence in the Connecticut Valley 
in the first period, it was Benjamin Wait, who was at last killed by the Indians 
in the fight at Deerfield in 1704, when the settlement was burned and most 
of the people were taken captives to Canada. The Indians knew and feared 
Benj. Wait — he was a scout and guide with Capt. Turner in the two days 
Falls fight, and it was ' refinement of their revenge to go out of their way to 
burn his buildings — take his young wife and three little children into captiv- 
ity and leave him desolate.'" 

Although in Hatfield defenses were kept up, many alarms sounded, and 
the people kept in almost a continual state of suspense for years, no more 
Indian depredations were visited on the town. A number of the citizens, 
however, were sacrificed while assisting at the defense of other places, and 
among them, as we have noted, the old hero Benjamin Wait, who was killed 
at the Deerfield massacre in 1704. 



TOWN OF HATFIELD. 313 



In the Revolutionary war Hatfield was early and late earnest in the cause, 
and generous in her contrbution of men and means. In the wake of this 
came the Shay's Rebellion, as detailed on page loo and following. In the 
second war with England, 1812-15, the town took a stand with its neighbors, 
a willingness to uphold the government, but with regret that other means 
were not adopted to effect the same result. 

In the late great war Hatfield furnished 146 men, a surplus of seven over 
all demand, two of whom were commissioned ofiicers. The whole amount 
of money expended was $14,994 71, exclusive of $6,678.64, as a municipal 
loan, afterwards repaid by the state. 

VILLAGES 

Hatfield Village, often called " Hatfield Street," is the site of the early 
settlement we have described. It les near the river in the eastern part of 
the town, a broad, shaded, elegant avenue, lined with fine residences. The 
postoffice was established here early in the present century, with John Hast- 
ings, Jr., postmaster. The present postmaster is Erastus F. Billings. 

North Hatfield is a small post village and station on the Connecticut 
River railroad, near the north line of the town. The postofiice was estab- 
lished here in 1868. 

Hatfield Station is a hamlet that has gathered about the railroad station 
in the southern part of the town. 

manufactures. 

C. S. ShatliicJis gun factory. — C. S. Shattuck, the fire-arms manufacturer, 
purchased of J. E. Porter all the mill property and real estate on the north 
side at the Hatfield mills, which includes the old mill site, eight acres of land 
and one-half the water power. The sale was completed in March, i88r, and 
Mr. Shattuck proceeded at once to erect the present buildings. It is cer- 
tainly a compliment to the people and the town that Mr. Shattuck, after hav- 
ing so many flattering offers to induce him to locate his business elsewhere, 
should decide, after carefully looking over the field, to rebuild in Hatfield, 
this being the only manufacturing enterprise of any magnitude in the town. 
This old mill-site has an interesting history. Its importance as a water-power 
was early discovered by the first settlers of Hadley, and Thomas Meekins, the 
only millwright there, was voted the mill site and twenty acres of land ad- 
joining, and further voted that " they would have all their grain ground at his 
mill, provided he would make good meal," so that Hatfield had the first mill 
and furnished the meal, while Hadley had the first meeting house and fur- 
nished the preaching. 

Thomas Meekins built his first grist mill on the north side of the river, and 
his saw-mill, adjacent thereto, eight years after. The tA^o mills, afterwards 



314 



TOWN OF HATFIELD. 




TOWN OF HUNTINGTON. 



315 



rebuilt, were continued on the same spot for nearly two hundred years, until 
the Hatfield mills property came into the possession of Harvey Moore, now 
of West Whately He removed the old buildings, built the present grist-mill 
on the south side, and the saw-mill on the old site on the north side. This 
latter was afterwards changed into a factory, where vegetable ivory buttons 
were made. Subsequently, when it became the property of the Messrs. Por- 
ter, it was enlarged, extended and fitted up for the manufacture of firearms, 
which business has since been carried on there by different parties. The 
mills were destroyed by fire in r88i and immediately rebuilt. Mr. Shattuck 
■employs thirty men and manufactures about 4,500 guns per year. 

The Porter Machine IVorhs, Jonathan E. Porter, proprietor, manufactures 
■machine lathes on the south side^ where Mr. Porter is owner of the privilege. 

SCHOOLS. 

As early as 1681, Hatfield had a school-house, and has always kept up a 
high standard of education. The present Smith academy, of which we give 
an illustration, was founded by Miss Sophia Smith, of Hatfield, in 1870, en- 
dowed with $75,000 00. Of these funds $20,000.00 was appropriated for 
purchasing grounds and erecting a building; $30,000.00 as a fund the income 
of which is to meet current expenses; $15,000.00 for the erection of new 
buildings when needed ; and |; 10,000.00 for a fund the income of which is 
devoted to the maintenance of indigent students of the school. The school 
was opened December 4, 1872. 

CHURCH. 

The Congregational church of Hatfield was organized by its first pastor, 
Rev. Hope Atherton, and others, in 1670. A church building was erected 
that year. The present building was built in 1849, a wooden structure cap- 
able of seating 450 persons, and now valued, including grounds and other 
property, at $15,000.00. The society has 309 members, and a flourishing 
Sabbath-school with 160 members, and a branch at North Hatfield. The 
pastor is Rev. Robert M. Woods. 



HUNTINGTON lies in the southwestern part of the county, and is 
bounded north by Chesterfield, east by Westhampton and small parts 
of Chesterfield and Southampton, south and west by the county line. 
The surface of the town is varied by mountain, hill, valley, lakelet and 
stream, so that an extremely pleasing and picturesque view is presented from 
almost any point. Add to this, then, the delight of a healthful climate, and 
it will not seem strange that so many from less favored localities linger here 
during the summer months. The east branch of Westfield river is the prin- 



3l6 TOWN OF HUNTINGTON. 



cipal stream, which flows in a sinuous course through a beautiful valley the 
whole length of the town from north to south. In the southern part of the 
town, just above the village of Norwich Bridge, it receives the Middle branch 
from the west. Their united waters continue on to a point just below Hunt- 
ington village, where they are joined by the West branch, making up the vol- 
ume of Westfield river proper. Several smaller tributaries add to the waters 
of the East branch, the largest of which are Pond brook, from the east, and 
Little river from the west. In the southeastern part of the town, Roaring 
brook and a branch of Manhan river drain the country. In the western-cen- 
tral part of the town lies Massasoit pond, a pleasant little sheet of water which 
serves as a reservoir for the mills below. Among the more prominent eleva- 
tions are Mt. Pisgah and Walnut hill, in the northern part, Goss hill in the 
western part, and Deer and Horse hills in the southern part. The town has 
also 13,334 acres of good farming land. 

Grant, Settlement and Subsequent Growth. — A. large part of the present 
territory of the town was originally embraced in what was called " Plantation 
No. 9." On June 2, 1762, this plantation, in common with several others in 
the vicinity, was sold at auction by the general court, and was purchased by 
William Williams, for ^" 1,500. Three years later, October 31, 1765, the 
new township was incorporated under the name of Murrayfield. 

On June 29, 1773, the eastern part of Murrayfield was set off and incorpo- 
rated as the " District of Norwich," with " all the powers, privileges and immu- 
nities of a town, that of sending a representative to the general court, alone 
excepted." But on March 23, 1786, an act was passed providing that all 
districts incorporated before January i, 1777, should be considered towns and 
have the rights of representation. 

On February 21, 1783, the western part of the old territory of Murrayfield 
was given the name of Chester. As time passed on a thriving village sprang 
up on the corners of the towns of Blandford, Chester and Norwich, and which, 
thus lying in three towns and two counties, rendered police regulations very 
difficult to enforce. Accordingly, through agitation of a means to remedy 
this evil, a portion of the towns of Blandford and Chester were annexed to 
Norwich, in 1853, thus bringing the village (now Huntington village) entirely 
within the limits of that town. The Hon. Charles P. Huntington, of North- 
ampton, was actively engaged in securing tliis change, and in 1855 the legis- 
lature passed an act changing the name of Norwich to that of Huntington^ 
which it still bears. 

The exact date of the first settlement cannot be given ; but it was probably 
in the spring of 1769, and it is also probable that Daniel Kirkland and Sam- 
uel Knight and their families were here in the spring or summer of 1769. 
These are known to have been here, and there were doubtless others, for 
quite a group of families came on from Norwich, Conn., about that time. 
Among them, aside from those already mentioned, were Caleb Forbes, Will- 
iam Miller, David Scott, Isaac Mixer and John Rude. John Kirkland located 



TOWN OF HUNTINGTON. 317 



upon the place now owned by C. H. Kirkland, which has always remained in 
the possession of the family. Isaac Mixer located near Norwich Bridge. 
Caleb Forbes located a little further up the river. William Miller and John 
Rude located still further up the stream, near the north line of the town. 
This section was long known as Norwich Hollow. 

The settlement of the new town increased with moderate rapidity, for in 
1773 the following were here, many of them with families : Christian Angell, 
Solomon Blair, Thomas Crow, James Crow, David Crow, William Carter, 
Asa Carter, John Crow, Caleb Forbes, WiUiam Forbes, Elijah Forbes, Zebu- 
Ion Fuller, James Fairman, Samuel Fairman, William French, John Gris- 
wold, James Gilmore, David Halbard, Jabez Holmes, Nathaniel Bennett, 
John Barnard, Solomon Holiday, Daniel Dana, John Crossett, Ebenezer 
Freeman, Solomon Holiday, Jr., Patrick Buckle, John Kirkland, Ebenezer 
King, Samuel Knight, Daniel Kirkland, Isaac Mixer, Isaac Mixer, Jr., Eben- 
ezer Meacham, William Miller, David Palmer, John D. Palmer, David Pal- 
mer, Jr., Capt. E. Geer, Elijah Geer, Mace Cook, Zeb. Ross, John Rude, 
David Scott, Joseph Star.ton, John Tiffany, Miles Washburn, Peter Williams, 
Daniel Williams, Isaac WiUiams, Jr., Charles Williams, Jabez Story, James 
Clark, Jehiel Eggleston, Jonathan Ware and Peter Bunda. 

The subsequent growth and fluctuation in the town's population may be seen 
in the following figures : In 1776 its population was 742; 1790, 742; 1800, 
959; 1810, 968; 1820, 849; 1830, 795; 1840. 750; 1850,756; 1855, 
1,172; i860, 1,216; 1865, 1,163; 1870, 1,156; 1875, i>°95j 1880, 1,236. 

John Kirkland was a son of Rev. Daniel Kirkland, was born November 
15) ^735- He bought in 1768 seven hundred acres of land, and built a log 
cabin on Norwich hill, as we have said, his nearest neighbor being at that 
time twelve miles distant. He was one of the first deacons of the church, 
and married Anna Palmer, who was a descendant of Thomas Palmer. His 
son Samuel was, in his younger days, surveyor on the Phelps tract near Can- 
andaigua, N. Y., was representative to the general court in 1828 and 1830, 
for many years was justice of the peace, town treasurer, etc. He was taken 
prisoner in the Shays Rebellion, but was soon released. He married Dorcas 
Maxwell, daughter of Col. Hugh Maxwell, who was an officer in the Revo- 
tion, and died December i, 1852, aged eighty seven years. His son Joseph 
vras an officer of the church, and served the town in various ways, as a jus- 
tice of the peace, etc. Edward, second son of Samuel, was a graduate of 
Amherst college, resided for many years in Louisville, Ky., but afterwards 
practiced law in Brattleboro, Vt., and died in January, 1866, aged fifty-nine 
years. The old homestead is now in possession of Charles H. Kirkland, son 
of Joseph, and has thus been in possession of the family for nearly one hun- 
dred and twenty years. He has served the town as selectman and school 
committee, and represented the Second Hampshire district in the legislature 
of i860 and 1864. He served in the late war as lieutenant in Co. F, 46th 
Mass. Vols. 



3l8 TOWN OF HUNTINGTON. 



William Miller was one of the early settlers of Huntington, and made the 
first settlement on the farm now owned by William P. Miller, in 1763. The 
first night he spent in the town, he climbed into a scrubby hemlock tree, 
which is still standing, to avoid the wolves. He was a saddler by trade, mar- 
ried Elizabeth Perkins, and reared three children, Nathaniel, William and 
Rachel. William had born to him three children, namely, Electa, wife of 
William Gardner, Rachel, deceased, who married David Blair, and William 
P., who resides on the homestead. 

Toel Searle came to this town, from Southampton, about 1795, and settled 
on the farm now owned by A. S. Searle He married Sophia Sheldon, and 
reared nine children. Spencer, son of Joel, was born in 1804, married Philo- 
melia Gaylord, and had born to him three children, Charles A., Albert S. and 
Clarissa P. Albert S., the only one now living, married Ellen M., daughter 
of John Peck, of Shelburne, Mass., and has three children, Clarissa B., John 
S. and Anthony C. On this farm is a ledge, which consists of mica, feldspar 
and quartz, which is considered valuable for the manufacture of crcckery. 

John Rude, son of Jacob, came to this town from Norwich, Conn., and 
made the first settlement on the farm now ow^ned by Elias Rude, 2d, in 1770. 
His son John married Deborah Dunbar, and reared six children, namely, 
Zara, Clarissa, Alvin, Relief, Harvey and Elias. The last mentioned is the 
only one now living. Zara married Elizabeth Patch, and reared ten children, 
two of whom are living, Elias and John. The former married Ruth, widow 
of John Cole, and has had born to him two children, one of whom, Norman, 
resides in Syracuse, N. Y. Alvin married Mary, daughter of Jonathan Bis- 
bee, and had six children. 

Francis and Richard Cook came from England, and settled in the state of 
Massachusetts at a very early period in its history. John, a descendant of one of 
these brothers, married a Miss Tracy, and reared seven sons and four daugh- 
ters. About 1770 he purchased a tract of land then in Chester, being the 
third lot surveyed in the town, and being a pirt of the farm now owned 
in Huntington by his grandson, John J. Cook. Perly, the third son of John, 
was born in 1764, came to Huntington about 1790, locating on the Cook 
farm, and married Lovina Burt, who bore him five sons and four daughters. 
Of these only four are at present livmg, viz.. Pearly B., of Cohoes, N. Y., 
Edward W., of Hartford, Conn., Clarissa M. Clark, widow of Edward A. 
Clark, of Easthampton, and John J , of this town. The last mentioned was 
born July 13, i8o6, married Lucy S. Taylor, and has two children, Franklin 
B., of Hinsdale, Mass., and Marion L., who resides with her father. Mr. 
Cook became interested in the manufacture of window shades, in 1833, in 
company with Thomas F. Plunkett ; in 1836, bought the entire interest in the 
blind business, and a half interest in the cotton business, and in 1842, pur- 
chased the entire interest of Mr. Plunkett, carrying on the business until 
1855, when through failing health he was compelled to retire. 

Abel Stanton, son of Jabez, was born about 1748, and married Olive Reed 



TOWN OF HUNTINGTON. 319 



in 1769. His son Joseph was born in July, 1783, married Grace VVinchell, 
August 16, 1804, and reared a large family of children as follows: Luke W., 
born September 17, 1806, Jabez, born July 16, 1808, Hannon, born Decem- 
ber 4, 1810, Fanny M., born February 12, 18 13, Henry, born April 5, 18 15, 
Joseph, born February 12, 1818, Adeline, born Februry 20, 1820, and Cath- 
erine, born April 19, 1822. Mr. Stanton was a prominent man in his day, 
held various town offices, was deacon of the church, and died March 12, 
1870. Luke W. was a successful physician, and died in 1869. Jabez lived 
in Ohio, for a time, and at the time of his death, in 1872, was station agent of 
the Boston and Albany railroad at Huntington. He had born to him two 
■children, A. J. and Mrs. H. W. Munson, the latter residing in this town. 
Hannon lives in the West. Fanny M. married twice, first Hiram Chapman, 
and second Moses Fisk, and died in 1879. She had three children, Emerson, 
who died in the late war, Henry S. and Irving. Henry reared nine children, 
seven of whom survive him. He died in 1874. Four of his sons reside in town, 
Henry E., Fred P., George K. and Edward W. His daughter Flora L. also 
resides in town, living at home with her mother. Adeline married Haverton 
CoUins, a farmer at Huntington, and her children are Ella, who married A. 
J. Stanton, Carrie, who married Alex McDougall, Arthur and Isabel, the last 
two residing at home. Catherine has married twice, first. Dr. Homer Hol- 
land, and second John J. Bowles. They reside in Huntington. 

Joseph Lindsey moved to Blandford about 1790, and purchased a tract of 
land extending from near Russell to what is now the village of Huntington, 
Joseph married Salvina Gere, and reared seven children, only one of whom, 
S. I. Lindsey, is now living. The latter married twice, first, Electa Lindsey, 
who bore him two children, Charles M., of this town, and Eunice A. Gilmore, 
of Springfield. He married for his second wife, Mary A., widow of Emmons 
Griffin, and has one son Frank H., who also resides in this town. 

Ebenezer Williams moved from Canterbury, Conn., to Worthington, as an 
early settler. His oldest son, Leonard, was born in 1774. studied medicine 
with Dr. James Holland, of Huntington, and succeeded to his practice. He 
married Olive Wadsworth, March 7, 1799, and reared three children. Jabin 
B., son of Leonard, was for many years a merchant in this town, married 
Lydia Wilson, and had born to him six children. Of these L. B., Henry F. 
and Charles are engaged in the manufacture of baskets at Northampton, and 
Cynthia A. is the widow of Israel D. Clark, James H. was born in this town, 
June 20, 1805, married Mary Prentiss, and had born to him three children, 
only one of whom is living. Whitman P., who lives in Huntington, and is en- 
gaged in milling and is a dealer in flour and feed. 

The first legal district meeting was held July 14 1773, when David Scott 
was chosen moderator; John Kirkland, clerk; John Kirkland, Caleb Fobes 
and David Scott, selectmen and assessors; David Scott, treasurer; Miles 
Washburn, constable. District meetings were first held at the dwelling-house 
of Caleb Fobes, afterwards at Isaac Mixer's hotel. The constable was di- 



320 TOWN OF HUNTINGTON. 



reeled to warn such meeting by posting up a copy of the warrant at Isaac 
Mixer's grist-mill, which appears to have been located about half a mile, more 
or less, above Norwich Bridge. From 1781 to 1841, they were held at the 
meeting-house. A town-house was then built near Kniglitville, which did 
service till after Chester village was brought into the town. A hall was hired 
here, which burned in 1862, and the town then built their present town hall. 

The first town officers elected after the reconstruction of the township, 
March 11, 1854, were Lyman Dimock, clerk; E. B. Tinker, Edward Will- 
iams and Jabez Stanton, selectmen ; Whitman Knight, treasurer ; Rev, 
Townsend Walker, Dr. N. S. Bartlett and Charles M. Kirklancl, school com- 
mittee ; John Parks, constable ; Washington Stevens, E. B. Tinker and Ed- 
ward Williams, overseers of the poor; G. S. Lewis, collector; Salmon 
Thomas, F. H. Axtell, Homer Clark, Horace Taylor, Elias Rude and C. H. 
Stickney, field-drivers ; Garry Munson, H. B. Dimock and William T. Miller, 
fence viewers ; Daniel Granger, Jabez Stanton, G. S. Lewis, Whitman 
Knight and A. S. Rollins, surveyors of lumber ; Seth Porter, sealer of leather ; 
C. H. Stickney, E. S. Ellis, William T. Miller and Joseph Stanton, sextons ; 
Garry Munson and H. B. Dimock, pound keepers ; Daniel Granger, James 
Jones, Jabez Stanton, George Merritt and Whitman Knight, measures of 
wood and bark. 

Military. — In 1774, the district voted to provide powder, lead, flints and a 
drum for the use of the district. The same year Ebenezer Meacham was 
chosen to attend the congress at Concord. September 23, 1774, at a legal 
district meeting, the resolves of a county congress held at Northampton were 
read and considered satisfactory. A committee was appointed to send to the 
provincial congress the sentiment of this district respecting the pubUc dis- 
tresses of this province. It was also " Voted, that it was proper at this crit- 
ical day, to form into a military company for learning the art of military," 
and that Capt. Ebenezer Geer be requested to lead in the choice of officers. 
A military company was accordingly organized October 6, 1774, by the choice 
of the following officers : John Kirkland, captain; David Scott, lieutenant; 
Ebenezer King, ensign. As a precautionary measure, to guard against dan- 
gerous persons and paupers, certain individuals were voted out of the district^ 
with the refusal to admit them as inhabitants. In 1775, it was 

" Voted to choose a committee in compliance with the method adopted by 
the provincial congress, and also the same to be a committee of correspond- 
ence, and said committee are further enjoined by this body to take all possible 
methods to suppress disorder, and that every person shall be fairly heard be- 
fore he is condemned, that we may enjoy our interest and prosperity peace- 
ably, and live as Christians." 

When the war of the Revolution was fairly commenced, Norwich furnished 
it is believed, its full quota of men. Though the town records are on this 
point very imperfect, yet from various sources the following names of Revo- 
lutionary soldiers are obtained : Halsey Sandford, Stephen Angel, Isaac 
Coit, 



TOWN OF HUNTINGTON. 32 1 



In the war of 1812, the town took the usual stand of its neighbors, a wil- 
lingness to fight if need be, but believing that the war was unnecesary. The 
following men went out to the defence of Boston under the call of Governor 
Strong: Samuel Lyman, Enos Wait, John Ladd, Solomon Belden, Samuel 
Henry, Samuel Sanderson, Harvey Stone, Russell Smith, and Perkins S. 
Pitcher. 

In the late civil war the town furnished 137 men, a surplus of eight over all 
demands, five of whom were commissioned officers. The total amount of 
money furnished was $12,000.00, and $10,368.51 as a war loan. 

VILLAGES. 

Huntington Village lies in the southwestern section of the town, on the 
west branch of Westfield river and on the Boston and Albany railroad. The 
village is beautifully located in the midst of surrounding hills and being the 
business center of quite a large section of country, is a bright, flourishing 
place. A postoffice was established here early in the present century, and 
Daniel Falley was the first postmaster, whence the village took the name of 
Falley's X-roads. Thus it was known until the advent of the railroad, when 
the name was changed to Chester, the station having been located in a part 
of the village then lying within the limits of that town. But finally came the 
■changes of 1853-55 we have already detailed, since which time the village 
has borne its present name. 

Norwich Village containing the town's only other past postoffice, lies 
nearly in the geographical center of the township. It is locally known as " The 
Hill." Here it was that the Kirklands, the Knights, the Hannums, and, not 
faraway, the Fairmans^ Fobes, and others located in 1773. The village is 
divided into two sections, the northern part, where are mills, shops, school- 
house and postoffice ; and the southern part, where are the church, a school- 
house and dwellings. 

Norwich Bridge is a hamlet just above Huntington village. 

Knightsville is a hamlet still farther up the valley, opposite " The Hill," 
taking its name from the Knight family. 

manufactures. 

T/ie Highland Mills. — Atherton J. Stanton, of Pittston, Pa., son of Jabez, 
was one of the early manufacturers at the village. In company with William 
Little, son of Benjamin Little, he built on the site now occupied by the High- 
land Mills. They manufactured bed-spreads, and claimed to be one of the 
first to make these goods, at least by power looms, in the country. They also 
made flannel. Little & Stanton's mill was burned, and the Hampshire Man- 
ufacturing Company was formed and built the present mill. A number of 
local parties were induced to invest in the stock of the company, and A. J. 



322 



TOWN OF HUNTINGTON. 



Stanton was the agent. The company failed. In 1873 the mills came inta 
the possession of the present company, of which R. S. Frost, of Chelsea^ 
Mass.. is president ; R. F. Greeley, treasurer, and H. J. Brown, superintend- 
ent. The mills are operated by both water and steam-power, and are at 
present used in the manufacture of fancy cassimeres, employing about one 
hundred hands. 

7'he Chester Faper Co. — This mill was erected in 1853, by the Greenleaf 
& Taylor Manfg. Co., and began the manufacture of book and news paper in 
the spring of 1854, making about 1,800 lbs. per day, which was considered a 
large product for the times. After running several years on this class of 
goods, the company decided, in 1855, to change the mill on to fine writing 
papers, and immediately took steps to put in the necessary machinery, and in 
1856 the first fine writing papers were made. For years the mill has been 
famous for the uniformly fine quality of its goods, and has run with but little 
or no interruption (except for the necessary repairs incident to a paper-mill) 
for more than thirty years, during which lime its capacity has been more than 
doubled. The present company was organized in 1882, with a capital of 
$75,000.00, the property having been owned by the original founders up to 
that date. The mill is probably the oldest in Western Massachusetts now in 
successul operation. The property has a fine water-power ample for its needs 
during nine or ten months of the year. During low water in the river the 
power is supplemented by a 150 horse-power steam engine, which is capable 
of driving the whole works if necessary. The number of hands employed aver- 
ages seventy-five, and the annual product of the mill amounts to about 500 
tons of fine papers. 

W. P. Wil/iams's gnst-?niil, on road 27, has one run of stones and grinds 
about 16,00.0 bushels of grain per year. 

Af. R. Fisk's saw and grist jftill, located at Huntington, is operated by a 
thirty horse-power engine, is equipped with circular, lumber and lathe-slitting 
saws, etc., employs five m.en and cuts annually 500,000 feet of lumber. The 
grist-mill has one run of stones and grinds annually about 25,000 bushels of 
grain. 

If. E. Stanton's sa7a-fnitl, located at Huntington, is operated by water- 
poWer and gives employment to ten men in the manufacture of lumber, whip- 
butts, basket-rims and handles, lath, shingles, etc. 

CHURCHE.S. 

Christ's Congregational church, located at Norwich village, was organized 
by Rev. Jonathan Judd, of Southampton, Jonathan Huntington, of Worth- 
ington, and Aaron Bascomb, of Chester, with twenty-five members, in July, 
1778, and Rev. Stephen Tracy, of Norwich, Conn., was the first pastor. Ser- 
vices were held in tiie school-house till 1796, when the first church building 
was erected. The present building was erected in 1842. It is a wooden 



TOWN OF MIDDLEFIELD. 



323 



Structure capable of seating 225 persons, and valued at $2,500.00. The soci- 
ety now has seventy-three members, with Rev. Ernest F. Bochers, pastor. 

The Second Congregational chicrh, located at Huntington village, was or- 
ganized by the Hampden Association of Ministers, with twenty-eight mem- 
bers, August 26, 1846. Rev. Perkins K. Clark was the first pastor. In 1847 
the society built a church, which was destroyed by fire in January, 1862, and 
in 1863 the present edifice was erected. It is of wood, capable of comforta- 
bly accommodating 300 persons, and is valued at $5,000.00. The society 
now has seventy members, with Rev. William F. Avery, pastor. 

The Huntington Baptist church, located at the village, was organized by its 
first pastor, Rev. John Green, and others, with ten luembers, October 7. 1852. 
Their church building was erected in 1836, by the Methodist society that 
formerly flourished here. The society now has in members, with Rev. How- 
ard R Mitchell, pastor. 

St. Thomas' Catholic church, located at the village, was organized by the 
Rt. Rev. P. T. O'Reilly, April 4, 1886, and Rev. Lawrence J. Dervin was ap- 
pointed its pastor. The church building was erected in 1880, at a cost of 
$6,000.00, and is now valued, including grounds, at $14,000.00. The parish 
includes the organizations in Russell, Blandford and Montgomery. Among 
other good works. Rev. Father Dervin immediately instituted a temperance 
society when he came here in April, now known as the St. Thomas Total Ab- 
stinence Society, which has eighty-five members, with the interest steadily 
increasing. 



M 



IDDLEFIELD* lies in the southwestern part of the county, between 
the Middle branch of Westfield river, and the Western branch, hav- 
ing the former for its eastern border, and the latter for its southwest- 
ern, with Peru on the north, Worthington on the north and east, Chester on 
the southeast, Becket on the southwest, and Washington on the west. It 
was incorporated March 12^ 1783, including within its boundaries what had 
been the southwest corner of Worthington, the northwest corner of Chester, 
the northeast corner of Becket, the south side of Peru, and a part of Wash- 
ington, together with " Prescott's Grant," a considerable tract of land lying out- 
side the limits of any corporate town. The reason given in the act of incor- 
poration for granting the request of the petitioners was " the great difficulties 
and inconveniences " the inhabitants labored under " in their present 
situation." 

The surface of the town is broken. Bold highlands in continuous ranges 
extend through the territory from northwest to southeast, interlaced by streams 
and valleys, and covered, during the summer months, with abundant foliage 

*Prepared by Rev. Joseph M. Rockwood. 



22 4 TOWN OF MIDDLEFIELD. 



and luxuriant vegetation. Between the two branches of Westfield river which 
enclose the town, and emptying into these, are several coaslderable streams — 
the Den stream, the Factory stream, Cole's brook and some others. In the 
earlier days of the town the saw mill and the grist-mill and other establish- 
ments devised by a thrifty community were planted upon these streams ; and 
so they have contributed largely — especially the Factory stream — to the pros- 
perity of the town. 

Agriculture, particularly in the department of stock-raising, fattening cattle 
and dairying, has been the leading pursuit in the town. The organization of 
the Highland Agricultural society, in 1857, contributed much to the farming 
enterprise of this and the neighboring towns. Of this society, Matthew Smith 
was the first president. It has held its annual meetings for thirty years, with 
a creditable exhibition of stock and farm products, and furnished in its series 
of annual addresses much to awaken an enlightened Zealand a becoming self- 
respect in the farming fraternity. The ten leading articles of farm produce 
and their value, for the year ending May i, 1885, are reported as follows: 
Butter, $6,034; beef, $6,502; hay, $18,018; milk, $5,667; potatoes, $3,749; 
firewood, $5,431 ; manure, $3,540; maple sugar, $3,396 ; pork, $1,741 ; wool, 
$1,552. At one time sheep-husbandry was prosecuted extensively. In Hay- 
wood's Massachusetts Gazetteer it is said that "in one year there were sheared 
in the town nine thousand seven hundred and twenty-five fleeces of Saxonj- 
wool, which weighed twenty-six thousand, seven hundred and forty-one pounds, 
and sold for seventeen thousand, three hundred and eighty-two dollars." 

Early Settlers. — Three of the earliest settlers, Rhodes, Taggart and Taylor, 
were on the ground as early as 1773. Which came first is not perfectly clear ; 
let each enjoy the distinction of being "perhaps" the frst. Rhodes settled 
on land now. owned by Clark B. Wright ; he is said to have built the first 
grist-mill in town. John Taggart occupied a part of the flat now covered by 
the reservoir. Samuel Taylor built on land a little east from the grounds of 
the Highland Agricultural society, and erected the first frame building in 
town. He came from Pittsfield, where he first settled in 1752. 

Two years later, in 1775, there were eight families in the town. David 
Mack became a resident, with his family, this year, who was so prominent 
in all the enterprises of the town. It was through his influence that the town 
came to be organized and incorporated. By his energy, persistency and 
large-hearted generosity the material and moral interests of the community 
were greatly furthered. He came to town with little else than his own ca- 
pacity and indomitable purpose ; he amassed wealth, and distributed it wisely 
and with a princely bounty. 

At the date of the incorporation of the town, 1783, there were said to be 
sixty-eight resident families. Some of these did not long remain. The fol- 
lowing names appear upon the records at an early date : John Ford, Malachi 
Loveland, Amasa Graves, Thomas Blossom, Enos Blossom, Solomon Ingham, 
Thomas Bolton, James Dickson, Eliakim Wardwell, Samuel Jones, John 



TOWN OF MIDDLEFIELD. 



325 



Jones, John Newton, Daniel Chapnnan, Job Robbins, Benjamin Eggleston, 
Anson Cheeseman, Abel Cheeseman, Benajah Jones, Timothy McElwain, 
Benjamin Blish (or Blush), Joseph Blish (or Blush), David Carrier, Israel 
Bissell, Justice Bissell, Matthew Smith, Timothy Allen, Erastus Ingham, Bis- 
sell Phelps, John Spencer, Ebenezer Emmons^ Josiah Leonard, Nathan 
Wright, Thomas Duranl, Uriah Church, William Church, EUsha Mack, Dan 
Pease, Thomas Root, Solomon Root, Daniel Root, Elijah Churchill and 
Calvin Smith. 

Much the larger part of the early settlers came from Connecticut ; and 
they were generally of the religious body that prevailed in New England. 
They had no ideals for the future of their community which did not require 
for their realization intelligence and general morality, industry and thrift; and 
they believed that the fear and worship of God were essential to the real in- 
terest and the true happiness of men. 

Hiram Taylor was boro in Middlefield, December 16, 18 19, on the place 
where he now resides, on road 10. His ancestors are admitted to be the first 
settlers in Middlefield. He has always been a farmer, has filled the various 
offices of selectman, assessor, overseer of the poor, and constable and col- 
lector, for many years. He has a farm of 650 acres, pays attention to breed- 
ing Short-horns, and fattens large numbers of beef cattle yearly. He is chair- 
man of the board of directors of the Highland Agricultural society, and is 
deacon of the Congregational church. 

Timothy McElwain, one of the early settlers of this town, married Jane 
Brown, of East Windsor, Conn., and reared six sons and six daughters. His 
son Jonathan was born on the place now occupied by Jonathan, Jr., on road 
9, married Lucy, daughter of John Smith, and reared five children. Jonathan, 
Jr., married Mary Smith, and has three children, viz.: Edwin S., married 
Maria L. Graves, and is a farmer on road 9. Mary J. married Capt. Fitz J. 
Babson, of Gloucester, Mass., and Lura V. is at home. Mrs. McElwain died 
March 7, 1886. Jonathan has always pursued farming as a business, has held 
various town offices, is at present town clerk, and is secretary of the High- 
land Agricultural society. Oliver is a resident of West Springfield. John S. 
is a paper manufacturer at Holyoke, having an interest in three paper com- 
panies in that city. Edwin is a member of Kibbe Bros. & Co., of Spring- 
field. 

Jacob Robbins was born in the house where he now resides, on road 2, 
October 8, 18 17. His father. Job, was among the early settlers of the town. 
He married Mary J., daughter of John S. Scofield, of Pittsfield, and has five 
children, viz.; William E., who resides in Russell, Mass., Edward C, who 
died at the age of twenty-four years, Sarah A., Edson D., of Russell, and 
Myron L., who is proprietor of the mail and express route from Middlefield 
station on the Boston & Albany railroad to the postoffice at the Center, Mr. 
Robbins has also an adopted daughter, Florence. 

Erastus Ingham was one of the early settlers of this town, locating in the 
22* 



226 TOWN OF MIDDLEFIELD. 



forest in tlie western part of the town, and afterwards removing to a place on 
road 6. He was a prominent man in the affairs of the town, holding the 
office of selectman for several years, and was succeeded on the farm by his 
son Erastus John. The latter married Vesta, daughter of John Dickson, 
and reared a family of six children, only one of whom is living in Middle- 
field, Erastus J. The latter was born in 1828, and carries on the farm oc- 
cupied by his father and grandfather. He married Julia Pease, February 4, 
1851, and has had born to him four children, two of whom are living, Lillie 
C, who married Wayland F. Smith, of West Springfield, and Nora V., who 
married John T. Bryan, general merchant and postmaster at the Center. 

Luther Granger came to this town about 1786, was a blacksmith by trade, 
and married twice, first, Miriam Waite, who bore him four children, and sec- 
ond Ruth Goodwell, who bore him eight children. Abraham, son of Luther, 
was born in this town, married Jane Adams, and located in Worthington, 
His children are Rebecca, wife of Russell Tower, Paul, Ruth, wife of E. J. 
Robinson, and Abraham. 

Howard Smithy son of Ebenezer, and grandson of Calvin, who was one of 
the early settlers of Middlefield, was born in town November 4, 1838, m.ar- 
ried Maggie Ford, in May, 1871, and has three children. Mr. Smith resides 
on road 4, on the farm once occupied by his father, and adjoining the farm 
owned by his grandfather. He is perhaps the largest owner of fine-wool 
sheep in the town, for which industry the town was formerly noted. 

Metcalf J. Smith was born in Middlefield, in September, 1830, was edu- 
cated at Cortland, N. Y., graduating in 1S55, and taught school ten years in 
Pennsylvania, Indiana and Connecticut. He held a professorship of mixed 
mathematics and natural science in Central college, and in 1857 accepted 
the same chair in a Lutheran college in Indiana. He returned to the home- 
stead in 1864, and still resides there on road 2. He married Harriet L., 
daughter of Lyman Eldredge, of Cincinnatus, N. Y., and has had born to 
him seven children, viz.: Sophia S., Theodore W., who died in 1865, Gerald 
B., Louis C, Kate W., Edward C, and Samuel E. 

Nathan Wright came to this town from Chester in 1799, locating on road 
25. married Asenath, daughter of Daniel Cone, and reared eleven children, 
only four of whom are living, namely, Clark, Charles, Louisa and Amos. 
Clark married Anna L., daughter of Sylvester Prentice, occupies the home- 
stead, which is called " Glendale Farm," has 500 acres, and is a breeder of 
Durham cattle. Charles married Sarah, daughter of Matthew Smith, and is 
a farmer on road i. Louisa married Lawrence Smith, and lives in Chester. 
Amos is a bridge builder, and lives in Athens, Pa. 

Milton Combs was a native of this town, married Laura" Meacham, and 
reared a family of six children, viz. : Louisa, who married Charles Smith, 
and resides at Smith Hollow; Almira, who married Austin Rude, of Hunt- 
ington ; E. Stacy married Jane Hazelton, and resides in Russell ; Andrew, 
who was a commission merchant at Albany, N. Y., and died there in 1885; 



TOWN OF MIDDLEFIELD. 327 



Charles M., who was born in April, 1830, married Sophronia Haskell, has 
seven children, and resides on the homestead, on road 39 ; and John, who 
was killed at the battle of Gaines Mills during the late rebellion. Milton died 
in 1855. 

Lyman Meacham was born in Peru, Mass., October 2, 1825, spent his 
early life in that town, went to Brooklyn at the age of twenty years, engaged 
in the manufacture and sale of soda water, in which business he remained 
eight years, and afterwards carried on the business at Grand Rapids, Mich., 
two years. He engaged in the lumber business, having a mill at Blendon, 
on Grand river, Michigan, for a number of years. In 1864 he returned to 
Peru, carried on his father's farm, and about 187 1 purchased the farm where 
he now resides, on road 1. He married Viola, daughter of Jesse Tarbell, and 
has had born to him nine children, three sons and six daughters. 

Rev. Joseph M. Rockwood was born in Bellingham, Mass., July i, 18 18, 
attended Milford academy, Waterville college, graduated from Dartmouth 
college in 1837, and from the theological seminary at Newton in 1841. He 
commenced preaching in Rutland, Vt., in 1841, where he was pastor of the 
Baptist church for eight years, preached at the Baptist church in Belcher- 
town six years, at the Second Biptist church at Grafton seven years, and in 
1865 was settled over the Baptist church in this town, where he has since 
remained. In the fall of 1864 he was in the service of the Christian com- 
mission at City Point, Va. He married Elizabeth H., daughter of Jonathan 
Bixby, and has four childen living, two sons at Worcester, and two daughters 
at home. His fourth daughter, Mary Agnes, was a missionary to the Shans, 
under the auspices of the American Baptist Missionary union. She died at 
Toungoo, Burmah, August 4, 1882, after a service of two years. 

George W. Cottrell was born in Worthington, August 31, 1830, was a car- 
penter by trade, married Angehne M. Dyer, in 1854, and located in this town 
in 1863, on road 24. He served in the late war, in Co. F, 46th Mass. Vols., 
and died June 23, 1883, leaving a family of four children, as follows : George 
W., who married Elsie A. Wright, and lives on road 24, Mary V., who mar- 
ried Herbert Prentice, and resides in this town, Carrie H., who married King 
C. Phillips, of Peru, and John B., who lives on the farm with his mother. 

Henry Ferris was born in New Milford, Conn., June t, 1818, learned the 
trade of a stone mason, and came to this town in March, 1866, locating at his 
present home, on road 14^^. He married Selina Hall, August 22, 1841, and 
has four children Hving, and one adopted daughter. Mary J. married Will- 
ard Smith, of this town, who died in 1883. Clara L. married W. B. Graves, 
a farmer in this town. Katie A. and Charles live at home. Mr. Ferris has 
a farm of 400 acres, and makes a specialty of raising grade Durham cattle 
for market. 

John T. Bryan was born in Worthington, February 17, 1808, spent his 
early life on his father's farm, and on attaining his majority commenced 
trade at the center of the town, keeping a general country store. He has 



328 TOWN OF MIDDLEFIELD. 



been often entrusted with public business, is now chairman of the school com- 
mittee, and has been director of the Highland Agricultural society. He has 
been postmaster three years, and holds the office at the present time. He 
married Nora V., daughter of James Ingham, in April, 1885. 

The growth and fluctuations in the town's population may be seen by the 
following: In 1790 its population was 608; 1800, 877; 1^10,822; 1820, 
755; 1830,720; 1840,717; 1850,737; 1855,677; 1860,748; 1865, 
727; 1870, 728; 1875, 603; 1880, 648. 

Organization. — After its organization the town prosecuted its work of lo- 
cal government, not unmindful of its relation to the interests of the state and 
nation. At the first town meeting Solomon Ingham was chosen town clerk. 
Other persons who have held the office are Timothy Allen, John Dickson, 
David Mack, Jr., Matthew Smith, Jr., George W. Lyman, John Smith, Solo- 
mon F. Root and Jonathan McElwain. At the same meeting, Satnuel Jones, 
David Mack and Job Robbins were chosen selectmen and assessors. Their 
successors in office have included most of the business talent of the town. 
Daniel Chapman was chosen town treasurer. The first school committee, 
chosen April 24, 1783, were Joseph Blush, Benjamin Blush, Timothy McEl- 
wain and John Jones. In the list of their successors appear the names of the 
town's most successful teachers, and business and professional men. The 
first representative to the general court was Uriah Church. His successors 
have been Erastus Ingham, David Mack, John Dickson, Daniel Root, Ebe- 
nezer Emmons, David Mack, Jr., George W. McElwain, Matthew Smith, Jr., 
Solomon Root, Daniel Root, Green H. Church, Samuel Smith, Oliver 
Smith, James Church, Ambrose Newton, Alexander Ingham, Matthew 
Smith, Uriah Church, Jonathan McElwain, Amos Cone, Harry Meacham, 
Almon Barnes, Eliakim Root, Oliver Smith, 2d, Milton Combs, W. L. 
Church, Arnold Pease, S. U. Church, Mitthew Smith and Metcalf J. Smith. 

Educational. — The schools of the town have received much of its care, and 
have richly repaid the attention given them. At the first meeting that occurred 
after the organization of the town, April 24, 1783, it was voted to '^ raise ten 
pounds for the support of schools for the year ensuing." Twenty pounds 
were voted on each of the two following years ; and the sum was increased 
with the increasing needs of the rising community. It is interesting to notice 
that in 1843 the town appropriated $2.72 for each child of school age, and 
contributed as much more for board and fuel. It ranked third in the county 
in the amount appropriated for scholars. In 1857 it had increased the 
amount per scholar to $3.55, yet not enough to retain its relative position 
among neighboring towns. In 1874 it appropriated an amount equal to 
$7.31 per scholar. 

Besides the system of schools maintained in the several neighborhoods, it 
has been usual by voluntary eftbrt to secure the services of a competent 
teacher during the winter of each year to give instruction in advanced studies, 
including the languages and higher mathematics. 



TOWN OF MIDDLEFIELD. 



329 



The select school has attracted the youth of the town, and many from 
neighboring towns, numbers of whom have been prepared for the college and 
the seminary, or have qualified themselves for teaching in the public school. 
The select school has done much to elevate the standard of scholarship 
throughout the town. For some twenty years the school has been under the 
very competent management of M. J. Smith, Esq., a native of the town and 
a graduate of New York Central college. A considerable list of young men 
who obtained the rudiments of education in Middlefield have completed full 
courses of study in the college and professional school; and as many young 
women have graduated from the higher seminaries. The several professions 
have had their representatives from Middlefield ; minister and nntissionary, 
college and theological professor, have dwelt tenderly upon the school-days 
of their early home. Prominent among the educated youth of Middlefield 
may be named, Rev. Alvan Nash, Ebenezer Emmons, LL. D., Rev. Lyman 
Coleman, D. D., Elisha Mack, LL, D., Rev. William Crowell, D. D , David 
Mack, F.sq., Edward King, and the four Smith brothers, M. J. Smith, Aza- 
riah Smith, Rev. Judson Smith. D. D., and Prof. Edward P. Smith. 

Physicians. — The earliest physician was Dr. Wright, brother of Nathan 
Wright, who lived where Arnold Pease now resides. The next was Dr. Will- 
iam Coleman, who lived where Mr. Friend now resides. Here his distin- 
guished son, Lyman Coleman, was born. Dr. Coleman practiced in town 
for twenty-five or thirty years. After him came Dr. Warren, Dr. Underwood, 
and Dr. James U. Church. Dr. Edwin Bidwell was here in practice when 
the late war commenced, and for a short time after its close. He served with 
distinction as army surgeon. Latterly Dr. Elbridge G. Wheeler has rendered 
occasional service. 

Military. — Of those who became residents of Middlefield, the following 
persons it is pretty certain had served in the army of the Revolution: Timothy 
McElwain, Lewis Taylor. John Smith, Elijah Churchill, Solomon Ingham, 
Erastus Ingham, Amasa Graves, Sr., and Thomas Durant, Sr. The story of 
want and suffering that prevailed at the close of the Revolutionary war, and 
the sympathy felt for the sufferers, culminating in Shays Rebellion, has often 
been told. The town sympathized largely with the sufferers, and was the 
theatre on which some of the revolutionary proceedings of the Shays men 
took place. One of the companies of these men that had bled to this place 
before its pursuers was captured here. This was in January, 1787. Soon 
after this an oath of allegiance to the commonwealth and to the congress was 
administered to twenty of the inhabitants of the town — and silence held un- 
disputed sway. 

The war of 181 2 was distasteful to the town, as it was to the dominant 
political party in New England. The town by vote declared the war inexpe- 
dient. Against this vote the following persons entered their protest : Mat- 
thew Smith, Esq., William Skinner, William Church, Green H. Church, War- 
ren Church, Lieut. Alexander Dickson and Dea. John Newton. Later, in 



33© TOWN OF MIDDLEFIELD. 



1814, when Governor Strong called for troops, Major Mack (son of the early- 
settler, and afterwards known as General Mack), Lieut. Matthew Smith, 
Capt. Solomon Root. Abel Cheeseman and Abraham Moftett went to the de- 
fence of Boston. 

In the war to maintain the Union, Middlefield did well. The town was 
deeply in sympathy with the general sentiment of the North, and promptly 
responded to every demand of patriotism. Eighty-six men went forth at the 
summons of the town, to maintain on the battlefield the cause of the Union, 
— seven more than the aggregate of all requisitions. The war expenses paid 
by the town were at the rate of more than nineteen dollars for every inhabi- 
tant. And this does not include private contributions and the generous and 
thoughtful endeavors of the ladies to cheer on by their aid and friendly tokens 
their sons and brothers in the field. Two of those who went forth for mili- 
tary service were commissioned officers ; fifteen yielded up their lives in the 
service. Their names were Daniel Atwood, Charles W. Buck, Robert Burns, 
Howard Collier, Henry Dickson, Thomas Dooley, Calvin Noble, Henry 
Noble. Levi J. Olds, Charles W. Robbins, George K. Robbins, Michael Stan- 
ley, Seth Wait, John Waters, Thomas A. Wilson. 

VILLAGES. 

Middlefield, or the " Center,"as it is locally designated, occupies about the 
geographical center of the town, and from the earliest times served as the town's 
metropolis. It was here the town-meetings were held, the church planted. 
The village has a delightful location, and is a pleasant summer resort. The 
postoffice was established here about 18 11, and Edmund Kelso was the first 
postmaster. The present incumbent of the office is John T. Bryan. 

Bancroft, or Middlefield Station, as it is locally known, is a small village 
about the Boston & Albany railroad station, in the southern part of the town. 
Charles H. Fleming is the postmaster. 

Factory Village, as its name indicates, is the small village that has gath- 
ered about the factories we mention below. It is located on Factory brook, 
in the western part of the town. It depends on the Center village for church 
and postal facilities. 

manufactures. 

The saw and the grist-mill and the tannery sprang up when everything was 
new, and considerable establishments for the manufacture of woolen cloths 
have existed from the beginning of the century. John Ford is said to have 
built the first saw-mill, in 1780, on the stream a mile below the Factory Vil- 
lage, where Leach's mill stood in later years. The Blushes, Amasa, suc- 
ceeded by his sons Oliver Blush and William D. Blush, and the Ciiurches, 
Uriah, succeeded by the four Church brothers, have been the principal man- 
ufacturers in town. 



TOWN OF MIDDLEFIELD. 331 



Church Brothers (Sn Co. are manufacturers of woolen goods at Factory Vil- 
lage. They have two mills. Their power is furnished by water from Factory 
brook. A reservoir for holding water was washed out in 1874, causing great 
damage, carrying away and damaging many buildings, and causing a loss of 
many thousands of dollars. The reservoir has been re-built in a substantial 
manner. Uriah Church started business with carding machinery on the pres- 
ent site more than seventy years ago, and it has been carried on by his sons 
since that date, always manufacturing goods from wool. The present firm 
consists of Oliver Church and George VV. Wilcox. 

Buckley, Duntoii 6^ Co., r 37, manufacture paper with both water and 
steam power, employing twenty-five hands. 

MORAL AND RELIGIOUS INTERESTS. 

First Congregational Church of Middlefield. — The moral and religious in- 
terests of the town have been cared for by three religious societies. The first 
was coeval with the town — the Congregational. Of this society Rev. Jona- 
than Nash became the first pastor. The pastor's ordination, October 31, 
1792, and the erection of the house of worship took place the same year. Mr. 
Nash's labors proved acceptable, and they extended over a period of forty 
years. He was a native of South Hadley, and a graduate of Dartmouth col- 
lege, in the class of 1789. He died August 31, 1834, aged seventy-four years. 
His successors in the pastorate have been Revs. Samuel Parker, who served 
but a single year; John H. Bisbee, who was dismissed after some five years 
to accept a call to Worthington ; Edward Clark, who served the church thir- 
teen years ; Moody Harrington, whose term of service was somewhat over 
three years ; Lewis Bridgman, who served four years ; John Dodge, who 
served two years ; Charles M. Peirce, who served thirteen years, and resigned 
on account of failing health; Samuel E. Evans, who served one year; A. G, 
Beebe, who served two years; John A. Woodhull, the present pastor, who 
commenced his labors in September of the present year, 1886. The first dea- 
cons were Malachi Loveland^and Daniel Chapman. Others who served in this 
capacity are David Mack, Job Robbins, Zachariah Field, William W. Leon- 
ard, George W. McElwain, Abner Wing, Alexander Ingham, Erastus J. Ing- 
ham, Amasa Graves, Ambrose Meacham, Harry Meacham, Hiram Taylor 
and Jonathan McElwain. The church and society have been prosperous, and 
many seasons of religious awakening and enlargement have marked the 
church's history. One of these seasons was during 1801-02; another in 
1820-21. The period from'1826 to 1832 seems to have been one of more 
than usual prosperity. Another season of much interest mentioned is 1842- 
43. The same of 1857-58, and of 1866 and 1877. Not less than three hun- 
dred members were received into the church in connection with these seasons 
of special interest. The present house of worship is the first meeting-house, 
erected in 1790, but re-modeled and tastefully fitted up with modern appoint- 
ments. 



332 TOWN OF MIDDLEFIELD. 



Baptist church. — The first house of worship erected by the Baptists in 
Middlefield stood east of the Center, not far from the residence of Mr. 
Friend. It was built in 1818. The church was constituted in 1817, con- 
sisting of twenty-nine members. To those, thirty were added during the next 
two years. There had been Baptists in Middlefield almost from the begin- 
ning. For many years they were connected with the Baptist church in Hins^ 
dale, the Hinsdale pastor holding regular services in Middlefield a definite 
portion of the time until the erection of the meeting house in Hinsdale in 
18 16. Then by mutual agreement the members in Middlefield became an 
independent church, and were recognized by a council July 21, 181 7. Rev. 
Isaac Child was the first pastor, and continued in service ten years. He died 
at Goshen in 1842. The second minister settled was Erastus Andrews. The 
next was CuUen Townsend. Other ministers have been Thomas Archibald, 
Orson Spencer, Foronda Bestor, Volney Church, Homer Clark, Orlando 
Cunningham, John B. Burke, Lewis Holmes and Joseph M. Rock- 
wood, the present pastor. Mr. Spencer and Mr. Clark did not long 
retain their connection with the denomination. The ministry of Mr. An- 
drews, though brief, was fruitful, as was that of Mr. Townsend and Mr. 
Archibald. Messrs. Bestor, Cunningham and Holmes continued their pas- 
toral work some five or six years each, and were much blessed in their labors. 
The present pastor commenced his services in May, 1865. Years noted as 
seasons of religious awakening and increase in the history of the church 
have been 1818, '29, '31, 'H'- '3^> '42? '5°, '58, '70, '76. The first deacon 
was John Newton, who died at the advanced age of ninety-five. The names 
of those who have succeeded him are Clark Martin, David Ballou, Moses 
Gamwell, William W. Leonard, Solomon Root, Oliver Smith, Ebenezer Smith, 
Eldridge Pease, Solomon F. Root, Morgan Pease and Harlow Loveland. 
The present house of worship was built in 1846, succeeding the first, built in 
1818. 

Methodist church. — A Methodist class was formed in town as early as 
1802. This was in the southeastern part of the town. It is thought to have 
consisted of Thomas Ward and wife, Daniel Falley and wife, David Cross 
and wife, Samuel Brown and wife, Jesse Brown and wife, the Gilberts, 
Rhodeses, Talcotts, Mrs. Elijah Churchill, and others. Thomas Ward was 
the class-leader. A few years later a church was organized and constituted 
a part of Pittsfield circuit. Subsequently it was connected respectively with 
the Dalton, the Hinsdale, and the Middlefield and Washington circuit. In 
1827 a house of worship was erected, near the present residence of George 
W. Howe. There was widespread religious interest in connection with this 
church, extending through a number of years. The audiences that assem- 
bled were said to be as large as those of any society in town. Among the 
preachers whose labors were most effective appear the names of Peter C. 
Oakley, Bradley Selleck and Cyrus Prindle. In 1853 the society removed 
its house of worship to the center of the town ; but the result of the change 



CITY OF NORTHAMPTON. 333 



was not as favorable as had been hoped. In 1861-62 the society was very 
much weakened by a large number of deaths and removals occurring not far 
from the same time. The members left were too few to continue the services 
successfully; the society was dissolved and the house of worship sold to the 
Congregational church for a chapel, the families remaining finding in the 
growing liberality of modern times pleasant association with other churches. 
Tempej-ance. — There have been several temperance organizations in town 
which have contributed to the increase and prevalence of the temperance 
sentiment. Among these may be mentioned that of the Good Templars, 
which commenced its work in 187 1. The Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union has also exerted useful influence for a number of years. 



NORTHAMPTON occupies a location in the geographical center of the 
county, and is bounded north by Williamsburg and Hatfield, east by the 
Connecticut river, south by Easthampton and a small section of the 
county line, west by Westhampton. Within the bounds thus roughly stated is 
enclosed a small inland city, which presents a striking example of what may be 
accomplished by the full and free exercise of moral and mental agencies in 
attaining a high degree of civilization, intelligence, refinement and comfort ; 
affluent in charitable, benevolent and educational institutions, possessing an 
unequaled natural beauty and satisfactory material prosperity, the '' Meadow 
City " has secured an enviable reputation. Her sons and daughters may be 
found throughout the republic, diffusing in society a benign and salutary in- 
fluence, seeming ever to bear before them the legend of the city's great seal: 
" Charifas, Justitia, Editcatio." 

In the opening chapters of this work, devoted to the general history of the 
county, we have detafled the causes which led to the petition for and grant of 
the fertile Nonotuck in 1653-54; told of the settlement begun thereon at the 
present city in 1654, the establishment of tlie new settlement as a half-shire 
town and subsequent county seat; detailed the history of its county buildings 
and the courts of justice which are held therein, its railroads and its press. 
At this point, then, it is our purpose only to briefly sketch the subsequent 
growth of that early settlement, record its final erection into one of the mu- 
nicipalities of the commonwealth, and record its appearance and resources of 
to-day. For over two hundred years the city constituted one of the town- 
ships of Hampshire county, when it was incorporated, September 5, 1883, 
and organized, January 7, 1884,* as the county's only incorporated city or 
village. t 

* At its organization Benjamin E. Cook, Jr., was elected mayor, who held the office un- 
til Arthur G. Hill was elected as his successor, in December, 1886. The city is divided 
into seven wards. A list of its officers is given on another page. 

fin the Directory portion of the work we shall consider the '' City " as the '' Township 
of Northampton," in order that our system of road-numbering and the references to the 
several postoffices within the city's limits may not prove perplexing to the stranger who 
seeks its aid. 



334 CITY OF NORTHAMPTON. 



The city, comprising the old township of Northampton, consists of two 
disjointed tracts of land. When Easthampton was incorporated her territory 
was inserted like a wedge to the river, completely severing the former into 
two unequal portions. The smallest, a long, narrow strip of land, bearing the 
local name of South Farms, extends from the crest of Mount Nonotuck to 
the river, and from Easthampton on the north to Holyoke on the =outh. 
Easthampton was one of the three towns that have been lopped off from the 
old one. Southampton was organized as a town by the general court in 
1753 ; Westhampton in 1778 ; and Easthampton as a district m 1785, with 
all the rights and privileges of a town with the exception of sending a repre- 
sentative to the general court. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES. 

The city seems to nestle quietly in a deep depression among the hills and 
mountains which surround it in every direction, on the margin of the fairest 
river in New England. In fact it occupies a central portion in what Presi- 
dent Dwight, of Yale college, whose familiarity with the valley excelled that 
of any other man in his time, was in the habit of terming in his writings the val- 
ley's third great expansion. At this point the valky is probably not less than 
twenty miles in width, and abounds in the richest and most gorgeous natural 
beauty. Mountains, some of them attaining an altitude of nearly fifteen 
hundred feet above the level of the sea, encircle this expansion. On the east, 
beyond Amherst, which clusters upon the summit and along the gentle slopes 
of a beautifully rounded eminence, are seen the dark and lofty Pelham hills ; 
in the foreground is Mount Holyoke, unique and picturesque, from whose 
top a picture of rural loveliness meets the vision, unsurpassed even in a region 
where the choicest gifts of nature have been scattered with a lavish hand. 
On the north are the Montague mountains and the conical outHne of Sugar 
Loaf, on the west the outlying spurs of the Green Mountain range, and on the 
southwest and south the elevations known as Pomeroy and Mt. Tom range. 

The surface of the whilom township is uneven and undulating. Between the 
compact part of the city and the river, which here flows in the form of a semi- 
circle, are the intervals or meadows, comprising several thousand acres of 
level and fertile land. A succession of terraces of a few feet in height lead 
from the meadows to the uneven and more elevated parts of the city on the 
west, where plains, knolls and hills are curiously and irregularly mingled. 
Round Hill has obtained a wide celebrity for its unrivaled beauty. Its 
slope is so gentle that nearly every part of it can be utilized for the erection 
of residences for citizens of taste and wealth, while the view from its sides 
and summit is simply magnificent. It was on Round Hill that George Ban- 
croft, the historian, and Joseph G. Coggeshall established their famous school 
which attained such an enviable reputation that it found patrons in the most 
distant states of the Union. This institution was at the zenith of its prosper- 



CITY OF NORTHAMPTON. 335 



ity some half century ago. But Mr. Bancroft had a natural aptitude for the 
discussion of political questions, and an irrepressible desire to participate in 
the political movements of the day. The school was eventually closed. Mr. 
Bancroft's career is well known to the school children of the land. His as- 
sociate, Mr. Coggeshall retired to the tranquility and repose ot literary pur- 
suits. Since that event Round Hill has been devoted mostly to private resi- 
dences. Occasionally it has been honored with a water-cure establishment 
and a hotel. But these are things of the past, and such public institutions 
as shall hereafter grace its picturesque declivities will probably be of a benevo- 
lent and charitable character, and designed to alleviate human suffering. 

In saying this of that charming locality, it must not be supposed that other 
parts of the old town are devoid of attractions as homes for the people. The 
inequalities of the township are such that the varying fancy of individuals 
finds ample resources for the selection of eligible sites for the erection of 
homes combining the elements of taste and elegance. Gentlemen of culture 
and refinement have discovered that the landscape of Northampton possesses 
many p'easing features, and are now embellishing the terraces and the mini- 
ature hills and vales with edifices of which any town or city may well be proud. 
Especially do the educational facilities of the city tend to this result, as they 
allure to it the best elements in American society, who hasten to avail them- 
selves of the benefits conferred by the superior excellence of its schools and 
other institutions of learning. As an example of this the case of the eminent 
Southern writer, George W. Cable^ whose brilliant imagination is equaled by 
his conspicuous philanthropy, may be cited as worthy of imitation, who finds 
a dehghtful home within the romantic precincts of " Paradise." 

The principal inland stream is Mill river, which enters the town from Will- 
iamsburg in the extreme northwest corner, and flows into the Connecticut in 
the southeast. Its waters are utilized for manufacturing purposes, and several 
flourishing villages — Leeds, Florence and Bay State — have arisen upon its 
banks. Roberts Meadow brook is the source of the city's water supply, and 
a branch of Manhan river^ which crosses the southwestern boundary at Loud- 
ville, affording some motive power. 

Geologically, new red sandstone is the prominent feature in the eastern 
part of the city, and the primary or granitic rock in the western, where boul- 
ders of varying sizes are thickly strewn by elementary actions upon the sur- 
face. In many sections of the town these stones and rocks are being removed 
and the land fitted for cultivation. 

SOIL AND AGRICULTURE. 

The soil varies greatly in character and quality. There are several thou- 
sand acres of interval or meadow land of unsurpassed beauty and fertility, the 
stony, loamy uplands, and some level tracts of a sandy nature. Interspersed 
with these are fields in which clay predominates. A large proportion is culti- 



^^6 CITY OF NORTHAMPTON. 



vable. At the first settlement of the town, and for a long period thereafter, 
cultivation seems to have been mostly confined to the intervals, and with 
some unimportant alterations and modifications they remain very much as 
when Holyoke and Pynchon were fascinated with their dense and prolific 
vegetation. There has been much speculation as to the origin of these bot- 
tom lands, and the opinion has been expressed by those who have investigated 
the matter, that originally they were mounds or islands in the body of the 
stream, which by the constant accretion of fine, silty particles borne by the 
waters of the river from the regions far to the north, gradually expanded until 
the mass became consolidated and attached to the adjacent upland. But 
whatever may have been their origin they constitute a large tract of valuable 
land in Northampton. The soil is a fine, deep, rich, unctuous mold, and 
when first cultivated must have been surpassingly fertile. Much of its inher- 
ent productiveness is maintained by the abundant sediment deposited on the 
surface by the annual overflow of the river, though other enriching matters 
are used, and perhaps required, in the growing of maximum crops. When it 
is considered that these lands have been in cultivation for more than two 
hundred years, in each one of which they have produced prolific harvests, the 
inference is conclusive as to their great strength and durability. It is an in- 
disputable fact that in the first years of the settlement and for a century after- 
wards, the meadows were found well adapted to the growth of wheat and pro- 
duced luxuriant crops of that invaluable cereal. The province tax was paid 
in wheat in Boston, and the transportation of the grain, which was invested 
with all the properties of a circulating medium, was a matter of no small im- 
portance. To accomplish this object a road was constructed, with infinite 
labor and expense, through the forest to the settlements in Connecticut, and 
the golden grain was conveyed in ox carts to Hartford, and loaded on sloops 
that made the perilous voyage round Cape Cod to the capital of the Province. 
About a century ago there were indications that something was the matter 
with the meadows ; the wheat crop frequently failed, and its cultivation was 
reluctantly relinquished. A writer of that era, and a native of the town, in- 
vestigated the causes of the failure, and came to the conclusion that it was 
owing to the exhaustion of the fine vegetable mold or humas in the soil; and 
he reasoned that wheat would again grow if the original conditions were re- 
stored. And to do this he argued that it would be necessary to grow such 
crops as would fill the surface soil with an abundance ot vegetable fibres. He 
had ascertained in the course of his investigations that lands in the Middle 
States which had manifested the same symptoms as the meadows, had been 
restored to their prestine fertility by plowing down a rank growth of clover, 
and again produced good crops of wheat. This, it should be remembered, 
was one hundred years ago. It is not known that his recommendation was 
tested to such an extent as to establish its utility. At all events the meadows 
were generally devoted to other crops, and new land was cleared for wheat, 
which struggled for a few years to maintain a precarious existence until com- 



CITY OF NORTHAMPTON, 337 



pelled to yield to the assaults of the midge, smut and rust. In late years there 
have been occasional instances of immense crops of wheat on this discription 
of land after a crop of tobacco. For the last half century the meadows have 
been devoted to the growth of broom corn, oats, corn, grass and tobacco. 

REWOVATING THE SOIL. 

The HoH. William Clark was an intelligent agriculturist of Northampton 
during the first half of the present century. Besides a due proportion of 
meadow land, he was the proprietor of an extensive tract of plain land of a 
light, sandy soil, Mr. Clark undertook the improvement of this light land 
with commendable enthusiasm, and was measurably successful in his efforts. 
It was his principal object to obtain a good, thick sod ; this accomplished, a 
satisfactory grain crop was certain to follow. In his experiments no animal 
manure was used, his entire dependence being upon sod and gypsum, or plas- 
ter. It was his practice to sow red-top and clover seed, and fill the soil as 
frequently as possible with grass and clover roots. By this system there was 
a gradual and perceptible improvement in the producing capacity of the land, 
and Mr, Clark became fully sensible of the enriching properties of sod or 
turf, which has been found so efficacious in other sections of the country in 
preserving the fertility of the soil. Another method in the treatment of sandy 
land has been practiced to some extent in Northampton, and measuredly re- 
sults are worthy of imitation elsewhere. It is to mingle clay with the surface 
soil. The adhesive properties of the clay impart adhesion to the mass, im- 
proves its texture and converts it into a friable loam. In most clays there is 
a considerable amount of fertilizing matter, and it has been found by ex- 
perience that clayed lands are tolerably retentive of animal manures. 

Contemporary with Mr. Clark was David Lee Child, better known, per- 
haps, as the husband of that charming writer, Lydia Maria Child. Mr. Child 
was originally a Boston lawyer. He filled the office of consul in one of the 
cities of Europe for several years, and became deeply interested in the culti- 
vation of the sugar beet. On his return to this country he located in North- 
ampton near the village of Florence, and essayed to turn his knowledge of 
beet culture to practical account. But he appears to have been unfortunate 
in the selection of a suitable and congenial soil in which to pursue his ex- 
periments. Some of it was a deep, black muck, probably imperfectly drained, 
better adapted to the grass than the root crop, and incapable of producing 
other than stinted vegetables of inferior quality, while other portions were too 
thin and light to pay the expense of cultivation. It was not from lack of 
zeal, but from lack of judgment that Mr. Child failed in his undertaking, and 
the practicabiUty of the beet culture is still an unsolved problem in Northamp- 
ton, at least so far as its conversion into sugar is concerned. 



338 CITY OF NORTHAMPTON. 



EARLY PRICES. 

During the first hundred and fifty years of the town's existence, in a finan- 
cial point of view, the inhabitants had most emphatically a dreary experience. 
They rested literally on hardpan. There was no coinage of money in the 
province, and consequently it was very scarce and dear. It required a large 
amount of agricultural products to purchase a very small sum of the precious 
metals, and they, except at intervals, constituted the only circulating medium. 
As an illustration of the hardness of the times some of the prices then pre- 
vailing may be mentioned. Butter was worth six cents per pound, beef and 
mutton two cents, wheat and peas about two shillings, and corn and oats one 
shilling and sixpence each per bushel. A good horse might possibly bring 
twenty dollars in the market, provided a purchaser could be found, and a pair 
of working cattle would command the same price. It was a first-class cow 
that would bring eight dollars. No buyers then for fancy Jerseys, Ayrshires 
and Holsteins at fabulous prices. But as some compensation for these low 
prices, luxurious living did not involve a large expenditure. Eggs were three 
pence per dozen, wild turkeys one shilling, and fowls four pence each. Good, 
juicy, fat, luscious shad from one to two pence each, and salmon one penny 
per pound. Land was cheap, but the population being scanty, purchasers 
were few in number. Choice land was valued at one dollar an acre, and this, 
for ought that is known to the contrary, included the fertile river bottoms, 
and out-lots twenty-five cents. The salaries of ministers ranged from one 
hundred and fifty to two hundred dollars per annum, with a fair allotment of 
land by way of settlement. The settlement of a clergyman implied a loca- 
tion for life unless irreconcilable differences should arise between pastor and 
people. Differences did sometimes arise, and a notable one did in North- 
ampton, as will be observed in the course of this narrative. When young 
men and maidens wished to be united in wedlock — that state of happiness to 
some, of misery to others — the parson exacted three shillings for securely 
fastening the nuptial skackles. 

STREETS. 

The older streets of the city are somewhat winding and irregular. Two 
reasons have been assigned for this divergance from straight lines. One is 
that the early settlers consulted convenience and economy in the construc- 
tion of roads ; the other that they adopted the paths made by the cows in 
going to and returning from their grazing grounds, the bovine race instinct- 
ively selecting such routes, and adhering to them, as were the easiest to 
travel. Either reason is sufficient to account for the peculiar character of 
the old highways now transformed into streets. Whatever may be said 
against such streets in a busy, commercial city, the objection will not be 
regarded as valid in a rural one like Northampton, where they may be con- 



CITY OF NORTHAMPTON. 339 



sidered as an attribute of beauty. At least, this may be said that, had the 
surveyor with his compass and chain laid out the original highways at right 
angles one with another, every person of taste would have been forced to 
admit that art had marred the symmetry of nature. The principal streets of 
the old town, following the sinuous paths made by the cows more than two 
hundred years ago, extend in all directions from the center or Merchants' 
Row. Fancy Pleasant street extending as a wide avenue in a direct line 
over Round Hill, in one place obliterating a charming plateau, in another 
destroying a delightful terrace, and the people of this model city will realize 
their great obligations to the brute creation in deviating in their daily walks 
from right angles. 

SETTLEMENT AND GROWTH. 

Previous to the settlement of Northampton, civiHzation in Western Massa- 
chusetts was confined to Springfield. But the residents of the latter place 
were familiar with the adaptability of the location for purposes of improve- 
ment, and in 1653 a petition was presented to the general court for liberty 
to plant in Nonotuck. and the request was granted. Nonotuck, however, 
already contained a small aboriginal population with whom resided all pro- 
prietary rights, and before occupation and planting could begin on the part 
of the petitioners or their representatives, justice required that these rights 
should be equitably extinguished. To the honor of the founders of Nono- 
tuck it should be stated that they dealt uprightly with the native and original 
owners of the soil. The price paid for this magnificent domain was, indeed, 
insignificant, but to the Indian mind it seemed an ample equivalent for the 
territory they surrendered to the whites, and, it may be remarked, they never 
afterwards complained that they had been overreached in the bargain. It 
may be mentioned that, among others who held vested rights in the property 
thus transferred, was Awonusk, the wife of WuUuther. The deed was given 
to John Pynchon, of Springfield, for the planters, and some of them immedi- 
ately removed to the new plantation. Of the twenty-four persons who peti- 
tioned the general court for liberty to plant in Nonotuck, for reasons which 
do not appear, only eight availed themselves of the privilege. These were 
Edward Elmore, William Miller, William Clark, Thomas Root; Robert Bart-- 
lett, John Webb, William Holton and \Villiam_Janes. 

Among those who settled and erected houses within the first four years, 
that is, previous to 1658, these names occur : Robert Bartlett, Richard Ly- 
man, James Bridgman, John Lyman, Thomas Bascom, Thomas Root, 
Alexander Edwards, Samuel Wright, William Miller, John King, Isaac 
Sheldon, Samuel Allen, Joseph Parsons, William Hannum, WilHam 
Hulburt, Nathaniel Phelps and Jo hn S tebbins. In the next four 
years they were followed by Edward Baker, Ale xand er ALvord, Rev. 
Eleazer Mather, William Clark, Henry Woodward, Enos Kingsley, 



340 CITY OF NORTHAMPTON. 



Aaron Cook, [ohn Str ong, Medad Pomeroy, Jonathan Hunt and John 
Searle. And shortly afterwards came Mark Warner, Samuel Judd, R ober t 
Danks, Thomas Judd, Israel Rust, Rev. Solomon~~Stoddard and Preserved 
^lapp. Most of these names still survive in the city, or did until a very re- 
cent period, in the persons of their descendants. Subsequently the increase 
of population was greatly accelerated by the arrival of new settlers. 

It may be interesting to know how the first plantation was defined by the 
commissioners appointed by the " honored General Court " to perform this 
duty, namely, John Pynchon, Elizur Holyoke and Samuel Chapin. If the 
description lacks clearness it is not deficient in quaintness. " We," the com- 
missioners say, "allow the great Meadow on the west side of Conecticote 
River, as also a little meadow, called by the Indians (Capawonke), which 
lieth about two miles above the great Meadow, the bounds of which planta- 
tion is to extend from the (south side) of the little meadow, called Capa- 
wonke, to the great falls, to Springfield ward ; and westward is to extend 
nine miles into the woods, from the river of Conecticote, lying east of the fore- 
said meadows." 

The settlements in point of time were made, first, about Pleasant, King, 
Hawley and Market streets ; then west from the Old Church, and still later on 
the south side of Mill river. The growth and fluctuations in the population 
since 1776 is represented by the following figures: 1776, 1,799, i79°> 1,628; 
1800,2,190; 1810,2,631; 1820, 2,854; 1830, 3,613; 1840, 3,750; 1850, 
5,278; 1855, 5,819; 1860,6,788; 1865, 7,925 ; 1870, 10,160 ; 1875, 11,108; 
1880, 12,176. 

INDIAN TROUBLES. 

It may be noted as a significant fact of the terror created by French and 
Indian foravs upon the outlying settlements of New England, that more than 
a century elapsed after the settlement of Northampton before any improve- 
ments were made or dwellings erected in Westhampton, although it was only 
a few miles distant from the center of the town. It virtually remained an 
unbroken wilderness until the subjugation of Canada by the English, when 
the incursions of the savages ceased. Indeed, many tracts that had been 
cleared at a short distance from the town at an interral of peace, were aban- 
doned for a long series of years, and in most instances reverted to a state of 
nature. President Dwight, whose statements in regard to everything which 
relates to Northampton may be implicitly relied on, mentions, as illustrating 
the insecurity of the times, that his father or grandfather cleared and grew 
crops upon several acres of land two or three miles from the village; but the 
cultivation was discontinued owing to the almost uninterrupted prevalence of 
hostilities, and after the lapse of half a century it was covered with a dense 
and heavy growth of pines. 

The relations existing between the people of Northampton and the In- 




fT^f; ' 



^i^^<^^<^ 



CITY OF NORTHAMPTON. 



341 



dians of this vicinity were of an amicable nature for nearly twenty years. 
The former red proprietors were permitted to build a fort on the south side 
of Mill river as a protection against the assaults of their less peaceably dis- 
posed brethren. This fort occupied a site near the residence of E. H. R, 
Lyman, Esq., and in close proximity to the most populous part of the town. 
There seems to have been some solicitude on the part of the inhabitants for 
the welfare of these poor, ignorant creatures, as a few regulations were adopt- 
ed at a town meeting (1664) for their guidance, the "town's mind" being 
delivered to them by John Lyman, David Wilton and Joseph Parsons. On 
the following points the "town's mind" was clear and decisive : 

(i) "They shall not break the Sabbath by workmg or gaming, or carrying 
burdens or the like. (2) They shall not Pow-wow on that place or any where 
else among us. (3) They shall not get Liquors or Cider and drink them- 
selves drunk as so kill one another as they have done. (4) They shall not 
take in other Indians of other places to seat amongst them, we allow 
Nowutague Indians that were the inhabitants of the place. (5) They shall 
not break down our fences and let in cattle and swine, but shall go over a 
stile at one place. (6) The murderers, Callawane and Wuttowhan and Pac- 
quollant, shall not seat amongst them. (7) They shall not hunt or kill our 
cattle or sheep or swine with their dogs ; if they do they shall pay for them." 

At the beginning of King Philip's war the village was fortified by palisades 
— stakes driven into the ground — the whole place being thus enclosed. On 
the 14th of March, 1676, the Indians suddenly assaulted this barrier and suc- 
ceeded in breaking through it ; but were forced back by the inhabitants, not, 
however, until they had killed six persons and burned several dwellings. The 
town was not again disturbed, but at the Deerfield fight in the following 
May, fifteen residents of Northampton lost their Hves. In the meantime the 
Nonotuck Indians had decamped and joined Philip. 

As Northampton men participated in the Falls fight, so-called, that expe- 
dition may be briefly alluded to. In May, 1676, it was ascertained that 
the Indians had gathered in considerable numbers at Pasquamscut, now 
known as Turner's Falls, and preparatory to taking the war-path, were in- 
dulging in a prolonged feast. Ample suppUes for a sumptuous entertainment 
were at hand, consisting of cattle which they had secured in their raids upon 
the settlements, venison and shad. Shad, in the proper season, were then 
plentiful in the Connecticut river. The Indian palate is never exacting as to 
quality though it is as to quantity. It was not simply a matter of eating, 
but of thorough and complete gormandizing. With intervals of sleep both 
day and night were spent in stuffing themselves to repletion with beef, veni- 
son and shad. Imagine the condition of these dusky children of the forest 
when the thunderbolt burst upon them in the morning. No wonder they 
were dazed and bewildered, and incapable of making any effective resistance. 

While the feasting and gorging were going on at the Falls, the settlers were 
in motion. One hundred and sixty men had been silently mustered and 
organized for the expedition. They were from Springfield, Hatfield, North- 
23* 



342 



CITY OF NORTHAMPTON. 



ampton and Hadley. Those from Northampton were under the command 
of Lieutenant John Lyman, a wary and valiant Indian fighter. The chief 
command was vested in Captain Turner, an unfortunate selection, as he was 
so ill at the time as to render him somewhat inefficient. All were mounted. 
They started from Hatfield on the afternoon of the i6th of May. Following 
the usually traveled path, they crossed Muddy brook, the scene of the fear- 
ful tragedy of the previous year. Darkness had closed upon them as they 
passed through silent and deserted Deerfield. Presently they reached the 
Deerfield river, but by the mistake of the guide, and a fortunate mistake it 
was for the party, a short distance above the usual fording place. Up to 
this time there had been no indications of the presence of Indians on the 
line of their route to the Falls. Just as they entered the river the agitation 
of the water by the horses' feet aroused a red-skin sentinel who was dozing 
on the opposite bank at the ford below. A halt ensued, and the scout, prob- 
ably thinking the noise was occasioned by some deer sporting in the stieam, 
either joined his companions in the vicinity or resumed his slumbers, and the 
alarm subsided. Passing up the banks of Green river to the northern part 
of the present town of Greenfield, they turned abruptly to the east and 
reached a point within a mile or a little more of the Falls. Here their 
progress was much obstructed by the fallen timber, and they were obliged to 
secure their horses and proceed on foot. Leaving a few men to guard the 
animals, the others pressed on as rapidly as possible. In the gray dawn of 
that May morning they fell suddenly upoa the gorged and sleeping Indians. 
The surprise was complete, and the English applied themselves vigorously to 
the work of shooting and knocking on the head the unresisting enemy. Some 
plunged into the water and swam to the small island midway in the Falls, 
where, as they climbed up the rock, they were dehberately shot. Others 
rushed to the canoes, and, in the excitement of the moment, forgetting to 
take their paddles with them, helplessly drifted over the cataract and were 
drowned. A few succeeded in gaining the covert of the woods. 

Thus far the slaughter had been entirely on one side. But several hun- 
dred Indians were encamped a short distance up the river. Their attention 
was first attracted by the firing ; then the arrival of some of the fugitives 
gave them information of the fearful disaster that had befallen their brethren. 
They were soon in motion, and made an effort to gain the rear of the En- 
glish. The latter, fortunately and o[jportunely learning of this movement, 
fell back at once, standing very little upon the order of their going, to the 
fallen timber where they had left their horses, and retreated down the grassy 
margin of Green river much faster than 'they had ascended it the previous 
evening. It was a continued and desperate struggle all the way to Hatfield ; 
sometimes a hand to hand fight, as the colonists charged back upon their 
pursuers and drove them to the shelter of the forest. The most bloody en- 
counters were in the low grounds and thickets south of Muddy brook, in 
what is now known as Whately. For several miles the infuriated savages 



CITY OF NORTHAMPTON. 



343 



pressed upon the retiring soldiers as they slowly, rod by rod, reUnquished the 
ground to their adversaries, and it was here that they suffered the greatest 
loss. It was night when the survivors of this raid found themselves in safety 
in the village of Hatfield. The result may be briefly summed up : Three 
hundred Indians had been suddenly hurled into the eternal world, and thirty- 
seven Englishmen, nearly one-quarter of the attacking force, had accom- 
panied them on the journey. 

Nearly thirty years afterwards, in what is known as King Williams's war, 
the hamlet of Pascommuck, not far from Mount Tom station, in the present 
town of Easthampton, was attacked, and the inhabitants either killed or taken 
prisoners. During the French and Indian wars the savages constantly prowled 
about the settlement, but never attacked the village itself which was vigilantly 
guarded. 

THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 

Northampton took an active part m the struggle with Great Britain which 
resulted in the independence of the colonies, appointing committees of corres- 
pondence, raising four companies of troops, voting bounties for soldiers, and 
furnishing a brigadier-general of the Continental army in the person of Gen- 
eral Seth Pomeroy, an ardent and unflinching patriot. 

THE REBELLION. 

During the war of the Rebellion Northampton furnished 751 men for the 
Union army, and raised for bounties a little over $71,000.00. 

INCIDENTS OF THE OLDEN TIME. 

This queer entry is found in the ancient records under the following date: 

'•17th day, 9th mo., 1663. At a legal town-meeting there was then granted 
to Cornelius, the Irishman, three acres of land, upon condition he build upon 
it and make improvements of it within one year; yet not so as to make him 
capable of acting in any town affairs